FACTOID # 19: Cheap sloppy joes: Looking for reduced-price lunches for schoolchildren? Head for Oklahoma!
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Seven Years' War
Seven Years' War

The Battle of Kunersdorf, by Alexander Kotzebue, 1848.
Date 1754 or 1756–1763
Location Europe, Africa, India, North America, Philippines
Result Treaty of Paris
Treaty of Hubertusburg
Territorial
changes
Great Britain and Spain gained New France. Prussian control over most of Silesia did not change.
Belligerents
Flag of Prussia Kingdom of Prussia
Flag of the United Kingdom Kingdom of Great Britain and its American Colonies
Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover)
Iroquois Confederacy
Flag of Portugal Kingdom of Portugal
Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
Flag of Hesse Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel
Holy Roman Empire
Flag of France Kingdom of France and its Colonies
Flag of Russia Russian Empire
Flag of Sweden Kingdom of Sweden
Flag of Spain Kingdom of Spain
Electorate of Saxony
Kingdom of Naples and Sicily
Flag of Sardinia Kingdom of Sardinia
Commanders
Flag of Prussia Frederick II
Flag of Prussia Friedrich Wilhelm von Seydlitz
Flag of the United Kingdom John Manners
Flag of the United Kingdom Edward Boscawen
Flag of the United Kingdom Baron Clive
Flag of the United Kingdom James Wolfe
Flag of the United Kingdom Baron Amherst
Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick
Count von Daun
Franz Moritz von Lacy
Charles Alexander of Lorriane
Ernst von Laudon
Flag of France Louis XV
Flag of France Louis-Joseph de Montcalm
Flag of Russia Elizabeth
Flag of Russia Pyotr Saltykov
Frederick Augustus II

The Seven Years' War (1756–1763) involved all of the major European powers of the period, causing 900,000 to 1,400,000 deaths.[1] It enveloped both European and colonial theatres from 1756 to 1763, incorporating the Pomeranian War and the French and Indian War which was fought from 1754 to 1763. Prussia, Electorate Brunswick-Lüneburg, and United Kingdom of Great Britain (including British colonies in North America, the British East India Company, and Ireland) were pitted against Austria, France (including the North American colony of New France and the French East India Company), the Russian Empire, Sweden, and Saxony. Portugal (on the side of Great Britain) and Spain (on the side of France) were later drawn into the conflict, and a force from the neutral Netherlands was attacked in India. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article is about a type of political territory. ... Combatants France First Nations allies: Algonquin Lenape Wyandot Ojibwa Ottawa Shawnee Great Britain American Colonies Iroquois Confederacy Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) Casualties 3,000 killed, wounded or captured 10,040 killed, wounded or captured The French and... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... Capital Hanover Head of State King of Hanover Hanover (German: Hannover) is a historical territory in todays Germany. ... For an explanation of terms such as Scotland, Wales, England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom, see British Isles (terminology). ... British colonization of the Americas (including colonization under the Kingdom of England before the 1707 Acts of Union created the Kingdom of Great Britain) began in the late 16th century, before reaching its peak after colonies were established throughout the Americas, and a protectorate was established in Hawaii. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... French and other European settlements in India. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...


The war ended France's position as a major colonial power in the Americas (where it lost all of its possessions except French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Saint-Domingue and Saint Pierre and Miquelon) and its position as the leading power in Europe,[2] until the time of the French Revolution. Great Britain, meanwhile, emerged as the dominant colonial power in the world. The French Navy was crippled, which meant that only an ambitious rebuilding program in combination with the Spanish fleet would see it again threaten the Royal Navy's command of the sea.[3] On the other side of the world, the British East India Company acquired the strongest position within India, which was to become the "jewel in the imperial crown". The war was described by Winston Churchill as the first "world war",[4] as it was the first conflict in human history to be fought around the globe, although most of the combatants were either European nations or their overseas colonies. As a partially Anglo-French conflict involving developing empires, the war was one of the most significant phases of the 18th century Second Hundred Years' War.[5] The war began with Frederick the Great of Prussia's invasion of Saxony. World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Saint-Domingue was a French colony from 1697 to 1804 that is today the independent nation of Haiti. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... The French Navy, officially called the National Navy (French: Marine Nationale) is the maritime arm of the French military. ... The Spanish Armada (in Spanish, Armada Española) is the maritime arm of the Spanish Military. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... Command of the sea is a technical term of naval warfare, which indicates a definite strategical condition. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Churchill redirects here. ... A world war is a war affecting the majority of the worlds major nations. ... The Second Hundred Years War is a phrase used by some historians to describe the series of military conflicts between the Kingdom of Great Britain and France that occurred from about 1689 to 1815. ... Frederick the Great Frederick II of Prussia (Friedrich der Große, Frederick the Great, January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was the Hohenzollern king of Prussia 1740–86. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km...

Contents

Names

In Canada and the United Kingdom, the Seven Years' War is used to describe the North American conflict as well as the European and Asian conflicts. In French Canada, however, the term War of the Conquest is commonly used. The conflict in India is termed the Third Carnatic War while the fighting between Prussia and Austria is called the Third Silesian War. Most of the U.S. continues to call it the Seven Years' War, despite separation from England. The North American theatre is called the French and Indian War in the United States but not in Britain, Canada, or France, where it is treated as part of the larger conflict. This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Carnatic Wars were a series of battles that took place in the Carnatic region of modern-day southern India between the British, French, Marathas and Mysore for control of the region in the late eighteenth century. ... The Silesian Wars were a series of wars between Prussia and Austria (and their changing allies) for control of Silesia. ... Combatants France First Nations allies: Algonquin Lenape Wyandot Ojibwa Ottawa Shawnee Great Britain American Colonies Iroquois Confederacy Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) Casualties 3,000 killed, wounded or captured 10,040 killed, wounded or captured The French and...


Causes

The Seven Years' War may be viewed as a continuation of the War of the Austrian Succession, in which King Frederick II of Prussia had gained the rich province of Silesia. Empress Maria Theresa of Austria had signed the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748) only in order to gain time to rebuild her military forces and to forge new alliances, which she did with remarkable success. The political map of Europe had been redrawn in a few years. During the so-called Diplomatic Revolution of 1756, century-old enemies France, Austria and Russia formed a single alliance against Prussia. Combatants Prussia France Spain Bavaria Naples and Sicily Sweden (1741 — 1743) Austria Great Britain Hanover Dutch Republic Saxony Kingdom of Sardinia Russia Commanders Frederick II Leopold I Leopold II Maurice de Saxe François-Marie de Broglie Charles VII Charles Emil Lewenhaupt Ludwig Khevenhüller Charles Alexander George II Charles... Frederick II (German: ; January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was a King of Prussia (1740–1786) from the Hohenzollern dynasty. ... Silesia (English pronunciation [], Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Ślůnsk) is a historical region in central Europe, located along the upper and middle Oder River, upper Vistula River, and along the Sudetes, Carpathian (Silesian Beskids) mountain range. ... Not to be confused with Maria Theresa of Austria (1816-1867). ... The second Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen) of 1748 ended the War of the Austrian Succession. ... For other uses, see Army (disambiguation). ... A military alliance is an agreement between two, or more, countries; related to wartime planning, commitments, or contingencies; such agreements can be both defensive and offensive. ... The Diplomatic Revolution refers to the alliances formed in 1756 as a result of the outbreak of the Seven Years War. ...


Prussia had the protection only of Great Britain, whose ruling dynasty saw its ancestral Hanoverian possession as being threatened by France. In Great Britain's alliance with Prussia the two powers complemented each other. The British already had the most formidable navy in Europe, while Prussia had the most formidable land force on continental Europe, allowing Great Britain to focus its soldiers towards its colonies. Capital Hanover Head of State King of Hanover Hanover (German: Hannover) is a historical territory in todays Germany. ... Naval redirects here. ...


The Austrian army had undergone an overhaul according to the Prussian system. Maria Theresa, whose knowledge of military affairs shamed many of her generals, had pressed relentlessly for reform. Her interest in the welfare of the soldiers had gained her their undivided respect.


The second cause for war arose from the heated colonial struggle between the British Empire and French Empire which, as they expanded, met and clashed with one another on two continents. These causes of the French and Indian War are described on that page The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... For the French colonial postage stamps, see French Colonies. ... Combatants France First Nations allies: Algonquin Lenape Wyandot Ojibwa Ottawa Shawnee Great Britain American Colonies Iroquois Confederacy Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) Casualties 3,000 killed, wounded or captured 10,040 killed, wounded or captured The French and...


Overall Strategies

For much of the eighteenth century, France approached its wars in the same way: it would let its colonies fend for themselves, sending only small numbers of troops—or perhaps inexperienced soldiers—abroad, expecting that battles for the colonies would likely be lost anyway. It would keep most of its army on the European continent, expecting that such a force would be victorious closer to home. The plan was to fight to the end of the war and then, in treaty negotiations, to trade territory gained in Europe in order to regain overseas possessions lost. This strategy did not serve France well in this war, as the colonies were indeed lost, but France had few counterbalancing European successes. The military history of France includes both those military actions centered on the territory encompassing modern France, and the military history of French-speaking peoples of European descent, in Europe and in its overseas possessions and territories. ...


The British, by contrast, strove to take advantage of their naval power and press the war in the colonies, not only by naval blockade and bombardment of enemy ports, but also using their ability to move troops by water. They would harass enemy shipping and attack enemy colonies, frequently using colonists from nearby British colonies. They sought to offset their natural disadvantage on the continent of Europe by allying themselves with one or more Continental powers whose interests were antithetical to those of their enemies, particularly France. For the Seven Years' War, the British allied themselves with the greatest military strategist of the day, Frederick the Great, and his kingdom, Prussia, then the rising power in central Europe, and paid Frederick substantial subsidies to support his campaigns. A Navy is the branch of a countrys military forces principally designated for naval warfare, namely maritime or ocean-borne combat operations and other functions. ... This article is about a type of political territory. ... Frederick II (German: ; January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was a King of Prussia (1740–1786) from the Hohenzollern dynasty. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ...


War begins

The formal opening of hostilities in Europe was preceded by fighting in North America, where the westward expansion of the British colonies located along the eastern seaboard began to run afoul of French claims to the Mississippi valley in the late 1740s and early 1750s. In order to forestall the expansion of Virginia and Pennsylvania, in particular, the French built a line of forts in what is now western Pennsylvania, and British efforts to dislodge them in the mid-1750s led to conflicts generally considered to be part of the French and Indian War, as the Seven Years' War is known in North America. Flag In 1803, the United States concluded the Louisiana Purchase (green area) with France. ... The recorded History of Virginia began with settlement of the geographic region now known as the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States thousands of years ago by Native Americans. ... The History of Pennsylvania is as varied as any in the American experience and reflects the melting pot vision of the United States. ... Combatants France First Nations allies: Algonquin Lenape Wyandot Ojibwa Ottawa Shawnee Great Britain American Colonies Iroquois Confederacy Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) Casualties 3,000 killed, wounded or captured 10,040 killed, wounded or captured The French and...


At the start of the war in Europe, Frederick crossed the border of Saxony, one of the smaller German states in league with Austria. The Saxon and Austrian armies were unprepared, and at the Battle of Lobositz, Frederick prevented the isolated Saxon army from being reinforced by an Austrian army under General count Browne. However, Saxony had successfully delayed the Prussian campaign. In the Mediterranean, the French opened the campaign against the British by an attack on Minorca; a British attempt at relief was foiled at the Battle of Minorca and the island was captured (for which Admiral Byng was court-martialed and executed). The Battle of Lobositz was a battle fought on October 1, 1756 during the Seven Years War. ... Maximilian Ulysses, Reichsgraf von Browne, Baron de Camus and Mountany (October 23, 1705 - May 6, 1757), Austrian generalfeldmarschall, was born at Basel. ... The naval Battle of Minorca took place on May 20, 1756, at the opening of the Seven Years War in the European theatre, shortly after the Kingdom of Great Britain had declared war on the House of Bourbon, off the Mediterranean island of Minorca between British and French squadrons. ... Portrait of John Byng by Thomas Hudson, 1749 John Byng (October 29, 1704 – March 14, 1757) was a British Admiral who was court-martialled and executed for failing to do his utmost during the Battle of Minorca, at the beginning of the Seven Years War. ...


In the spring of 1757, Frederick again took the initiative by marching on Prague. After the bloody Battle of Prague, the Prussians started to besiege the city, but had to lift the siege after Frederick's first defeat at the Battle of Kolin. In summer, the Russians invaded East Prussia and defeated a smaller Prussian force in the fiercely contested Battle of Gross-Jägersdorf. Combatants Prussia Austria Commanders King Frederick the Great Charles of Lorraine Reichsgraf von Browne Strength 65,000 62,000 Casualties 14,300 8,800 The Battle of Prague (in the Czech Republic known as the Battle of Å tÄ›rboholy) was a battle fought on May 6, 1757 during the Seven... Combatants Prussia Austria Commanders Frederick the Great Leopold Josef, Count von Daun Strength 32,000 44,000 Casualties 14,000 dead or wounded 9,000 dead or wounded The Battle of Kolin (Kolín) was a battle fought on June 18, 1757 during the Seven Years War. ... The Battle of Gross-Jägersdorf was a battle fought on August 30, 1757 during the Seven Years War. ...


Things were looking very grim for Prussia at this time, with the Austrians mobilizing to attack Prussian-controlled soil and a French army under Soubise approaching from the west. In what Napoleon would call "a masterpiece in maneuver and resolution", Frederick thoroughly crushed both the French at the Battle of Rossbach and the Austrians at the Battle of Leuthen in the space of a month. With these great victories, Frederick once again established himself as Europe's finest general and his men as Europe's finest soldiers. With Peter III, who admired Frederick, taking the Russian throne, Frederick had a powerful new alliance that would last until the first World War. Charles de Rohan, prince de Soubise (1715–July 4, 1787) was a peer and marshal of France, the grandson of the Princesse de Soubise, who is known to history as one of the mistresses of Louis XIV. He accompanied Louis XV in the campaign of 1744-1748 and attained high... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Combatants Prussia France Holy Roman / Austrian Empire Commanders Frederick II Charles, prince de Soubise Joseph Frederick William, duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen Strength 22,000 79 guns 42,000 45 guns Casualties 169 dead, 379 wounded 5,000 dead or wounded 5,000 captured The Battle of Rossbach (November 5, 1757... Combatants Prussia Austria Commanders Frederick the Great Charles of Lorraine Strength 39,000 167 guns 58,500 210 guns Casualties 1,141 dead 5118 wounded 85 captured 3000 dead 7,000 wounded 12,000 captured 51 flags 116 cannons The Battle of Leuthen was a battle fought on December 5... Peter III (February 21, 1728 – July 17, 1762) (Russian: ) was Emperor of Russia for six months in 1762. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ...


British amphibious "descents"

Great Britain planned a "descent" (an amphibious demonstration or raid) on Rochefort, a joint operation to overrun the town and burn the shipping in the Charente. The expedition set out on September 8, 1757, Sir John Mordaunt commanding the troops and Sir Edward Hawke the fleet. On September 23, the Isle d'Aix was taken, but due to dithering by the military staff such time was lost that Rochefort became unassailable,[6] and the expedition abandoned the Isle d'Aix and returned to Great Britain on October 1. It has been suggested that Landing operation be merged into this article or section. ... Rochefort is a commune in western France, a seaport on the Atlantic Ocean. ... Joint warfare is a military doctrine which places priority on the integration of the various service branches of a states armed forces into one unified command. ... Charente (Saintongeais: Chérente, Occitan: TCharanto) is a department in central France named after the Charente River. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... General Sir John Mordaunt, KB (1697 – 23 October 1780) was an English soldier and Whig politician, the son of Lieutenant-General Harry Mordaunt and Margaret Spencer. ... Edward Hawke, 1st Baron Hawke, (February 21, 1705 - October 16, 1781) was an admiral in the Royal Navy. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Despite the operational failure and debated strategic success of the descent on Rochefort, Pitt — who saw purpose in this type of asymmetric enterprise — prepared to continue such operations.[7] An army was assembled under the command of Charles Spencer, 3rd Duke of Marlborough; he was aided by Lord George Sackville. The naval escorts for the expedition were commanded by Anson, Hawke, and Howe. The army landed on June 5, 1758 at Cancalle Bay, proceeded to St. Malo, and burned the shipping in the harbor; the arrival of French relief forces caused the British to avoid a siege, and the troops re-embarked. An attack on Havre de Grace was called off, and the fleet sailed on to Cherbourg; but the weather being bad and provisions low, that too was abandoned, and the expedition returned, having damaged French privateering and provided a further strategic demonstration against the French coast. William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham PC (15 November 1708 – 11 May 1778) was a British Whig statesman who achieved his greatest fame as Secretary of State during the Seven Years War (known as the French and Indian War in North America) and who was later Prime Minister of Great... Charles Spencer, 3rd Duke of Marlborough (1706-1758) was a British politician of the 18th century. ... Lord George Germain (1780). ... George Anson, 1st Baron Anson (April 23, 1697 - 1762) was a British admiral and a wealthy aristocrat, noted for his circumnavigation of the globe. ... Richard Howe, 1st Earl Howe (8 March 1726 – 5 August 1799) was a British admiral. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1758 (MDCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Categories: France geography stubs | Communes of Ille-et-Vilaine ... Le Havre is a city in Normandy, northern France, on the English Channel, at the mouth of the Seine. ... For the Australian town and Aboriginal Mission, see Cherbourg, Queensland. ...


Pitt now prepared to send troops into Germany; and both Marlborough and Sackville, disgusted by what they perceived as the futility of the "descents", obtained commissions in that army. The elderly General Bligh was appointed to command a new "descent", escorted by Howe. The campaign began propitiously: with the support of the navy to bombard Cherbourg and cover their landing, the army drove off the French force detailed to oppose their landing, captured Cherbourg, and destroyed its fortifications, docks, and shipping. The troops were re-embarked and the fleet moved them to the Bay of St. Lunaire in Brittany where, on September 3, they were landed to again operate against St. Malo; however, this action proved impractical. Worsening weather forced the two armies to separate: the ships sailed for the safer anchorage of St. Cast, while the army proceeded overland. The tardiness of Bligh in moving his forces allowed a French force of 10,000 men from Brest to catch up with him and open fire on the re-embarkation troops. A rear-guard of 1,400 under General Dury held off the French while the rest of the army embarked; they could not be saved, 750, including Dury, were killed and the rest captured. Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Brest is a city in Brittany, or the Bretagne région, north-west France, sous-préfecture of the Finistère département. ...


Continental warfare

Frederick invaded Austria in the spring of 1758 but failed to score an important victory. In the west, the French were beaten in the Battle of Reichenberg and the Battle of Krefeld by Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick. The Battle of Reichenberg was a battle of the Seven Years War, fought on April 21, 1757 near the village of Liberec (German Reichenberg) in Bohemia. ... {{Battlebox|campaign=Seven Years War: European |image= |caption= |battle_name=Battle of Krefeld |colour_scheme=background:#cccccc |conflict=Seven Years War |date=June 23, 1758 |place=Krefeld |result=Hessian / Brunswicker / Hanoverian victory |combatant1=[[Hesse-kassel], [Brunswick] and Hanover |combatant2=France |commander1=Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick |commander2=Le Comte de Clermont |strength1=ca... Ferdinand (12 January 1721, Brunswick – 3 July 1792), Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, was a Prussian field marshal (1758–1766) known for his participation in the Seven Years War. ...

Operations of Russian army from Polish territory during Seven Years' War 1756-1762. The green arrows are Russian movements, and green circles are Russian bases
Operations of Russian army from Polish territory during Seven Years' War 1756-1762. The green arrows are Russian movements, and green circles are Russian bases

In the east, at the Battle of Zorndorf in Prussia, a Prussian army of 35,000 men under Frederick fought to a standstill with a Russian army of 43,000 commanded by Count Fermor. The Russians withdrew from the field. In the undecided Battle of Tornow on September 25, a Swedish army repulsed six assaults by a Prussian army. On October 14, Marshal Daun's Austrians surprised the main Prussian army at the Battle of Hochkirch. Frederick lost much of his artillery but retreated in good order, helped by the densely wooded landscape. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2000x1568, 1161 KB) Summary 7 years war in Poland Author: user:Halibutt and user:Mathiasrex Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Seven Years War Maps of... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2000x1568, 1161 KB) Summary 7 years war in Poland Author: user:Halibutt and user:Mathiasrex Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Seven Years War Maps of... The Battle of Zorndorf was a battle fought on August 25, 1758 during the Seven Years War. ... Combatants Prussia Sweden Commanders General von Wedel Strength 6,000 600 Casualties unknown unknown The Battle of Tornow was part of the Seven Years War and was fought between the forces of Prussia and Sweden on September 26, 1758. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Battle of Hochkirch was a battle fought on October 14, 1758 during the Seven Years War. ...


The year 1759 saw some severe Prussian defeats. At the Battle of Kay, or Paltzig, the Russian Count Saltykov with 47,000 Russians defeated 26,000 Prussian troops commanded by General von Wedel. Though the Hanoverians defeated an army of 60,000 French at Minden, Austrian general Daun forced the surrender of an entire Prussian corps of 13,000 men in the Battle of Maxen. Frederick himself lost half his army in the Battle of Kunersdorf, the worst defeat in his military career, and one that drove him to the brink of abdication and suicide. The disaster resulted partly from his misjudgment of the Russians, who had already demonstrated their strength at Zorndorf and at Gross-Jagersdorf. The Battle of Kay was a battle fought on July 23, 1759 during the Seven Years War. ... Count Pyotr Semyonovich Saltykov (Russian: ) (1697 - 1772) was a Russian statesman and a military figure, adjutant general (1762), son of Semyon Saltykov. ... Combatants Great Britain, Hanover, Kingdom of Prussia France Commanders Prince Ferdinand Louis Georges Érasme de Contades Strength 60,500 56,000 Casualties 2,800 10,000-11,000 The Battle of Minden was a battle fought on August 1, 1759 during the Seven Years War. ... Leopold Josef Graf Daun, Fürst von Thiano (Count Leopold Joseph von Daun or Dhaun) (September 24, 1705 – February 5, 1766), Prince of Thiano, Austrian field marshal, was born at Vienna. ... Combatants Austria Prussia Commanders Leopold Josef Graf Daun Friedrich August von Finck Strength 42,000 14,000 Casualties  ? 14,000 The Battle of Maxen was a battle fought on November 21, 1759 during the Seven Years War at Maxen in Saxony in present-day Germany. ... The battle of Kunersdorf was fought on August 23, 1759 during the Seven Years War near Kunersdorf, east of Frankfurt an der Oder. ... The Battle of Gross-Jägersdorf was a battle fought on August 30, 1757 during the Seven Years War. ...


The French planned to invade the British Isles during 1759 by accumulating troops near the mouth of the Loire and concentrating their Brest and Toulon fleets. However, two sea defeats prevented this. In August, the Mediterranean fleet under Jean-François de La Clue-Sabran was scattered by a larger British fleet under Edward Boscawen at the Battle of Lagos. In the Battle of Quiberon Bay on November 20, the British admiral Edward Hawke with 23 ships of the line caught the French Brest fleet with 21 ships of the line under Marshal de Conflans and sank, captured or forced aground many of them, putting an end to the French plans. Edward Boscawen (August 10, 1711 - January 10, 1761) was a British (Cornish) admiral. ... The naval Battle of Lagos took place on 19 August 1759 during the Seven Years War off the coasts of Spain and Portugal. ... The naval Battle of Quiberon Bay took place on 20 November 1759 during the Seven Years War in Quiberon Bay, off the coast of France near St. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Edward Hawke, 1st Baron Hawke, (February 21, 1705 - October 16, 1781) was an admiral in the Royal Navy. ... Ships of the line were 1st, 2nd, or 3rd-rated ships in the rating system of the Royal Navy. ...


1760 brought even more disaster to the Prussians. The Prussian general Fouqué was defeated in the Battle of Landshut. The French captured Marburg, and the Swedes part of Pomerania. The Hanoverians were victorious over the French at the Battle of Warburg, but the Austrians, under the command of General Charles Flynn captured Glatz in Silesia. In the Battle of Liegnitz Frederick scored a victory despite being outnumbered three to one. The Russians under General Saltykov and Austrians under General Lacy briefly occupied his capital, Berlin. The end of that year saw Frederick once more victorious, defeating the able Daun in the Battle of Torgau, but he suffered heavy casualties and the Austrians retreated in good order. The Battle of Landesschut or Battle of Landshut was an engagement fought on June 23, 1760 during the Seven Years War. ... , Marburg is a city in Hesse, Germany, on the Lahn river. ... Pommern redirects here. ... The battle of Warburg was a battle fought on August 1, 1760 during the Seven Years War. ... Motto: none Voivodship Lower Silesian Municipal government Rada Miejska w Kłodzku Mayor Roman Lipski Area 25 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 30. ... Combatants Prussia Austria Commanders Frederick the Great Ernst von Laudon Strength 30,000 25,000 (80,000 reinforcements under von Daun never engaged) The Battle of Liegnitz (August 15, 1760) saw Frederick the Greats Prussian Army defeat the Austrian army under Ernst von Laudon. ... Count Pyotr Semyonovich Saltykov (Russian: ) (1697 - 1772) was a Russian statesman and a military figure, adjutant general (1762), son of Semyon Saltykov. ... Franz Moritz Graf von Lacy (also written Lascy) (en: Count Franz Moritz von Lacy), (October 21, 1725 – November 24, 1801), Austrian field marshal, was born at St Petersburg. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... The Battle of Torgau (Germany) was a battle fought on November 3, 1760 during the Seven Years War on the Süptitzer Höhen. ...


1761 brought a new country into the war. Spain declared war on Great Britain on January 4. In the Battle of Villinghausen Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick defeated a 92,000-man French army. The Russians under Zakhar Chernyshev and Pyotr Rumyantsev stormed Kolberg in Pomerania, while the Austrians captured Schweidnitz. is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Great Britain, Hanover, Prussia France Commanders Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick Duc de Broglie and Prince de Soubise Strength ~100,000 ~80,000 Casualties 1,400 5,000 (Broglie 4,700, Soubise 300) The Battle of Villinghausen (or Vellinghausen) was fought in 1761 between a large French army and a... Ferdinand (12 January 1721, Brunswick – 3 July 1792), Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, was a Prussian field marshal (1758–1766) known for his participation in the Seven Years War. ... Count Zakhar Grigorevich Chernyshev or Chernyshov (1722 - 1784), rose to become Minister of War to the empress Catherine the Great of Russia. ... The Rumyantsev family (Румянцевы) were Russian counts prominent in Russian imperial politics in the 18th and early 19th centuries. ... Kolberg is the German name for the Polish town of Kołobrzeg. ... Świdnica (German Schweidnitz) is a town in southwestern Poland. ...


Great Britain now threatened to withdraw her subsidies, and, as the Prussian armies had dwindled to 60,000 men, Frederick's survival was severely threatened. Then on January 5, 1762 the Russian Empress Elizabeth died. Her Prussophile successor, Peter III, at once recalled Russian armies from Berlin (see: the Treaty of Saint Petersburg (1762)) and mediated Frederick's truce with Sweden. In the aftermath, Frederick was able to drive the Austrians from Silesia in the Battle of Freiberg (October 29, 1762), while his Brunswick allies captured the key town of Göttingen. The miracle of the House of Brandenburg refers to the death of Russias Empress Elizabeth at the beginning of 1762. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1762 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Charles van Loo. ... Peter III (February 21, 1728 – July 17, 1762) (Russian: ) was Emperor of Russia for six months in 1762. ... The Treaty of Saint Petersburg was concluded on 5 May 1762 and ended the fighting in the Seven Years War between Prussia and Russia. ... Media:Example. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1762 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Göttingen marketplace with old city hall, Gänseliesel fountain and pedestrian zone Göttingen ( ) is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany. ...


War in the Colonies

For North American events, see French and Indian War. Combatants France First Nations allies: Algonquin Lenape Wyandot Ojibwa Ottawa Shawnee Great Britain American Colonies Iroquois Confederacy Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) Casualties 3,000 killed, wounded or captured 10,040 killed, wounded or captured The French and...

Battles occurred in India, North America, Europe, the Caribbean isles, the Philippines and coastal Africa. During the 1750s up to 1763, Great Britain gained enormous areas of land and influence at the expense of the French.
Robert Clive expelled the French from India, and General Wolfe defeated the French forces of General Montcalm at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham, a victory which led to the surrender of Quebec to the British. Great Britain lost Minorca in the Mediterrean to the French in 1756 but captured the French colonies in Senegal on the African continent in 1758. The British Royal Navy captured the French sugar colonies of Guadeloupe in 1759 and Martinique in 1762, as well as the Spanish cities of Havana in Cuba, and Manila in the Philippines, both prominent Spanish cities. North American redirects here. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... West Indies redirects here. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive of Plassey (September 29, 1725 - November 22, 1774) was the statesman and general who established the empire of British India. ... Major General Wolfe. ... Portrait of Montcalm Image of Montcalm leading his troops by Toronto printer Ralph Clark Stone. ... Belligerents Kingdom of Great Britain Kingdom of France Commanders James Wolfe â€  Louis-Joseph, Marquis de Montcalm â€  Strength 4,800 regulars 4,000 regulars 300 militia Casualties and losses 658 dead or wounded 644 dead or wounded The Battle of the Plains of Abraham also known as the Battle of Quebec... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Capital Maó Official languages Catalan & Spanish Area  -  Total 694. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... Combatants Britain Philippines Spain Commanders William Draper Archbishop Manuel Rojo Strength 1,750 regulars, 4,500 sailors and marines 4,000 Filipino troops 1,000 regulars, 9,000 natives East Indies Campaign 1757–1763 Plassey – Cuddalore – Negapatam – Pondicherry – Manila The Battle of Manila of 1762 was fought in the Seven...


In 1758, the British mounted an attack on New France by land as well as sea. The French fortress at Louisbourg on Cape Breton Island fell to them in 1758. And on September 13, 1759, General James Wolfe defeated the French forces at Québec. By the autumn of 1760, French America had become British. Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... Fortress Louisbourg (fr. ... For other uses, see Cape Breton. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1759 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Nickname: Motto: Don de Dieu feray valoir (I shall put Gods gift to good use; the Don de Dieu was Champlains ship) Coordinates: , Country Province Agglomeration Quebec City Statute of the city Capitale-Nationale Administrative Region Capitale-Nationale Founded 1608 by Samuel de Champlain Constitution date 1833 Government...


Towards the very end of the war, in 1762, French forces attacked St. John's, Newfoundland. If successful, the expedition would have strengthened France's hand at the negotiating table. Though they took St. John's and raided nearby settlements, the French forces were eventually defeated by British troops at the Battle of Signal Hill. This was the final battle of the war in North America, and it forced the French to surrender to the British under Lieutenant Colonel William Amherst. The British were victorious, but the colonies, whose own impact in the war was minimal, were, with the defeat of the hostile French empire a few hundred miles away, becoming increasingly rebellious. Britain may have won the battles in the Seven Years' war, but they would lose some of their colonies over it. St. ... Combatants France Great Britain Commanders Guillaume de Bellecombe William Amherst Strength 295 regulars 200 regulars and provincials Casualties 20–40 dead or wounded 4–5 dead 19 wounded The Battle of Signal Hill (September 15, 1762) was the final battle of the French and Indian War and forced the French... penis He was a gay general who sucked french cock on certain instances to defeat the French at St. ...


The history of the Seven Years' War, particularly the siege of Québec and the death of Wolfe, generated a vast number of ballads, broadsides, images (see The Death of General Wolfe), maps and other printed materials, which testify to how this event continued to capture the imagination of the British public long after Wolfe's death in 1759.[8] The Death of General Wolfe is a well-known 1770 painting by artist Benjamin West depicting the final moments of General James Wolfe on the Plains of Abraham during the 1759 Battle of Quebec. ...


Peace

Wikisource has original text related to this article:

The British-French hostilities were ended in 1763 by the Treaty of Paris, which involved a complex series of land exchanges, the most important being France's cession to Spain of Louisiana, and to Great Britain the rest of New France except for the islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon. France was given the choice of keeping either New France or its Caribbean island colony Guadeloupe, and chose the latter to retain one of its sources of sugar.[9] This suited the British as well, as their own Caribbean islands already supplied ample sugar, but with the handover of New France they gained control of all lands in North America east of the Mississippi River with the exception of New Orleans. However, the end of the threat from New France to the British American colonies and the subsequent reorganization of those colonies would later become one of the enabling triggers for the American Revolution. Spain lost control of Florida to Great Britain, but received New Orleans and the Louisiana Territory west of the Mississippi River from the French. France also returned Minorca to the British. Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... The Treaty of Paris, often called the Peace of Paris, or the Treaty of 1763, was signed on February 10, 1763, by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement. ... Flag In 1803, the United States concluded the Louisiana Purchase (green area) with France. ... Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (French Saint-Pierre et Miquelon) is a French overseas collectivity consisting of several small islands off the eastern coast of Canada near Newfoundland. ... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... The United States in 1810, following the Louisiana Purchase. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ...


European boundaries were returned to their status quo ante bellum by the Treaty of Hubertusburg (February 1763). Prussia thus maintained its possession of Silesia, having survived the combined assault of three neighbours, each larger than itself. According to some historians,[citation needed] Prussia gained enormously in influence at the expense of the Holy Roman Empire. This increase in Prussian influence, it is argued, marks the beginning of the modern German state, an event at least as influential as the colonial empire Great Britain had gained. Others, including Fred Anderson, author of Crucible of War, believe the war was needless and overly costly.[10] For other uses, see Border (disambiguation). ... The Treaty of Hubertusburg, signed on 15 February 1763, together with the Treaty of Paris signed on 10 February 1763, marked the end of the French and Indian War and of the Seven Years War. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... Fred Anderson is an American historian. ...


It should be noted, however, that while Frederick the Great's earlier acts of aggression can be blamed for the circumstances that led to the Seven Years' War, it was waged against him by a coalition of larger European powers intent on reversing Prussia's fortunes. Maintaining the defense of Prussia "against the greatest superiority of power and the utmost spite of fortune" in the words of Lord Macaulay[11], while retaining Prussia's earlier territorial gains, can be seen as an accomplishment in itself. The nations and empires allied against Prussia during the war comprised over half of Continental Europe, and Frederick's forces were opposed from four different directions. The Austrian army also performed well and sometimes successfully against a Prussian army led by a man later acknowledged by Napoleon Bonaparte as a greater military leader than himself, and thanks to Maria Theresa's leadership the war was not such a great loss for Austria that Austrian prestige or internal stability were seriously harmed. However, the same cannot be said of France. Thomas Macaulay The Right Honourable Thomas Babington (or Babbington) Macaulay, 1st Baron Macaulay, PC (October 25, 1800 - December 28, 1859) was a nineteenth century British poet, historian and Whig politician. ... Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands and, at times, peninsulas. ... Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des Français...


The Seven Years' War was the last major military conflict in Europe before the outbreak of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars towards the end of the 18th century. From a military point of view, the battles are less interesting than the numerous marches and countermarches in which Frederick excelled. This warfare of mobility would later be studied by Napoleon Bonaparte. Combatants Great Britain Austria Prussia Spain[1] Russia Sardinia Ottoman Empire Portugal Dutch Republic[2] France The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of major conflicts, from 1792 until 1802, fought between the French Revolutionary government and several European states. ... Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des Français...


Cultural references

The Luck of Barry Lyndon is a picaresque novel by William Makepeace Thackeray, first published in serial form 1844, about a member of the Irish gentry trying to become a member of the English aristocracy. ... William Makepeace Thackeray (July 18, 1811 – December 24, 1863) was a British novelist of the 19th century. ... Kubrick redirects here. ... Barry Lyndon (1975) is an award-winning period film by Stanley Kubrick based on the novel The Luck of Barry Lyndon (1844) by William Makepeace Thackeray. ... Friedrich (after the German name of Frederick II of Prussia) is a strategic board game about the events of the Seven Years War. ... For other uses, see The Last of the Mohicans (disambiguation). ... Cooper portrait by John Wesley Jarvis, 1822 James Fenimore Cooper (September 15, 1789 – September 14, 1851) was a prolific and popular American writer of the early 19th century. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... For other uses, see Colonel (disambiguation). ... Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (22 January 1729 – 15 February 1781), writer, philosopher, publicist, and art critic, was one of the most outstanding German representatives of the Enlightenment era. ...

See also

The Rule of 1756 was a policy of the Kingdom of Great Britain, and later the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland that was promulgated during the Seven Years War. ... This is a list of lists of wars, sorted by country, date, region, and type of conflict. ... French India is highlighted in light blue on the subcontinent. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Seven Years War (1755-63)
  2. ^ The Treaty of Paris in Corbett, Julian (1918). England in the Seven Years' War: A Study in Combined Strategy Vol. II. (book), Second Edition (in English), London: Longman, Green and Co.. 
  3. ^ Kennedy, Paul [1976] (2004). The Rise and Fall of British Naval Mastery (book), new introduction (in English), London: Penguin Books. 
  4. ^ Bowen, HV (1998). War and British Society 1688-1815. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 7. ISBN 0-521-57645-8. 
  5. ^ Tombs, Robert and Isabelle. That Sweet Enemy: The French and the British from the Sun King to the Present. London: William Heinemann, 2006.
  6. ^ Julian Corbett, England in the Seven Years' War: A Study in Combined Strategy, 2 Vols., (London, 1918).
  7. ^ Julian Corbett, England in the Seven Years' War: A Study in Combined Strategy, 2 Vols., (London, 1918).
  8. ^ Virtual Vault, an online exhibition of Canadiana at Library and Archives Canada
  9. ^ The Canadian Encyclopedia, retrieved June 17, 2006.
  10. ^ According to Anderson, "Beyond the inevitable adjustments in the way diplomats would think of Prussia as a player in European politics, six years of heroic expenditure and savage bloodshed had accomplished precisely nothing." (p. 506)
  11. ^ Essay on Frederic the Great, Essays vol. 5 (1866) Hurd and Houghton

The Treaty of Paris, often called the Peace of Paris, or the Treaty of 1763, was signed on February 10, 1763, by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement. ... Sir Julian Stafford Corbett (1854-1922) was a prominent British naval historian and geostrategist of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, whose works helped shape the Royal Navys reforms of that era. ... Paul Kennedy can refer to: Paul Kennedy a professor of history at Yale University who is known for his study of the history of international relations. ...

References

  • Fowler, William H. Empires at War: The Seven Years' War and the Struggle for North America. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, 2005. ISBN 1553650964.
  • Marston, Daniel. The Seven Years' War. Essential Histories. Oxford, UK: Osprey, 2001. ISBN 1841761915.
  • McLynn, Frank. 1759: The Year Britain Became Master of the World. London: Jonathan Cape, 2004. ISBN 022406245X.

External links

  • The Seven Years' War from The Canadian Encyclopedia
  • Ioannis' SYW Project & Uniform Plates
  • Clash of Empires and The Battle of the Plains of Abraham - Canadian War Museum
  • Seven Years War Reference World History Database
Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Seven Years' War - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2663 words)
The Seven Years' War may be viewed as a continuation of the War of the Austrian Succession.
The battle was the final battle of the war in North America and forced the French to surrender St. John's to the British under the command of Colonel Jeffrey Amherst.
In fact, the Seven Years' War was the last major military conflict in Europe before the outbreak of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars towards the end of the 18th century.
Seven Years War. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (748 words)
The struggle was complex in its origin and involved two main distinct conflicts—the colonial rivalry between France and England and the struggle for supremacy in Germany between the house of Austria and the rising kingdom of Prussia.
It was preluded in America by the outbreak of the last of the French and Indian Wars and in India by fighting among native factions and the struggle there between the French governor Dupleix and the British statesman Robert Clive.
The main European phase of the war began with the Prussian invasion of Bohemia early in 1757.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m