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Encyclopedia > Seven Days Battles
The Seven Days Battles
Part of American Civil War

Lee and McClellan of the Seven Days
Date June 25July 1, 1862
Location Henrico County, Virginia
Result Confederate victory
Combatants
United States of America Confederate States of America
Commanders
George B. McClellan Robert E. Lee
Strength
Army of the Potomac; 105,445 Army of Northern Virginia; 90,500
Casualties
1,734 killed
8,062 wounded
6,053 missing/captured
3,286 killed
15,009 wounded
946 missing/captured
Peninsula Campaign
Hampton RoadsYorktownWilliamsburgEltham's LandingDrewry's BluffHanover CourthouseSeven PinesSeven Days Battles (Oak GroveBeaver Dam CreekGaines' MillGarnett's & Golding's FarmSavage's StationWhite Oak SwampGlendaleMalvern Hill)
Peninsula Campaign, map of events up to the Battle of Seven Pines
Peninsula Campaign, map of events up to the Battle of Seven Pines

The Seven Days Battles was a series of six major battles over the seven days from June 25 to July 1, 1862, near Richmond, Virginia, in the American Civil War. Confederate General Robert E. Lee drove the invading Union Army of the Potomac, commanded by Major General George B. McClellan, away from Richmond and into a retreat down the Virginia Peninsula. The series of battles is sometimes known erroneously as the Seven Days Campaign, but it was actually the culmination of the Peninsula Campaign, not a separate campaign in its own right. This article is becoming very long. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1564x1140, 252 KB) Summary Photos merged together from two Wikipedia images: Image:GeorgeMcClellan. ... June 25 is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 189 days remaining. ... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Henrico County is a county located in the Commonwealth of Virginia, a state of the United States. ... Motto: Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem: God Save the South (unofficial) Dixie (traditional) The Bonnie Blue Flag (popular) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Government Republic President... George Brinton McClellan (December 3, 1826 – October 29, 1885) was a major general during the American Civil War. ... // For the author of Inherit the Wind and other works, see Robert Edwin Lee. ... Generals Burnside, Hancock, Couch, Ferro, Patrick, Wilcox, Cochrane, Buford and others. ... The Army of Northern Virginia was the primary military force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War in the eastern theater. ... McClellan and Johnston of the Peninsula Campaign The Peninsula Campaign (also known as the Peninsular Campaign) of the American Civil War was a major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders John L. Worden Franklin Buchanan Catesby R. Jones Strength 1 ironclad, 3 wooden warships 1 ironclad, 2 wooden warships, 1 gunboat, 2 tenders Casualties 2 wooden warships sunk, 1 wooden warship damaged 261 killed 108 wounded 1 ironclad damaged 7... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan John B. Magruder Joseph E. Johnston Strength 146,000 11,000 Casualties 182 300 The Battle of Yorktown was fought from April 5 to May 4, 1862, as part of the Peninsula Campaign of the American Civil... The Battle of Williamsburg, also known as the Battle of Fort Magruder, took place on May 5, 1862 in York County and Williamsburg, Virginia as part of the Peninsula Campaign of the American Civil War. ... Battle of Elthams Landing Conflict American Civil War Date May 7, 1862 Place New Kent County, Virginia Result Inconclusive The Battle of Eltham’s Landing, also known as the Battle of Barhamsville, or West Point, took place on May 7, 1862 in New Kent County, Virginia as part... The Battle of Drewry’s Bluff, also known as the Battle of Fort Darling or Fort Drewry, took place on May 15, 1862 in Chesterfield County, Virginia as part of the Peninsula Campaign of the American Civil War. ... Battle of Hanover Courthouse Conflict American Civil War Date May 27, 1862 Place Hanover County, Virginia Result Union victory The Battle of Hanover Courthouse, also known as the Battle of Slash Church, took place on May 27, 1862 in Hanover County, Virginia as part of the Peninsula Campaign of the... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Joseph E. Johnston G. W. Smith Strength 41,797 41,816 Casualties 5,031 (790 killed, 3,594 wounded, 647 captured/missing) 6,134 (980 killed, 4,749 wounded, 405 captured/missing) The Battle of Seven Pines... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Robert E. Lee Strength Corps Corps Casualties 516 541 The Battle of Oak Grove, also known as the Battle of French’s Field or King’s School House, took place on June 25, 1862 in Henrico County... Battle of Beaver Dam Creek Conflict American Civil War Date June 26, 1862 Place Hanover County, Virginia Result Union victory The Battle of Beaver Dam Creek, also known as the Battle of Mechanicsville or Ellerson’s Mill, took place on June 26, 1862 in Hanover County, Virginia as part... Battle of Gaines Mill Conflict American Civil War Date June 27, 1862 Place Hanover County, Virginia Result Confederate victory The Battle of Gaines Mill, also known as the First Battle of Cold Harbor or the Battle of Chickahominy River, took place on June 27, 1862, in Hanover County, Virginia, as... Battle of Garnetts & Goldings Farm Conflict American Civil War Date June 27-28, 1862 Place Henrico County, Virginia Result Inconclusive The Battle of Garnetts & Goldings Farms took place from June 27-28, 1862 in Henrico County, Virginia as part of the Peninsula Campaign of the American... Battle of Savages Station Conflict American Civil War Date June 29, 1862 Place Henrico County, Virginia Result Inconclusive The Battle of Savage’s Station took place on June 29, 1862 in Henrico County, Virginia as part of the Peninsula Campaign of the American Civil War. ... Battle of White Oak Swamp Conflict American Civil War Date June 30, 1862 Place Henrico County, Virginia Result Inconclusive The Battle of White Oak Swamp took place on June 30, 1862 in Henrico County, Virginia as part of the Peninsula Campaign of the American Civil War. ... Battle of Glendale Conflict American Civil War Date June 30, 1862 Place Henrico County, Virginia Result Inconclusive (Union withdrawal continued. ... Battle of Malvern Hill Conflict American Civil War Date July 1, 1862 Place Henrico County, Virginia Result Union victory The Battle of Malvern Hill, also known as the Battle of Poindexter’s Farm, took place on July 1, 1862 in Henrico County, Virginia as part of the Peninsula Campaign... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2381x1753, 512 KB)Map of the Peninsula Campaign of the American Civil War, up to Seven Pines. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2381x1753, 512 KB)Map of the Peninsula Campaign of the American Civil War, up to Seven Pines. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Joseph E. Johnston G. W. Smith Strength 41,797 41,816 Casualties 5,031 (790 killed, 3,594 wounded, 647 captured/missing) 6,134 (980 killed, 4,749 wounded, 405 captured/missing) The Battle of Seven Pines... June 25 is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 189 days remaining. ... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Nickname: The River City Motto: Sic Itur Ad Astra (Thus do we reach the stars) Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: Country United States State Virginia County Independent City Mayor L. Douglas Wilder (D) Area    - City 62. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Some Confederate soldiers The Confederate States Army (CSA) was formed in February 1861 to defend the Confederate States of America, which had itself been formed that same year when seven Southern states seceded from the United States (four more states soon followed). ... // For the author of Inherit the Wind and other works, see Robert Edwin Lee. ... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ... Generals Burnside, Hancock, Couch, Ferro, Patrick, Wilcox, Cochrane, Buford and others. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... George Brinton McClellan (December 3, 1826 – October 29, 1885) was a major general during the American Civil War. ... The Virginia Peninsula is a peninsula in southeast Virginia, bounded by the York River, James River, Hampton Roads and Chesapeake Bay. ... McClellan and Johnston of the Peninsula Campaign The Peninsula Campaign (also known as the Peninsular Campaign) of the American Civil War was a major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater. ...

Contents

Start of the Peninsula Campaign

The Peninsula Campaign was the unsuccessful attempt by McClellan to capture the Confederate capital of Richmond and end the war. It started in March 1862, when McClellan landed his Army of the Potomac at Fort Monroe on the tip of the Virginia Peninsula. Moving slowly and cautiously up the peninsula, McClellan fought a series of minor battles and sieges against Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, who was equally cautious in the defense of his capital, retreating step by step to within six miles (10 km) of Richmond. There, the Battle of Seven Pines (also known as the Battle of Fair Oaks) took place on May 31 and June 1, 1862. It was a tactical draw, but it had wide-ranging consequences for the war—Johnston was wounded and replaced by the much more aggressive Gen. Robert E. Lee. Lee spent almost a month extending his defensive lines and organizing his Army of Northern Virginia; McClellan accommodated this by sitting passively to his front until the start of the Seven Days. Lee, who had developed a reputation for caution early in the war, knew he had no numerical superiority over McClellan, but he planned an offensive campaign that marked the aggressive nature by which he was characterized for the remainder of the war. Motto: Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem: God Save the South (unofficial) Dixie (traditional) The Bonnie Blue Flag (popular) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Government Republic President... Satellite Photo of Fort Monroe Fort Monroe, Virginia (also known as Fortress Monroe) is a military installation located at Old Point Comfort on the tip of the Virginia Peninsula at the mouth of Hampton Roads on the Chesapeake Bay in eastern Virginia in the United States. ... Born Joseph E. James Karakasians (born February 6, 1977 in Long Island, New York), better knowed by the name of Joseph Erin James Karakasians is a professional wrestler, training in Richmond, Virginia. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Joseph E. Johnston G. W. Smith Strength 41,797 41,816 Casualties 5,031 (790 killed, 3,594 wounded, 647 captured/missing) 6,134 (980 killed, 4,749 wounded, 405 captured/missing) The Battle of Seven Pines... May 31 is the 151st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (152nd in leap years), with 214 days remaining. ... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (153rd in leap years), with 213 days remaining. ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Army of Northern Virginia was the primary military force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War in the eastern theater. ...


Opposing forces

Almost 200,000 men were in the armies that fought in the Seven Days Battles, although the inexperience or caution of the generals involved often prevented the appropriate concentration of forces and mass necessary for decisive tactical victories.


On the Confederate side, Lee's Army of Northern Virginia was larger than the one he inherited from Johnston, and, at about 90,500 men, larger than any army he commanded for the rest of the war.

McClellan's Army of the Potomac, with approximately 105,000 men, was organized largely as it had been at Seven Pines. Thomas Jonathan Stonewall Jackson For other uses of Stonewall Jackson, see Stonewall Jackson (disambiguation). ... Stonewall Jackson The Valley Campaign was Confederate General Thomas J. Stonewall Jacksons brilliant spring 1862 campaign through the Shenandoah Valley, Virginia, during the American Civil War. ... Symbol of the Polish 1st Legions Infantry Division in NATO code A division is a large military unit or formation usually consisting of around ten to twenty thousand soldiers. ... Richard S. Ewell Richard Stoddert Ewell (February 8, 1817 – January 25, 1872) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... William H. C. Whiting William Henry Chase Whiting (March 22, 1824 – March 10, 1865) was an U.S. Army officer who resigned after 16 years of exemplary service in the Army Corps of Engineers to serve in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... General Daniel Harvey Hill Daniel Harvey Hill (July 12th, 1821 - September 24th, 1889) was a Confederate general and Southern scholar. ... Ambrose Powell Hill (November 9, 1825 _ April 2, 1865), was a Confederate States of America general in the American Civil War. ... Charles William Field (April 6, 1828 – April 9, 1892) was a career military officer, serving in the United States Army and then, during the American Civil War, in the Confederate States Army. ... Brigadier General Maxcy Gregg Maxcy Gregg (August 1, 1814 - December 15, 1862) was a lawyer, and Confederate Brigadier General during the American Civil War. ... General Joseph R. Anderson Joseph Reid Anderson (February 16, 1813-September 7, 1892) was born in Botetourt County, Virginia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... James Jay Archer (December 19, 1817 – October 24, 1864) was a lawyer and an officer in the United States Army during the Mexican War and in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... William Dorsey Pender William Dorsey Pender (February 6, 1834 – July 18, 1863) was one of the youngest, and most promising, generals fighting for the Confederacy in the American Civil War. ... James Longstreet (January 8, 1821 – January 2, 1904) was one of the foremost Confederate generals of the American Civil War, the principal subordinate to General Robert E. Lee, who called him his Old War Horse. ... James L. Kemper James Lawson Kemper (June 11, 1823 – April 7, 1895) was a lawyer, a Confederate general in the American Civil War, and a governor of Virginia. ... Richard H. Anderson Richard Heron Anderson ( October 7, 1821 – June 26, 1879) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Portrait of George E. Pickett George Edward Pickett (January 25, 1825 – July 30, 1875) was a major-general in the army of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War. ... Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox (May 20, 1824 – December 2, 1890) was a career U.S. Army officer who served in the Mexican War and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Roger Atkinson Pryor (July 19, 1828 – March 14, 1919) was an American jurist, politician, newspaper editor, and Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... John B. Magruder John Bankhead Magruder (May 1, 1807 – February 19, 1871) was a U.S. Army officer in the Mexican War, and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Lafayette McLaws Lafayette McLaws ( January 15, 1821 – July 24, 1897) was a U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Howell Cobb (September 7, 1815–October 9, 1868) was an American political figure. ... Benjamin Huger Benjamin Huger (November 22, 1805 – December 7, 1877) was a career United States Army ordnance officer and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... William Thomas Mahone (December 1, 1826 – October 8, 1895), of Southampton County, Virginia was a civil engineer, teacher, soldier, railroad executive, and a member of the Virginia General Assembly and U.S. Congress. ... Ambrose Ransom Wright (April 26, 1826 – December 21, 1872) was a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Lewis Addison Armistead (February 18, 1817 - July 5, 1863) was a brigadier general in the Army of the Confederate States of America. ... Theophilus Hunter Holmes (November 13, 1804 – June 21, 1880) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Junius Daniel (June 27, 1828 – May 13, 1864) was a planter and career military officer, serving in the United States Army, then in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... Confederate General John George Walker John George Walker (July 22, 1821 – July 20, 1893[1]) was a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Henry Alexander Wise (December 3, 1806–September 12, 1876) was an American statesman from Virginia. ... James Ewell Brown Stuart (February 6, 1833 – May 12, 1864) was an American soldier from Virginia and a Confederate Army general during the American Civil War. ...

There were five corps in the Union Army designated as II Corps (Second Corps) during the American Civil War. ... Edwin Vose Bull Head Sumner (January 30, 1797 – March 21, 1863) was a U.S. Army officer who became a Major General and the oldest field commander of any Army Corps on either side during the American Civil War. ... Israel B. Richardson (1815 – 1862) was a United States Army officer during the Mexican-American War and Civil War. ... Major General John Sedgwick John Sedgwick (September 13, 1813 – May 9, 1864) was a teacher, a career military officer, and a Union Army general in the American Civil War. ... Daniel Sickles and staff after the Battle of Gettysburg There were four formations in the Union Army designated as III Corps (or Third Corps) during the American Civil War. ... Samuel Peter Heintzelman (September 30, 1805 – May 1, 1880) was a U.S. Army General. ... Joseph Hooker (November 13, 1814 – October 31, 1879), known as Fighting Joe, was a career U.S. Army officer and a major general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... Philip Kearny (June 2, 1815–September 1, 1862) was a United States Army officer, notably in the Mexican and Civil wars. ... There were two corps of the Union Army called IV Corps during the American Civil War. ... Erasmus Darwin Keyes (May 29, 1810 – October 14, 1895) was a businessman, banker and military general, noted for leading the IV Corps of the Union Army of the Potomac during the first half of the American Civil War. ... Darius N. Couch Darius Nash Couch (July 23, 1822 – February 12, 1897) was a United States Army officer, naturalist, and a Union general in the American Civil War. ... John James Peck (1821-1878) was a United States soldier who fought in the Mexican-American War and American Civil War. ... The V Corps (Fifth Corps) was a unit of the Union Army of the Potomac during the American Civil War. ... Fitz John Porter Fitz John Porter (August 31, 1822 – May 21, 1901) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War. ... George Sykes George Sykes (October 9, 1822 – February 8, 1880) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general during the American Civil War. ... George Archibald McCall (March 16, 1802 – February 25, 1868) was a U.S. Army officer who became a brigadier general and prisoner of war during the American Civil War. ... The VI Corps (Sixth Corps) was a corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... Major General William B. Franklin William Buel Franklin (February 27, 1823 – March 8, 1903) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union Army general in the American Civil War. ... Portrait of General Henry W. Slocum by Mathew Brady, ca. ... William F. Baldy Smith William Farrar Smith (February 17, 1824 – February 28, 1903), was a civil engineer, a police commissioner, and Union general in the American Civil War. ... Philip St. ... Silas Casey Silas Casey (July 12, 1807 – January 22, 1882) was a career United States Army officer who rose to the rank of Major General during the American Civil War. ...

Lee's plan

Similar to Johnston's plan at Seven Pines, Lee's attack plan was complex and required expert coordination and execution by all of his subordinates. It was developed at a meeting on June 23. Union forces to his front consisted of about 30,000 men under Porter on the northern side of the Chickahominy River; the remaining 60,000 on the front were scattered to the south. He intended for Jackson to attack Porter's right flank early on the morning of June 26, and A.P. Hill would move from Meadow Bridge to Beaver Dam Creek, which flows into the Chickahominy, advancing on the Federal trenches. (Lee expected, somewhat hopefully, that Porter would evacuate his trenches under pressure, obviating the need for a direct frontal assault.) Following this, Longstreet and D.H. Hill would pass through Mechanicsville and join the battle. Huger and Magruder would provide diversions on their fronts to distract McClellan as to Lee's real intentions. Lee hoped that Porter would be overwhelmed from two sides by the mass of 65,000 men, and Lee's two leading divisions would move on Cold Harbor and cut McClellan's communications with White House Landing. However, the execution of the plan was seriously bungled. June 23 is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 191 days remaining. ... Chickahominy also known as the Chick is a river in the southeastern portion of the U.S. state of Virginia, near which several battles of the United States Civil War were fought in 1862 and 1864. ... June 26 is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 188 days remaining. ... Mechanicsville is an unincorporated place located in Hanover County, Virginia. ...


Battles

Seven Days Battles, June 26June 27, 1862
Battle of Oak Grove (June 25, 1862)
A minor clash that preceded the major battles of the Seven Days. Attempting to move siege guns closer to Richmond and drive back Confederate pickets, Union forces under Hooker attacked through a swamp without affecting the Confederate assault that started the next morning.
Battle of Beaver Dam Creek (June 26)
Beaver Dam Creek, or Mechanicsville, was the first major battle of the Seven Days. Jackson moved slowly without contact, and by 3 p.m. A.P. Hill grew impatient and began his attack without orders. Two hours of heavy fighting between Hill and McCall's division resulted. Porter reinforced McCall with the brigades of Brig. Gens. John H. Martindale and Charles Griffin, and he extended and strengthened his right flank. He fell back and concentrated along Beaver Dam Creek and Ellerson's Mill. Jackson and his command arrived late in the afternoon but, unable to find A.P. Hill or D.H. Hill, did nothing. Although a major battle was raging within earshot, he ordered his troops to bivouac for the evening. A.P. Hill, with Longstreet and D.H. Hill behind him, continued his attack, despite orders from Lee to hold his ground. His assault was beaten back with heavy casualties. Despite being a Union tactical victory, it was the start of a strategic debacle. McClellan, believing that the diversions by Huger and Magruder south of the river meant that he was seriously outnumbered, withdrew to the southeast and never regained the initiative.
Battle of Gaines' Mill (June 27)
Lee continued his offensive, launching the largest Confederate attack of the war. (It occurred in almost the same location as the 1864 Battle of Cold Harbor and had similar numbers of total casualties.) The Union forces were concentrated into a semicircle with Porter collapsing his line into an east-west salient north of the river and the corps south of the river remaining in their original positions. Porter was ordered by McClellan to hold Gaines' Mill at all costs so that the army could change its base of supply to the James River. Several of his subordinates urged him to attack Magruder, but he still feared the vast numbers of Confederates he believed to be before him. A.P. Hill resumed his attack across Beaver Dam Creek early in the morning but found the line lightly defended. By early afternoon, he ran into strong opposition by Porter, deployed along Boatswain's Creek, and the swampy terrain was a major obstacle against the attack. As Longstreet arrived to the south of A.P. Hill, he saw the difficulty of attacking over such terrain and delayed until Jackson could attack on Hill's left. Once again, however, Jackson was late. D.H. Hill attacked the Federal right and was held off by Sykes; he backed off to await Jackson's arrival. Longstreet was ordered to conduct a diversionary attack to stabilize the lines until Jackson could arrive and attack from the north. In that attack, Pickett's brigade was beaten back under severe fire with heavy losses. Jackson finally arrived at 3 p.m. and was completely disoriented following a day of pointless marching and countermarching. Porter's line was saved by Slocum's division moving into position. Shortly after dark, the Confederates mounted another attack, poorly coordinated, but this time collapsing the Federal line. Brig. Gen. John Bell Hood's Texas Brigade opened a gap in the line, as did Pickett's Brigade on its second attempt of the day. Once again, Magruder was able to continue fooling McClellan south of the river and occupying 60,000 Federal troops while the heavier action occurred north of the river. By 4 a.m. on June 28, Porter withdrew across the Chickahominy, burning the bridges behind him.

That night, McClellan ordered his entire army to withdraw to a secure base at Harrison's Landing on the James. His actions have puzzled military historians ever since. He was actually in a strong position, having withstood strong Confederate attacks, while having deployed only one of his five corps in battle. Porter had performed well against heavy odds. Furthermore, McClellan was aware that the War Department had created a new Army of Virginia and ordered it to be sent to the Peninsula to reinforce him. But Lee had unnerved him, and he surrendered the initiative. He sent a telegram to the Secretary of War that included the statement: "If I save this Army now I tell you plainly that I owe no thanks to you or any other persons in Washington—you have done your best to sacrifice this Army." (The military telegraph department chose to omit this sentence from the copy given to the Secretary.) McClellan ordered Keyes's IV Corps to move west of Glendale and protect the army's withdrawal, and Porter was to move to the high ground at Malvern Hill to develop defensive positions. The supply trains were ordered to move south toward the river. McClellan departed for Harrison's Landing without specifying any exact routes of withdrawal and without designating a second-in-command. For the remainder of the Seven Days, he had no direct command of the battles. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1535x2092, 602 KB)Map of the Seven Days Battles of the American Civil War, actions on June 26-27, 1862. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1535x2092, 602 KB)Map of the Seven Days Battles of the American Civil War, actions on June 26-27, 1862. ... June 26 is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 188 days remaining. ... June 27 is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 187 days remaining. ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Robert E. Lee Strength Corps Corps Casualties 516 541 The Battle of Oak Grove, also known as the Battle of French’s Field or King’s School House, took place on June 25, 1862 in Henrico County... June 25 is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 189 days remaining. ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Battle of Beaver Dam Creek Conflict American Civil War Date June 26, 1862 Place Hanover County, Virginia Result Union victory The Battle of Beaver Dam Creek, also known as the Battle of Mechanicsville or Ellerson’s Mill, took place on June 26, 1862 in Hanover County, Virginia as part... June 26 is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 188 days remaining. ... Charles Griffin (December 18, 1825–September 15, 1867) was a Union general in the American Civil War. ... Battle of Gaines Mill Conflict American Civil War Date June 27, 1862 Place Hanover County, Virginia Result Confederate victory The Battle of Gaines Mill, also known as the First Battle of Cold Harbor or the Battle of Chickahominy River, took place on June 27, 1862, in Hanover County, Virginia, as... June 27 is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 187 days remaining. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 108,000 62,000 Casualties 13,000 2,500 The Battle of Cold Harbor, the final battle of Union Lt. ... The James River at Cartersville The James River in the U.S. state of Virginia is 547. ... John Bell Hood John Bell Hood (June 1, 1831 – August 30, 1879) was a Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... The Texas Brigade was a Confederate brigade that distinguished itself for its fierce temerity and fighting capability during the American Civil War. ... June 28 is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 186 days remaining. ... The Army of Virginia was organized as a major unit of the Union Army and operated briefly and unsuccessfully in 1862 in the American Civil War. ...

Battle of Garnett's & Golding's Farm (June 27June 28)
A minor Confederate demonstration and attack south of the river, a continuation of the action at Gaines' Mill. As an outgrowth of Magruder's demonstrations, the brigades of Col. George T. Anderson and Brig. Gen. Robert Toombs engaged in some heavy fighting against the brigade of Brig. Gen. Winfield S. Hancock. The attacks were easily repulsed but served to further unnerve McClellan. Toombs resumed the attack the following morning, and although achieving more success than on June 27, his men withdrew under heavy artillery fire from Garnett's farm.
Seven Days Battles, June 30, 1862
Seven Days Battles, July 1, 1862
Seven Days Battles, July 1, 1862
Battle of Savage's Station (June 29)
As the Union corps operated without direction from McClellan's headquarters, they approached positions near Savage's Station on the Richmond & York River Railroad, preparing for the difficult march through and around the White Oak Swamp. Magruder ran into the rearguard of the Union force at the station. He was slow in organizing an attack but was able to do so against Sumner's corps and Baldy Smith's division by midafternoon. He was expecting to be assisted by Jackson at any moment, but for the third time in the campaign, Jackson failed to arrive. He had spent the day of June 29 resting his men and rebuilding a bridge over the Chickahominy, even though a suitable ford was available nearby. Magruder's assaults were repulsed, and the Union corps were able to escape, principally because of Jackson's procrastination. By noon on June 30, all of the Army of the Potomac had cleared White Oak Swamp Creek, but because of the uncoordinated withdrawal, a bottleneck developed at Glendale.
Battle of White Oak Swamp (June 30)
The Union rearguard under Franklin stopped Jackson's divisions at the White Oak Bridge crossing, resulting in an artillery duel, while the main battle raged two miles (3 km) farther south at Glendale. White Oak Swamp is often considered to be part of the Glendale engagement.
Battle of Glendale (June 30)
Lee ordered his army to converge on the bottlenecked Union forces in the White Oak Swamp, near Frayser's Farm, which is another name for the battle. Once again, Lee's plan was poorly executed. Huger was slowed by obstructions along the Charles City Road and failed to participate in the battle. Magruder marched around indecisively. Jackson again moved slowly and spent the entire day north of the creek, making only feeble efforts to cross and attack Franklin. (Lee, Longstreet, and visiting Confederate President Jefferson Davis were observing the action on horseback when they came under heavy artillery fire, and the party withdrew with two men wounded and three horses killed.) Because of the setbacks, only A.P. Hill and Longstreet were able to attack in the battle. Longstreet performed poorly, sending in brigades in a piecemeal fashion, rather than striking with concentrated force in the manner for which he was known later in the war. They struck George McCall's division and forced it back, but the penetration was soon sealed off by Union reinforcements. Generals McCall and John F. Reynolds were both captured during the battle; Meade, Sumner, Anderson, Featherston, and Pender were wounded. Lee would have only one more opportunity to intercept McClellan's army before it reached the safety of the river.
Battle of Malvern Hill (July 1)
The final battle of the Seven Days was the first in which the Union Army occupied favorable ground. Malvern Hill offered good observation and artillery positions. The open fields to the north could be swept by fire from the 250 guns placed by Col. Henry J. Hunt, McClellan's chief of artillery.
It wasn't war; it was murder.
—Major General D.H. Hill

Beyond this space, the terrain was swampy and thickly wooded. Rather than flanking the position, Lee attacked it directly, hoping that his artillery would clear the way for a successful infantry assault (just as he miscalculated the following year in Pickett's Charge at Gettysburg). The Union artillery was superior in position and expertise, and their counterbattery fire disabled numerous Confederate guns. Lee canceled his attack, but late in the afternoon he observed Union troop movements and, assuming that they were part of a withdrawal, ordered another attack. It was a poorly managed, piecemeal affair with separate attacks by D.H. Hill, Jackson, and finally Huger. A.P. Hill and Longstreet were not deployed. Porter, the senior man on the hill during McClellan's absence, repulsed the attacks with ease. Lee's army suffered over 5,000 casualties (versus 3,200 Union) in this wasted effort and withdrew to Richmond, while the Union Army completed its retreat to Harrison's Landing. Battle of Garnetts & Goldings Farm Conflict American Civil War Date June 27-28, 1862 Place Henrico County, Virginia Result Inconclusive The Battle of Garnetts & Goldings Farms took place from June 27-28, 1862 in Henrico County, Virginia as part of the Peninsula Campaign of the American... June 27 is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 187 days remaining. ... June 28 is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 186 days remaining. ... George Thomas Anderson (February 3, 1824 – April 4, 1901) was a general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... Postbellum photograph of Robert A. Toombs. ... Portrait of Winfield S. Hancock during the Civil War Winfield Scott Hancock (February 14, 1824 - February 9, 1886) was born in Montgomery Square, Pennsylvania and named after the famous general Winfield Scott. ... June 27 is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 187 days remaining. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1534x2096, 578 KB)Map of the Seven Days Battles of the American Civil War, actions on June 30, 1862. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1534x2096, 578 KB)Map of the Seven Days Battles of the American Civil War, actions on June 30, 1862. ... June 30 is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 184 days remaining. ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1539x2089, 555 KB)Map of the Seven Days Battles of the American Civil War, actions on July 1, 1862. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1539x2089, 555 KB)Map of the Seven Days Battles of the American Civil War, actions on July 1, 1862. ... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Battle of Savages Station Conflict American Civil War Date June 29, 1862 Place Henrico County, Virginia Result Inconclusive The Battle of Savage’s Station took place on June 29, 1862 in Henrico County, Virginia as part of the Peninsula Campaign of the American Civil War. ... June 29 is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 185 days remaining. ... June 29 is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 185 days remaining. ... June 30 is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 184 days remaining. ... Battle of White Oak Swamp Conflict American Civil War Date June 30, 1862 Place Henrico County, Virginia Result Inconclusive The Battle of White Oak Swamp took place on June 30, 1862 in Henrico County, Virginia as part of the Peninsula Campaign of the American Civil War. ... June 30 is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 184 days remaining. ... Battle of Glendale Conflict American Civil War Date June 30, 1862 Place Henrico County, Virginia Result Inconclusive (Union withdrawal continued. ... June 30 is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 184 days remaining. ... The President of the Confederate States was the Head of State of the short-lived republic of the Confederate States of America, which seceded from the United States. ... Jefferson Davis (June 3, 1808 – December 6, 1889) was an American statesman and politician who served as President of the Confederate States of America for its entire history from 1861 to 1865 during the American Civil War. ... John Fulton Reynolds (September 20, 1820 – July 1, 1863) was a career U.S. Army officer and a general in the American Civil War. ... Battle of Malvern Hill Conflict American Civil War Date July 1, 1862 Place Henrico County, Virginia Result Union victory The Battle of Malvern Hill, also known as the Battle of Poindexter’s Farm, took place on July 1, 1862 in Henrico County, Virginia as part of the Peninsula Campaign... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... Note: This article is about Gen. ... General Daniel Harvey Hill Daniel Harvey Hill (July 12th, 1821 - September 24th, 1889) was a Confederate general and Southern scholar. ... Map of Picketts Charge, July 3, 1863. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America Commanders George Gordon Meade Robert Edward Lee Strength 93,921 71,699 Casualties 23,055 (3,155 killed, 14,531 wounded, 5,369 captured/missing) 23,231 (4,708 killed, 12,693 wounded, 5,830 captured/missing) The Battle of...

Aftermath

The Seven Days Battles ended the Peninsula Campaign. The Army of the Potomac encamped around Berkeley Plantation, birthplace of William Henry Harrison. With its back to the James River, the army was protected by Union gunboats, but suffered heavily from heat, humidity, and disease. In August, they were withdrawn by order of President Abraham Lincoln to reinforce the Army of Virginia in the Northern Virginia Campaign and the Second Battle of Bull Run. William Henry Harrison (February 9, 1773 – April 4, 1841) was an American military leader, politician, and the ninth President of the United States. ... The presidential seal was first used in 1880 by President Rutherford B. Hayes and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. ... Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809—April 15, 1865) was the 16th President of the United States (March 4, 1861 – April 15, 1865). ... Union soldiers at the Orange & Alexandria Railroad The Northern Virginia Campaign, also known as the Second Bull Run Campaign or Second Manassas Campaign, was a series of battles fought in Virginia during August and September, 1862, in the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders John Pope Robert E. Lee James Longstreet Stonewall Jackson Strength 63,000 54,000 Casualties 1,747 killed 8,452 wounded 4,263 captured/missing 1,553 killed 7,812 wounded 109 captured/missing The Second Battle of Bull Run...


The casualties to both sides were dreadful. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia suffered about 20,000 casualties (3,286 killed, 15,909 wounded, and 946 captured or missing) out of a total of over 90,000 soldiers during the Seven Days. McClellan reported casualties of about 16,000 (1,734 killed, 8,062 wounded, and 6,053 captured or missing) out of a total of 105,445. Despite their victory, many Confederates were stunned by the losses.


The effects of the Seven Days Battles were widespread. After a successful start on the Peninsula that foretold an early end to the war, Northern morale was crushed by McClellan's retreat. Despite heavy casualties and clumsy tactical performances by Lee and his generals, Confederate morale skyrocketed, and Lee was emboldened to continue his aggressive strategy through Second Bull Run and the Maryland Campaign. McClellan's previous position as general-in-chief of all the Union armies, vacant since March, was filled on July 11, 1862, by Maj. Gen. Henry W. Halleck, although McClellan did retain command of the Army of the Potomac. Lee reacted to the performances of his subordinates by a reorganization of his army and by forcing the reassignment of Holmes and Magruder out of Virginia. Confederate dead at Antietam The Maryland Campaign, or the Antietam Campaign, of September 1862 is widely considered one of the major turning points of the American Civil War. ... July 11 is the 192nd day (193rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 173 days remaining. ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Henry Wager Halleck (1815 - 1872) was an American soldier and politician. ...


References

  • Bailey, Ronald H. and the Editors of Time-Life Books, Forward to Richmond: McClellan's Peninsular Campaign, Time-Life Books, 1983, ISBN 0-8094-4720-7.
  • Eicher, David J., The Longest Night: A Military History of the Civil War, Simon & Schuster, 2001, ISBN 0-684-84944-5.
  • Esposito, Vincent J., West Point Atlas of American Wars, Frederick A. Praeger, 1959.
  • Sears, Stephen W., To the Gates of Richmond: The Peninsula Campaign, Ticknor and Fields, 1992, ISBN 0-89919-790-6.
  • National Park Service battle descriptions

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Seven Days Battles - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2688 words)
The Seven Days Battles was a series of six major battles over the seven days from June 25 to July 1, 1862, near Richmond, Virginia, in the American Civil War.
The series of battles is sometimes known erroneously as the Seven Days Campaign, but it was actually the culmination of the Peninsula Campaign, not a separate campaign in its own right.
Almost 200,000 men were in the armies that fought in the Seven Days Battles, although the inexperience or caution of the generals involved often prevented the appropriate concentration of forces and mass necessary for decisive tactical victories.
Four Days Battle - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2310 words)
The Four Days Battle was a naval battle of the Second Anglo-Dutch War.
On the first day Monck, sailing in the van with George Ayscue's white squadron behind him and Thomas Allin's blue squadron forming the rear, surprised the Dutch fleet at anchor near Dunkirk.
On the morning of the second day Monck decided to destroy the Dutch by a direct attack and sailed to them from the southwest; but De Ruyter crossed his line sailing to the southeast, heavily damaging the British fleet and gaining the weather gauge.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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