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Encyclopedia > Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution
United States of America

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Preamble
Articles of the Constitution
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Amendments to the Constitution
Bill of Rights
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Subsequent Amendments
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XXIII ∙ XXIV ∙ XXV ∙ XXVI ∙ XXVII Wikisource has original text related to this article: Preamble to the United States Constitution The preamble to the United States Constitution consists of a single sentence (a preamble) which introduces the document and its purpose. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Article One of the United States Constitution Article One of the United States Constitution describes the powers of the legislative branch of the United States government, known as Congress, which includes the House of Representatives and the Senate. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Article Two of the United States Constitution Article Two of the United States Constitution creates the executive branch of the government, comprising the President and other executive officers. ... Article Three of the United States Constitution establishes the judicial branch of the federal government. ... Article Four of the United States Constitution relates to the states. ... Article Five of the United States Constitution describes the process whereby the Constitution may be altered. ... Article Six establishes the United States Constitution and the laws and treaties of the United States made in accordance with it as the supreme law of the land, and fulfills other purposes. ... Article Seven of the United States Constitution describes the process by which the entire document is to be ratified and take effect. ... The first ten amendments to the United States Constitution are known as the Bill of Rights. This is a complete list of all ratified and unratified amendments to the United States Constitution which have received the approval of the Congress. ... Image of the United States Bill of Rights from the U.S. National Archives and Records Administration The United States Bill of Rights consists of the first 10 amendments to the United States Constitution. ... The Bill of Rights in the National Archives The First Amendment to the United States Constitution is a part of the United States Bill of Rights. ... The Bill of Rights in the National Archives Amendment II (the Second Amendment) of the United States Constitution, which is part of the Bill of Rights, declares the necessity for a well regulated militia, and prohibits infringement of the right of the people to keep and bear arms. ... The Bill of Rights in the National Archives The Third Amendment to the United States Constitution is a part of the United States Bill of Rights. ... The Bill of Rights in the National Archives Amendment IV (the Fourth amendment) to the United States Constitution is one of the provisions included in the Bill of Rights. ... The Bill of Rights in the National Archives Amendment V (the Fifth Amendment) of the United States Constitution, which is part of the Bill of Rights, is related to legal procedure. ... 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Amendment XV in the National Archives 1870 celebration of the 15th amendment as a guarantee of African American rights 1867 drawing depicting the first vote by African Americans Amendment XV (the Fifteenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution provides that governments in the United States may not prevent a citizen... Amendment XVI in the National Archives Amendment XVI (the Sixteenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution, authorizing income taxes in their present form, was ratified on February 3, 1913. ... Amendment XVIII in the National Archives Prohibition agents destroying barrels of alcohol. ... Amendment XIX in the National Archives Amendment XIX (the Nineteenth Amendment) to the United States Constitution provides that neither the individual states of the United States nor its federal government may deny a citizen the right to vote because of the citizens sex. ... Page 1 of Amendment XX in the National Archives Page 2 of the amendment Amendment XX (the Twentieth Amendment) of the United States Constitution, also called The Lame Duck Amendment, or the Norris Amendment,[] establishes some details of presidential succession and of the beginning and ending of the terms of... Amendment XXI (the Twenty-first Amendment) to the United States Constitution repealed the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which had mandated nationwide Prohibition. ... Amendment XXII in the National Archives The Twenty-second Amendment of the United States Constitution sets a term limit for the President of the United States, providing that No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office... Amendment XXIII was the twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution which permits the District of Columbia to choose Electors for President and Vice President. ... Amendment XXIV in the National Archives Amendment XXIV (the Twenty-fourth Amendment) of the United States Constitution prohibits both Congress and the states from conditioning the right to vote in federal elections on payment of a poll tax or other types of tax. ... Amendment XXV (the Twenty-fifth Amendment) of the United States Constitution clarifies an ambiguous provision of the Constitution regarding succession to the Presidency, and establishes procedures both for filling a vacancy in the office of the Vice President as well as responding to Presidential disabilities. ... Amendment XXVI in the National Archives Amendment XXVI (the Twenty-sixth Amendment) of the United States Constitution was ratified on July 1, 1971. ... Amendment XXVII (the Twenty-seventh Amendment) is the most recent amendment to be incorporated into the United States Constitution, having been ratified in 1992. ...

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Amendment XVII in the National Archives
Amendment XVII in the National Archives

Amendment XVII (the Seventeenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution was passed by the Senate on June 12, 1911 and by the House on May 13, 1912. It was ratified on April 8, 1913 and was first put into effect for the election of 1914. It amends Article 1 Section 3 of the Constitution to provide for the direct election of Senators by the people of a state rather than their election or appointment by a state legislature, thus effectively eliminating state representation in Congress. It was passed and ratified during the Progressive Era. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1637x2318, 334 KB) Description: Credit: NARA [1] Usage: Source: Date: Author: Permission: File links The following pages link to this file: Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1637x2318, 334 KB) Description: Credit: NARA [1] Usage: Source: Date: Author: Permission: File links The following pages link to this file: Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... The National Archives building in Washington, DC The United States National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is an independent agency of the United States federal government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Constitution of the United States of America Page one of the original copy of the Constitution. ... June 12 is the 163rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (164th in leap years), with 202 days remaining. ... 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... May 13 is the 133rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (134th in leap years). ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (99th in leap years). ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... In the United States, the Progressive Era was a period of reform which lasted from the 1890s through the 1930s. ...

Contents

Text

The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures.

When vacancies happen in the representation of any state in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.


This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution.

Historical background

The selection of delegates to the Constitutional Convention established the precedent that states could choose Federal officials at a higher level than direct election. Originally senators were to be elected by their state legislatures to represent the individual and semi-sovereign states. This was possibly done to also increase the chances for ratifying the Constitution. Because most of the founders of the Articles of Confederation wanted a looser group of sovereign states, this clause was inserted in order to keep the "sovereign states" represented in federal government. They also expected that senators elected by state legislatures would be able to concentrate on the business at hand without regional pressure from the populace, aided by a longer term than Representatives. This article discusses the history of the United States Constitution. ... State legislatures are the lawmaking bodies of the 50 states in the United States of America. ... Article Seven of the United States Constitution describes the process by which the entire document is to be ratified and take effect. ...


This process worked without major problems through the mid-1850s, when the American Civil War was in the offing. Due to increasing partisanship and strife, many state legislatures failed to elect Senators for prolonged periods. An example: In Indiana the conflict between Democrats in the southern half of the state and the emerging Republican Party in the northern half prevented an election for two years. The aforementioned partisanship led to contentious battles in the legislatures, as the struggle to elect senators reflected the increasing regional tensions in the lead up to the Civil War. // Production of steel revolutionized by invention of the Bessemer process Benjamin Silliman fractionates petroleum by distillation for the first time First transatlantic telegraph cable laid First safety elevator installed by Elisha Otis Railroads begin to supplant canals in the United States as a primary means of transporting goods. ... This article is becoming very long. ... The origins of the American Civil War lay in the complex problems of slavery, expansion, sectionalism, parties, and politics of the antebellum era. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ...


After the war, problems still multiplied. In one case in the mid-1860s, the election of Senator John Stockton from New Jersey was contested on the grounds that he had been elected by a plurality (majority of those voting) rather than a majority (of the entire membership) in the state legislature.[1] Stockton defended himself on the grounds that the exact method for elections was murky and varied from state to state. To keep this from happening again, Congress passed a law in 1866 regulating how and when senators were to be elected from each state. This was the first change in the process of senatorial elections. While the law helped, there were still deadlocks in some legislatures and accusations of bribery, corruption and suspicious dealings in some elections. Nine bribery cases were brought before the Senate between 1866 and 1906, and 45 deadlocks occurred in 20 states between 1891 and 1905, resulting in numerous delays in seating senators. Beginning in 1899, Delaware did not send a senator to Washington for four years. // The First Transcontinental Railroad in the USA is built in the six year period between 1863 and 1869. ... Official language(s) None Capital Dover Largest city Wilmington Area  Ranked 49th  - Total 2,491 sq mi (6,452 km²)  - Width 30 miles (48 km)  - Length 100 miles (161 km)  - % water 21. ...


Reform efforts began as early as 1826, when direct election was first proposed. In the 1870s, voters sent a petition to the House for popular election. From 1893 to 1902, momentum increased considerably. Each year during that period, a constitutional amendment to elect senators by popular vote was proposed in Congress, but the Senate fiercely resisted. In the mid-1890s, the Populist Party incorporated the direct election of senators into its platform, although neither the Democrats nor the Republicans paid much notice at the time. Direct election was also part of the Wisconsin Idea championed by Republican progressive Robert La Follette and Nebraska Republican reformer George Norris. In the early 1900s, Oregon pioneered direct election and experimented with different measures over several years until it succeeded in 1907. Soon after, Nebraska followed suit and laid the foundation for other states to adopt measures for direct election. // The invention of the telephone (1876) by Alexander Graham Bell. ... Seal of the House of Representatives The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress, the other being the Senate. ... The 1890s were sometimes referred to as the Mauve Decade, because William Henry Perkins aniline dye allowed the widespread use of that colour in fashion, and also as the Gay Nineties, under the then-current usage of the word gay which referred simply to merriment and frivolity, with no... The Populist Party (also known as the Peoples Party) was a short-lived political party in the United States in the late 19th century. ... The Wisconsin Idea is a philosophy embraced by the University of Wisconsin, which holds that the boundaries of the university should be the boundaries of the state, and that research conducted at the University of Wisconsin should be applied to solve problems and improve health, quality of life, the environment... Progressivism is a term that refers to a broad school of contemporary international social and political philosophies. ... Robert La Follette can refer to two United States politicians. ... Official language(s) English Capital Lincoln Largest city Omaha Largest metro area Omaha Area  Ranked 16th  - Total 77,421 sq mi (200,520 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 0. ... George William Norris (July 11, 1861 - September 2, 1944) was a U.S. political figure. ... // First flight by the Wright brothers, December 17, 1903. ... Official language(s) None Capital Salem Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 9th  - Total 98,466 sq mi (255,026 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Lincoln Largest city Omaha Largest metro area Omaha Area  Ranked 16th  - Total 77,421 sq mi (200,520 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 0. ...


After the turn of the century, momentum for reform grew rapidly. William Randolph Hearst expanded his publishing empire with Cosmopolitan, which became a respected general-interest magazine and championed the cause of direct election with muckraking articles and strong advocacy of reform. Hearst hired a veteran reporter, David Graham Phillips, who wrote scathing pieces on senators, portraying them as corrupt pawns of industrialists and financiers. The pieces became a series titled "The Treason of the Senate," which appeared in several monthly issues of the magazine in 1906. [2] William Randolph Hearst (April 29, 1863 – August 14, 1951) was an American newspaper magnate. ... June 1936 issue Cosmopolitan is a magazine for women, sometimes referred to as Cosmo, which has been published for more than a century. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In American English, a muckraker is a journalist or an author who searches for and exposes scandals and abuses occurring in business and politics. ... David Graham Phillips, born October 31, 1867 - died January 24, 1911, was an American journalist and novelist. ... Traitor redirects here. ...


Increasingly, senators were elected based on state referenda, similar to the means developed by Oregon. By 1912, as many as 29 states elected senators either as nominees of party primaries or in conjunction with a general election. As representatives of a direct election process, the new senators supported measures that argued for legislation, but in order to achieve total reform, a constitutional amendment was required. In 1911, Senator Joseph Bristow from Kansas offered a resolution, proposing an amendment. The idea enjoyed strong support from Senator William Borah of Idaho, himself a product of direct election. Eight Southern senators and all Republican senators from New England, New York, and Pennsylvania opposed Bristow's resolution. The Senate approved the resolution largely because of the senators who had been elected by state-initiated reforms, many of whom were serving their first term, and therefore may have been more willing to support direct election. After the Senate passed the amendment, the measure moved to the House. A primary election is an election in which voters in a jurisdiction select candidates for a subsequent election (nominating primary). ... A general election is an election in which all or most members of a given political body are up for election. ... Joseph Little Bristow (July 22, 1861-July 14, 1944) was an American politician from Kansas. ... Official language(s) none Capital Topeka Largest city Wichita Area  Ranked 15th  - Total 82,277 sq mi (213,096 km²)  - Width 211 miles (340 km)  - Length 417 miles (645 km)  - % water 0. ... William Edgar Borah (NSHC statue) William Edgar Borah (June 29, 1865 – January 19, 1940) was an American politician. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The U.S. Southern states or the South, also known colloquially as Dixie, constitute a distinctive region covering a large portion of the United States, with its own unique heritage, historical perspective, customs, musical styles, and cuisine. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... NY redirects here. ... Official language(s) English, Pennsylvania Dutch Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ...


The House initially fared no better than the Senate in its early discussions of the proposed amendment. In the summer of 1912 the House finally passed the amendment and sent it to the states for ratification. The campaign for public support was aided by senators such as Borah and political scientist George H. Haynes, whose scholarly work on the Senate contributed greatly to passage of the amendment.[3] The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ...


The last state needed to ratify was Connecticut, which ratified it in 1913, one year prior to the election. It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... With the passage of the 17th Amendment in 1913, the U.S. Senate election of 1914 was the first time that all senators were popularly elected instead of chosen by their state legislatures. ...


The Amendment

The Seventeenth Amendment restates the first paragraph of Article I, section 3 of the Constitution and provides for the election of senators by replacing the phrase "chosen by the Legislature thereof" with "elected by the people thereof." Also, it allows the governor or executive authority of each state, if authorized by that state's legislature, to appoint a senator in the event of an opening, until an election occurs.


The Seventeenth Amendment is one of the "Progressive Amendments"; they were passed during the Progressive Era, with the support of the political group known as the "Progressives". The other Progressive amendments were: the 16th Amendment, which created the income tax; the 18th Amendment, which started Prohibition of alcoholic beverages; and the 19th amendment, which gave women the right to vote. In the United States, the Progressive Era was a period of reform which lasted from the 1890s through the 1930s. ... Amendment XVI in the National Archives Amendment XVI (the Sixteenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution, authorizing income taxes in their present form, was ratified on February 3, 1913. ... Amendment XVIII in the National Archives Prohibition agents destroying barrels of alcohol. ... Amendment XIX in the National Archives Amendment XIX (the Nineteenth Amendment) to the United States Constitution provides that neither the individual states of the United States nor its federal government may deny a citizen the right to vote because of the citizens sex. ...


Criticism

In 2004, after announcing his retirement, Senator Zell Miller introduced a constitutional amendment (S.J. Res. 35) that would repeal the Seventeenth Amendment, arguing that it gives too much power to Washington's special interests and was an attack on federalism. Alan Keyes, the veteran of unsuccessful presidential and senatorial campaigns, has also criticized the Seventeenth Amendment. At least three prominent libertarians (authors Harry Browne and Thomas DiLorenzo and libertarian web magazine author Lew Rockwell) have advocated the amendment's repeal, on the grounds that it upsets the balance of power between the federal government and state governments. 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Seal of the U.S. Senate Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      Senate composition following 2006 elections The United States Senate is... Zell Bryan Miller (born February 24, 1932) is an American politician from the U.S. state of Georgia. ... Political federalism is a political philosophy in which a group or body of members are bound together (Latin: foedus, covenant) with a governing representative head. ... Dr. Alan Keyes (born August 7, 1950) is a public speaker, former diplomat, and conservative political activist. ... The presidential seal was first used in 1880 by President Rutherford B. Hayes and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Harry Browne Harry Browne (17 June 1933 – 1 March 2006) was an American libertarian writer, politician, and free-market investment analyst. ... Thomas J. DiLorenzo is an economics professor at Loyola College in Maryland and a senior fellow at the Ludwig von Mises Institute. ... Lew Rockwell Llewellyn H. Rockwell, Jr. ...


Some argue that the Seventeenth Amendment upsets the balance of states' rights. Some claim that an uninformed general public should not control both houses of Congress, and that the U.S. should return to the pre-Amendment system of direct election for House members and indirect elections for Senators. Returning the power to the state legislatures would allow the states to lobby for some political ideals unseen to the average American such as disputes between states and interstate commerce regulations. An independence from direct popular opinion would also help return the Senate to its proper role of acting as an informed check on the combinations sometimes made between the Executive and the House of Representatives. The modern-day phenomena of blue-ribbon commissions, study-groups and the independent counsel law itself have likely developed from a gap created by direct popular elections of Senators, i.e. the need for judicious, independent, legislatively empowered investigative bodies who are not influenced by the daily polls. There is also the argument that the move towards direct election has led to a more assertive Supreme Court. Direct popular elections have discouraged senators from weighing proposed legislation in light of both its constitutionality and popularity. They are prompted to consider only its popularity and pass on issues relating to the Constitution. These issues may arise later in the Supreme Court, which can then assert itself on matters which never should have reached it.[citation needed]


Proposal and ratification

Congress proposed the Seventeenth Amendment on May 13, 1912.[1] The following states ratified the amendment: May 13 is the 133rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (134th in leap years). ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

  1. Massachusetts (May 22, 1912)
  2. Arizona (June 3, 1912)
  3. Minnesota (June 10, 1912)
  4. New York (January 15, 1913)
  5. Kansas (January 17, 1913)
  6. Oregon (January 23, 1913)
  7. North Carolina (January 25, 1913)
  8. California (January 28, 1913)
  9. Michigan (January 28, 1913)
  10. Iowa (January 30, 1913)
  11. Montana (January 30, 1913)
  12. Idaho (January 31, 1913)
  13. West Virginia (February 4, 1913)
  14. Colorado (February 5, 1913)
  15. Nevada (February 6, 1913)
  16. Texas (February 7, 1913)
  17. Washington (February 7, 1913)
  18. Wyoming (February 8, 1913)
  19. Arkansas (February 11, 1913)
  20. Maine (February 11, 1913)
  21. Illinois (February 13, 1913)
  22. North Dakota (February 14, 1913)
  23. Wisconsin (February 18, 1913)
  24. Indiana (February 19, 1913)
  25. New Hampshire (February 19, 1913)
  26. Vermont (February 19, 1913)
  27. South Dakota (February 19, 1913)
  28. Oklahoma (February 24, 1913)
  29. Ohio (February 25, 1913)
  30. Missouri (March 7, 1913)
  31. New Mexico (March 13, 1913)
  32. Nebraska (March 14, 1913)
  33. New Jersey (March 17, 1913)
  34. Tennessee (April 1, 1913)
  35. Pennsylvania (April 2, 1913)
  36. Connecticut (April 8, 1913)

Ratification was completed on April 8, 1913 having the required three-fourths majority. May 22 is the 142nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (143rd in leap years). ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... June 3 is the 154th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (155th in leap years), with 211 days remaining. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... June 10 is the 161st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (162nd in leap years), with 204 days remaining. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... January 15 is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... January 17 is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... January 23 is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... January 25 is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... January 28 is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... January 28 is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... January 31 is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... February 4 is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... February 7 is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... February 7 is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... February 8 is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... February 11 is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... February 11 is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... February 13 is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... February 14 is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... February 18 is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... February 19 is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... February 19 is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... February 19 is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... February 19 is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... February 24 is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... February 25 is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... March 7 is the 66th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (67th in leap years). ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... March 13 is the 72nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (73rd in leap years). ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... For the Lebanese political coalition, see March 14 Alliance. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... March 17 is the 76th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (77th in leap years). ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... It has been suggested that April Fools Day be merged into this article or section. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... April 2 is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 273 days remaining. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (99th in leap years). ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (99th in leap years). ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ...


The amendment was subsequently ratified by the following state:

  1. Louisiana (June 11, 1914)

The following state rejected the amendment: June 11 is the 162nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (163rd in leap years), with 203 days remaining. ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...

  1. Utah (February 26, 1913)

The Amendment never reached the state senate: February 26 is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ...

  1. Florida (Never reached the State Senate)

Notes

  1. ^ Mount, Steve (Jan 2007). Ratification of Constitutional Amendments. Retrieved on Feb 24, 2007.

References

  • U.S. Senate: Direct Election of Senators
  • NARA - The National Achives Experience: 17th Amendment

External links

Neutral

  • CRS Annotated Constitution: 17th Amendment
  • 17th amendment controversy argument diagram at HonestArgument.com

Anti-Seventeenth Amendment

  • Repeal the 17th Amendment
  • The Failure of the Seventeenth Amendment
  • Repeal the 17th
  • The Seventeenth Amendment: Should It Be Repealed?
  • ArticleV.com: Repeal 17th
  • Zell Miller: Dump 17th Amendment
  • A New Senate for America - grassroots repeal group
  • Repeal the 17th Amendment Weblog
  • Repeal the 17th Amendment Discussion Board on Yahoo

Pro-Seventeenth Amendment

  • Alan Keyes' Daffy Idea to Repeal the Seventeenth Amendment
v  d  e
United States Constitution Complete text at Wikisource

Original text: Preamble ∙ Article 1 ∙ Article 2 ∙ Article 3 ∙ Article 4 ∙ Article 5 ∙ Article 6 ∙ Article 7 Wikisource has original text related to this article: Constitution of the United States of America Page one of the original copy of the Constitution. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Preamble to the United States Constitution The preamble to the United States Constitution consists of a single sentence (a preamble) which introduces the document and its purpose. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Article One of the United States Constitution Article One of the United States Constitution describes the powers of the legislative branch of the United States government, known as Congress, which includes the House of Representatives and the Senate. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Article Two of the United States Constitution Article Two of the United States Constitution creates the executive branch of the government, comprising the President and other executive officers. ... Article Three of the United States Constitution establishes the judicial branch of the federal government. ... Article Four of the United States Constitution relates to the states. ... Article Five of the United States Constitution describes the process whereby the Constitution may be altered. ... Article Six establishes the United States Constitution and the laws and treaties of the United States made in accordance with it as the supreme law of the land, and fulfills other purposes. ... Article Seven of the United States Constitution describes the process by which the entire document is to be ratified and take effect. ...

Amendments: 1 ∙ 2 ∙ 3 ∙ 4 ∙ 5 ∙ 6 ∙ 7 ∙ 8 ∙ 9 ∙ 10 ∙ 11 ∙ 12 ∙ 13 ∙ 14 ∙ 15 ∙ 16 ∙ 17 ∙ 18 ∙ 19 ∙ 20 ∙ 21 ∙ 22 ∙ 23 ∙ 24 ∙ 25 ∙ 26 ∙ 27
 Formation  History of the Constitution • Articles of Confederation • Annapolis Convention • Philadelphia Convention • New Jersey Plan • Virginia Plan • Connecticut Compromise • Signatories
 Adoption  Massachusetts Compromise • Federalist Papers
 Amendments  Bill of Rights • Ratified • Proposed • Unsuccessful • Conventions to propose • State ratifying conventions
 Clauses  Case or controversy • Citizenship • Commerce • Commerce (Dormant) • Confrontation • Contract • Copyright • Due Process • Equal Protection • Establishment • Exceptions • Free Exercise • Full Faith and Credit • Impeachment • Natural–born citizen • Necessary and Proper • No Religious Test • Presentment • Privileges and Immunities (Art. IV) • Privileges or Immunities (14th Amend.) • Speech or Debate • Supremacy • Suspension • Takings Clause • Taxing and Spending • Territorial • War Powers
 Interpretation  Congressional power of enforcement • Double jeopardy • Enumerated powers • Incorporation of the Bill of Rights • Nondelegation • Preemption • Separation of church and state • Separation of powers • Constitutional theory • Executive privilege

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The Constitution of the United States of America (4025 words)
The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each state, chosen by the legislature thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote.
The United States shall guarantee to every state in this union a republican form of government, and shall protect each of them against invasion; and on application of the legislature, or of the executive (when the legislature cannot be convened) against domestic violence.
The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by citizens of another state, or by citizens or subjects of any foreign state.
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