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Encyclopedia > Seventh Crusade

The Seventh Crusade was a crusade led by Louis IX of France from 1248 to 1254. The Siege of Antioch, from a medieval miniature painting, during the First Crusade. ... Combatants Christendom, Catholicism West European Christians, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Seljuks, Arabs and other Muslims The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of liberating the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslims and freeing the Eastern Christians from Muslim... // The Crusade of 1101 was a minor crusade of three separate movements, organized in 1100 and 1101 in the successful aftermath of the First Crusade. ... The fall of Edessa, seen here on the right of this map (c. ... The Third Crusade (1189–1192), also known as the Kings Crusade, was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin. ... The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople (Eugène Delacroix, 1840). ... The Albigensian Crusade or Cathar Crusade (1209 - 1229) was a 20-year military campaign initiated by the Roman Catholic Church to eliminate the heresy of the Cathars of Languedoc. ... The Childrens Crusade is the name given to a variety of fictional and factual events in 1212 that combine some or all of these elements: visions by a French and/or German boy, an intention to peacefully convert Muslims to Christianity, bands of children marching to Italy, and children... Frisian crusaders confront the Tower of Damietta, Egypt. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Shepherds Crusade is two separate events from the 13th and 14th century. ... The Eighth Crusade was a crusade launched by Louis IX of France, (who was by now in his mid-fifties) in 1270. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Aragonese Crusade or Crusade of Aragón was declared by Pope Martin IV against the king of Aragón, Peter III the Great, in 1284 and 1285. ... The Alexandrian Crusade of October 1365[1] was a seaborne[2] Crusade on Alexandria led by Peter I of Cyprus. ... // Combatants Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Hungary, France, Wallachia, Holy Roman Empire Commanders Bayezid I Sigismund of Hungary, John of Nevers #, Mircea the Elder Strength About 100,000 About 100,000 estimated to be more due capabilites of the coilition (120,000-200,000) Casualties About 35,000 About 35,000... The Teutonic knights in Pskov in 1240. ... The Northern Crusades, or Baltic Crusades, were undertaken by Western Europeans against the still heathen people of North Eastern Europe around the Baltic Sea. ... Crusades First – Peoples – German – 1101 – Second – Third – Fourth – Albigensian – Childrens – Fifth – Sixth – Seventh – Shepherds – Eighth – Ninth – Aragonese – Alexandrian – Nicopolis – Northern – Hussite – Varna – Otranto Hussite Wars Nekmer - SudomÄ•Å™ – Vítkov – VyÅ¡ehrad – Nebovidy - NÄ›mecký Brod – HoÅ™ice – Ústí nad Labem – Tachov – Lipany – Grotniki The Hussite Wars, also called... The Crusade of Varna was a string of events in 1443-1444 between the Kingdom of Hungary, the Serbian Despotate, and the Ottoman Empire. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Naples Kingdom of Aragon Kingdom of Hungary Commanders Gedik Ahmed Pasha Francesco Largo † Alphonso II of Naples Strength Between 18,000 and 100,000 men. ... Combatants Ayyubid Crusaders Commanders Emir Fakr ed-din Saint Louis Strength 70,000 Unknown Casualties Unknown Unknown The Battle of Al Mansurah was fought on February 8, 1250 between the French Crusaders led by Louis IX and an Ayyubid army led Emir Fakr-ed-din. ... The Battle of Fariskur was fought on April 6, 1250 between the French Crusaders led by Louis IX and an Egyptian army. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Louis IX (25 April 1215 – 25 August 1270), commonly Saint Louis, was King of France from 1226 to his death. ... For broader historical context, see 1240s and 13th century. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ...

Contents

Background

In 1244, shortly after the expiry of the ten-year truce of the Sixth Crusade, the Khwarezmians retook Jerusalem. The fall of Jerusalem was no longer an earth-shattering event to European Christians, who had seen the city pass from Christian to Muslim control numerous times in the past two centuries. This time, there was no popular enthusiasm for a new crusade. This article is about the year 1244. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Khwarezmia (also with various alternate spellings, including Chorasmia and Khorezm) was a state located on what was then the coast of the Aral Sea, including modern Karakalpakstan across the Ust-Urt plateau and perhaps extending to as far west as the eastern shores of the North Caspian Sea. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...


Pope Innocent IV and Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor continued the papal-imperial struggle. Frederick had captured and imprisoned clerics on their way to the Council of Lyons, and in 1245 he was formally deposed by Innocent IV. Pope Gregory IX had also earlier offered King Louis' brother, count Robert of Artois, the German throne, but Louis had refused. Thus, the Holy Roman Emperor was in no position to crusade. Henry III of England was still struggling with Simon de Montfort and other problems in England. Henry and Louis were not on the best of terms, being engaged in the Capetian-Plantagenet struggle, and while Louis was away on crusade the English king signed a truce promising not to attack French lands. Louis IX had also invited King Haakon IV of Norway to crusade, sending the English chronicler Matthew Paris as an ambassador, but again was unsuccessful. The only man interested in beginning another crusade therefore was Louis IX, who declared his intent to go East in 1245. Pope Innocent IV (Manarola, 1180/90 – Naples, December 7, 1254), born Sinibaldo de Fieschi, Pope from 1243 to 1254, belonged to the feudal nobility of Liguria, the Fieschi, counts of Lavagna. ... Frederick II (December 26, 1194 – December 13, 1250), of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was a pretender to the title of King of the Romans from 1212 and unopposed holder of that monarchy from 1215. ... There were two major councils at Lyons, both regarding the Roman Catholic Church: The First Council of Lyons (1245, the Crusades) The Second Council of Lyons (1274, papal elections) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Pope Gregory IX, born Ugolino dei Conti, was pope from 1227 to August 22, 1241. ... Robert I the Good (1216 - February 8, 1250) was Count of Artois. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272) was crowned King of England in 1216, despite being less than ten years of age. ... From the Chamber of the United States House of Representatives Simon V de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester (1208 – August 4, 1265) was the principal leader of the baronial opposition to King Henry III of England. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem specific to England — the anthem of the United Kingdom is God Save the Queen. See also Proposed English National Anthems. ... Angevin is the name applied to two distinct medieval dynasties which originated as counts (from 1360, dukes) of the western French province of Anjou (of which angevin is the adjectival form), but later came to rule far greater areas including England, Hungary and Poland (see Angevin Empire). ... Haakon Haakonsson (1204 – December 15, 1263) (Norwegian HÃ¥kon HÃ¥konsson, Old Norse Hákon Hákonarson), also called Haakon the Old, was king of Norway from 1217 to 1263. ... Self portrait of Matthew Paris from the original manuscript of his Historia Anglorum (London, British Library, MS Royal 14. ... Events Rebellion against king Sancho II of Portugal in favor of his brother Alphonso. ...


The crusade

France was perhaps the strongest state in Europe at the time, as the Albigensian Crusade had brought Provence into Parisian control. Toulouse was led by Louis IX's brother Alphonse, who joined him on his crusade in 1245. Another brother, Charles I of Anjou, also joined Louis. For the next three years Louis collected an ecclesiastical tenth (mostly from church tithes), and in 1248 he and his approximately 15-25,000-strong army that included 1,500 knights, and 5,000 crossbowmen sailed from the ports of Aigues-Mortes, which had been specifically built to prepare for the crusade, and Marseille. Louis IX's financial preparations for this expedition were comparatively well organised, and he was able to raise approximately 1,500,000 livres tournois. However, many nobles who joined Louis on the expedition had to borrow money from the royal treasury, and the crusade turned out to be very expensive. The Albigensian Crusade or Cathar Crusade (1209 - 1229) was a 20-year military campaign initiated by the Roman Catholic Church to eliminate the heresy of the Cathars of Languedoc. ... Coat of arms of Provence Provence (Provençal Occitan: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) was a Roman province and now is a region of southeastern France on the Mediterranean Sea adjacent to Italy. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... New city flag (Occitan cross) Traditional coat of arms Motto: (Occitan: For Toulouse, always more) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Midi-Pyrénées Department Haute-Garonne (31) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse Mayor Jean-Luc Moudenc  (UMP) (since 2004) City Statistics Land... Alphonse, Count of Toulouse and of Poitiers (November 11, 1220 – August 21, 1271). ... Charles I (March 1227 - January 7, 1285) was the posthumous son of King Louis VIII of France, created Count of Anjou by his elder brother King Louis IX in 1246, thus founding the second Angevin dynasty. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic... A tithe (from Old English teogoþa tenth) is a one-tenth part of something, paid as a (usually) voluntary contribution or as a tax or levy, usually to support a Jewish or Christian religious organization. ... For broader historical context, see 1240s and 13th century. ... Ramparts of the Town of Aigues-Mortes, one of the Municipalities of Languedoc. ... City flag Coat of arms Motto: By her great deeds, the city of Massilia shines Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Bouches-du-Rhône (13) Subdivisions 16 arrondissements (in 8 secteurs) Intercommunality Urban Community of Marseille Provence M...


They sailed first to Cyprus and spent the winter on the island, negotiating with various other powers in the east; the Latin Empire set up after the Fourth Crusade asked for his help against the Byzantine Empire of Nicaea, and the Principality of Antioch and the Knights Templar wanted his help in Syria, where the Muslims had recently captured Sidon. The Latin Empire, Empire of Nicaea, Empire of Trebizond and the Despotate of Epirus. ... The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople (Eugène Delacroix, 1840). ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... The Empire of Nicaea was the largest of the states founded by refugees from the Byzantine Empire after Constantinople was conquered during the Fourth Crusade. ... The Principality of Antioch in the context of the other states of the Near East in 1135 AD. The Principality of Antioch, including parts of modern-day Turkey and Syria, was one of the crusader states created during the First Crusade. ... The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Latin: Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Solomonici), popularly known as the Knights Templar or the Order of the Temple, were among the most famous of the Christian military orders. ... View of the new city the Sea Castle. ...


Nonetheless, Egypt was the object of his crusade, and he landed in 1249 at Damietta on the Nile. Egypt would, Louis thought, provide a base from which to attack Jerusalem, and its wealth and supply of grain would keep the crusaders fed and equipped. Events University, the first College at Oxford founded Births Emperor Kameyama of Japan Pope John XXII Frederick I, Margrave of Baden Deaths July 6 - Alexander II of Scotland (b. ... Damietta is a port in Dumyat, Egypt on the Mediterranean Sea at the Nile delta, about 200 kilometres north of Cairo. ... The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ...

Louis IX attacks Damietta

On June 6 Damietta was taken with little resistance from the Egyptians, who withdrew further up the Nile. The flooding of the Nile had not been taken into account, however, and it soon grounded Louis and his army at Damietta for six months, where the knights sat back and enjoyed the spoils of war. Louis ignored the agreement made during the Fifth Crusade that Damietta should be given to the Kingdom of Jerusalem, now a rump state in Acre, but he did set up an archbishopric there (under the authority of the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem) and used the city as a base to direct military operations against the Muslims of Syria. Image File history File links Crusade_damietta. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ... Frisian crusaders confront the Tower of Damietta, Egypt. ... Official language Latin, French, Italian, and other western languages; Greek and Arabic also widely spoken Capital Jerusalem, later Acre Constitution Various laws, so-called Assizes of Jerusalem The Kingdom of Jerusalem was a Christian kingdom established in the Levant in 1099 by the First Crusade. ... The Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem is the title given to the Latin Rite Roman Catholic Archbishop of Jerusalem. ...


In November, Louis marched towards Cairo, and almost at the same time, the Ayyubid sultan of Egypt, as-Salih Ayyub, died. A force led by Robert of Artois and the Templars attacked the Egyptian camp at al-Mansourah, but they were defeated and Robert was killed. Meanwhile, Louis' main force was attacked by the Mameluk Baibars, the commander of the army and a future sultan himself. Louis was defeated as well, but he did not withdraw to Damietta for months, preferring to besiege Mansourah, which ended in starvation and death for the crusaders rather than the Muslims. In March of 1250 Louis finally returned to Damietta, but he was taken captive on the way there, fell ill with dysentery, and was cured by an Arab physician. In May he was ransomed in return for Damietta and 400,000 livres, and he immediately left Egypt for Acre, one of few remaining crusader possessions in Syria. Meanwhile, the Mameluk soldiers of Egypt revolted. Turanshah, as-Salih's successor, took control of Cairo, creating a Mameluk dynasty destined to conquer the last of the crusader territories. Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... The Ayyubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Egypt, Iraq in the 12th and 13th centuries. ... Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... Al-Malik as-Salih Najm al-Din Ayyub (died November 1249) was the Ayyubid ruler of Egypt from 1240 to 1249. ... Robert I the Good (1216 - February 8, 1250) was Count of Artois. ... Al Mansurah (Arabic منصورة) is considered to be Egyptian fourth city after Cairo, Alexandria and Port Said. ... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for... al-Malik al-Zahir Rukn al-Din Baibars al-Bunduqdari (also spelled Baybars) (Arabic: ) was a Mamluk Sultan of Egypt and Syria. ... // April 30 - King Louis IX of France released by his Egyptian captors after paying a ransom of one million dinars and turning over the city of Damietta. ... The Old City of Akko in the 19th or early 20th century, looking south-west from atop the Land Wall Promenade, the open space now a parking lot. ...


Resolution

Louis made an alliance with the Mameluks, and from his new base in Acre began to rebuild the other crusader cities. Although the Kingdom of Cyprus claimed authority there, Louis was the de facto ruler. Louis also negotiated with the Mongols, who had begun to appear in the east and who the Christians, encouraged by legends of a Nestorian kingdom among them (cf. Prester John), hoped would help them fight the Muslims and restore the Crusader States. They, like the Muslims who were similarly negotiating with the Mongols against the Christians, were unaware that the Mongols were not interested in helping either side and would eventually be disastrous for both. Louis' embassy to the Mongol ruler Möngke Khan, headed by William of Rubruck, was a failure. The Khan rejected Louis' invitation to convert to Christianity, and instead suggested Louis submit to him. The Kingdom of Cyprus was a Roman Catholic Crusader kingdom on the island of Cyprus in the late Middle Ages. ... The name Mongols (Mongolian: Mongol) specifies one or several ethnic groups. ... The term Nestorianism is eponymous, even though the person who lent his name to it always denied the associated belief. ... Preste enthroned on a map of East Africa in an atlas prepared for Queen Mary, 1558. ... The Crusader states, c. ... Möngke Khan (1208-1259, also transliterated as Mongke, Mongka, Möngka, Mangu) was the fourth khan of the Mongol Empire. ... William of Rubruck (also William of Rubruk, Willem van Ruysbroeck, Guillaume de Rubrouck, Willielmus de Rubruquis, born c. ...


In 1254 Louis' money ran out, and his presence was needed in France where his mother and regent Blanche of Castile had recently died. His crusade was a failure, but he was considered a saint by many, and his fame gave him an even greater authority in Europe than the Holy Roman Emperor. In 1270 he attempted another crusade, though it too would end in failure. For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... Blanche of Castile (March 4, 1188 – November 26, 1252), wife of Louis VIII of France. ... In traditional Christian iconography, Saints are often depicted as having halos. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... The cathedral atop the Rock of Cashel in Ireland was completed in 1270. ... The Eighth Crusade was a crusade launched by Louis IX of France, (who was by now in his mid-fifties) in 1270. ...


The history of the Seventh Crusade was written by Jean de Joinville, who was also a participant. Jean de Joinville (1224 - December 24, 1317) was one of the great chroniclers of medieval France. ...


External link

  • Memoirs of Jean de Joinville, from the University of Virginia

  Results from FactBites:
 
AllRefer.com - Joinville, Jean, sire de (Historians, European, Biography) - Encyclopedia (262 words)
As seneschal (governor) of Champagne, Joinville was a close adviser to Louis, whom he accompanied (1248–54) on the Seventh Crusade.
His memoir of St. Louis, dictated between 1304 and 1309 for the instruction of Louis X, is an invaluable record of the king, of feudal France, and of the Seventh Crusade.
It is written in a simple, delightful style, with moving reverence for the saintly and chivalrous king, with a sharp eye for graphic and psychological detail, and with occasional, sly humor.
Crusader States, Kings of Jerusalem & Cyprus, Templars, Hospitallers, Israel, etc. (13741 words)
Outremer, "across the sea," means the states created and maintained by Crusaders and their descendants in the Middle East between 1098, during the First Crusade, and 1489, when Cyprus passed to Venice.
Crusader states can also include the lands of the Teutonic and Livonian Knights in the Baltic, which lasted until Prussia was secularized in 1525 and the last Grand Master of the Livonian Knights was made Duke of Courland by Poland in 1561.
To be sure, the Crusaders in the 12th century displayed a great deal more brutality than the armies of the Caliph 'Umar had in the 7th, with Jews and even Christians as well as Moslems falling in the occasional indiscriminate slaughters; but they also came from what was actually a much more barbarous place.
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