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Encyclopedia > Seven Sisters (oil companies)

Following the break up by the U.S. Government of Standard Oil, several new companies were created, three of which, along with four other major oil companies, were once referred to as the Seven Sisters, coined by an Italian entrepreneur, Enrico Mattei. With their dominance of oil production, refinement and distribution, they were able to take advantage of the rapidly increasing demands for oil and turn massive profits. Being well organized and able to negotiate as a cartel, they were able to have their way in most Third World oil producers. It was only when the Arab states began to gain control over oil prices and production, mainly through the formation of OPEC, beginning in 1960 and really gaining power by the 1970s, that the Seven Sisters' influence declined. The Sherman Antitrust Act, formally known as the Act of July 2, 1890, ch. ... ... Standard Oil (1870–1911) was a large, integrated, oil producing, transporting, refining, and marketing company. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... Enrico Mattei (Acqualagna, Pesaro, Italy, 1906 - Bascapé, October 27, 1962) was an Italian public officer and the head of Agip Petroli, the Italian oil company. ... Logo The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is an international organization made up of Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela. ...


The companies were:

  1. Standard Oil of New Jersey (Esso). This later became Exxon, now ExxonMobil.
  2. Royal Dutch Shell Anglo-Dutch
  3. British Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC). This later became British Petroleum, then BP Amoco following a merger with Amoco (which in turn was formerly Standard Oil of Indiana). It is now known solely by the initials BP.
  4. Standard Oil of New York (Socony). This later became Mobil, which merged with Exxon to form ExxonMobil.
  5. Standard Oil of California (Socal). This became Chevron.
  6. Gulf Oil. Most of this became part of Chevron, with smaller parts becoming part of BP, and Cumberland Farms. A network of stations in the northeastern United States still bears this name.
  7. Texaco. Merged with Chevron in 2001. The merged company was known for a time as ChevronTexaco, but in 2005 it changed its name back to Chevron. Texaco remains as a Chevron brand name.

The Seven Sisters is the title of a book by British journalist Anthony Sampson about the history of the oil industry, published in 1975. An Esso Station in Toronto Esso in Higashi-Osaka Esso is an international trade name used by ExxonMobil and its related companies. ... Exxon Mobil Corporation or ExxonMobil (NYSE: XOM), headquartered in Irving, Texas, is an oil producer and distributor formed on November 30, 1999, by the merger of Exxon and Mobil. ... Exxon Mobil Corporation or ExxonMobil (NYSE: XOM), headquartered in Irving, a suburb of Dallas, Texas, USA, is the largest publicly traded integrated oil and gas company in the world, formed on November 30, 1999, by the merger of Exxon and Mobil. ... Royal Dutch Shell PLC is a multinational oil company of Anglo Dutch origins, which is amongst the largest energy corporations in the world, and one of the six supermajors (vertically integrated private-sector oil exploration, natural gas, and petroleum product marketing companies). ... The Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC) was founded in 1909, as the Anglo-Persian Oil Company, following the discovery of a large oil field in Masjed Soleiman, Iran. ... Amoco Oil Corporation was founded in 1889 by John Rockefeller and first incorporated as Standard Oil of Indiana, formed from the breakup of gasoline giant Standard Oil. ... BP plc (LSE: BP, NYSE: BP, TYO: 5051 ), originally British Petroleum, is a British energy company with headquarters in London, one of six vertically integrated private sector oil, natural gas, and petrol (gasoline) supermajors in the world. ... Mobil gas station in the Loisaida section of the East Village of New York City Mobil was a major oil company which merged with Exxon in 1999 to form ExxonMobil. ... Exxon Mobil Corporation or ExxonMobil (NYSE: XOM), headquartered in Irving, a suburb of Dallas, Texas, USA, is the largest publicly traded integrated oil and gas company in the world, formed on November 30, 1999, by the merger of Exxon and Mobil. ... Chevron Corporation (NYSE: CVX) is one of the worlds largest global energy companies. ... Gulf Oil was a major global oil company from the 1900s to the 1980s. ... BP plc (LSE: BP, NYSE: BP, TYO: 5051 ), originally British Petroleum, is a British energy company with headquarters in London, one of six vertically integrated private sector oil, natural gas, and petrol (gasoline) supermajors in the world. ... Cumberland Farms is a chain of convenience stores based in Canton, Massachusetts and operating primarily in the eastern United States. ... Texaco is the name of an American oil company that was merged into Chevron Corporation in 2001. ... Anthony Terrell Seward Sampson (August 3, 1926–December 18, 2004) was a British writer and founding member of the SDP. During the 1950s he edited the magazine Drum in Johannesburg, South Africa. ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ...


As of 2005, the surviving companies are ExxonMobil, Chevron, Shell, and BP, now members of the "supermajors" group. 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Exxon Mobil Corporation or ExxonMobil (NYSE: XOM), headquartered in Irving, a suburb of Dallas, Texas, USA, is the largest publicly traded integrated oil and gas company in the world, formed on November 30, 1999, by the merger of Exxon and Mobil. ... Chevron Corporation (NYSE: CVX) is one of the worlds largest global energy companies. ... Royal Dutch Shell PLC is a multinational oil company of Anglo Dutch origins, which is amongst the largest energy corporations in the world, and one of the six supermajors (vertically integrated private-sector oil exploration, natural gas, and petroleum product marketing companies). ... BP plc (LSE: BP, NYSE: BP, TYO: 5051 ), originally British Petroleum, is a British energy company with headquarters in London, one of six vertically integrated private sector oil, natural gas, and petrol (gasoline) supermajors in the world. ... The term supermajor generally refers to one of the big five vertically integrated, private sector, oil, natural gas, and petrol companies). ...


Reference in The Road Warrior

The Seven Sisters oil company conspiracy theory is referenced in the 1981 film, The Road Warrior, which starred Mel Gibson. In the film, a fuel tanker can be seen emblazoned with a Seven Sisters logo. 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Road Warrior redirects here. ... Mel Columcille Gerard Gibson AO (born January 3, 1956) is an Academy Award-winning American-Australian actor, director, and producer. ...


Further reading

  • Sampson, Anthony. The Seven Sisters: The Great Oil Companies and the World They Shaped. New York: Viking Press, 1975. ISBN 0-553-20449-1.

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Petroleum in the modern world (2028 words)
Oil or petroleum energy applications were first developed in the United States in the 1850,s with the discovery of crude oil in eastern Pennsylvania.
As new oil reserves were discovered and the fuel became increasingly abundant and inexpensive in the 20th century, it became the preferable alternative to coal for other uses, because it was less polluting and, with the building of pipelines, easier to deliver to the end-user.
Oil prices were determined by the major international oil companies who were doing their best to limit production by assigning quotas to each producing country.
Seven Sisters (oil companies) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (369 words)
With their dominance of oil production, refinement and distribution, they were able to take advantage of the rapidly increasing demands for oil and turn massive profits.
The Seven Sisters is the title of a book by British journalist Anthony Sampson about the history of the oil industry, published in 1975.
The Seven Sisters oil company conspiracy theory is referenced in the 1981 film, The Road Warrior, which starred Mel Gibson.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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