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Encyclopedia > Seven Against Thebes
Seven Against Thebes

The Oath of the Seven Chiefs by Alfred Church Image File history File links The_Oath_Of_The_Seven_Chiefs_-_Project_Gutenberg_eText_14994. ...

Written by Aeschylus
Chorus Theban Women
Characters Eteocles
Spy
Antigone
Ismene
Herald
Setting Citadel of Thebes
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Επτά επί Θήβας

The Seven Against Thebes is a mythic narrative that finds its classic statement in the play by Aeschylus (467 BCE) concerning the battle between the Seven led by Polynices and the army of Thebes headed by Eteocles and his supporters, traditional Theban enemies. This same story is told in Euripides' Phoenician Women (ca 409 BCE). Bust of Aeschylus from the Capitoline Museums, Rome Aeschylus (525 BC—456 BC; Greek: Ασχύλος) was a playwright of Ancient Greece. ... Two important places in antiquity were called Thebes: Thebes, Greece – Thebes of the Seven Gates; one-time capital of Boeotia. ... Eteocles and Polynices being carried away, dead, after the Battle of Thebes, in an 1897 illustration from Stories from the Greek Tragedians by Alfred Church In Greek mythology, Eteocles was the son of Oedipus and Jocasta, the father of Laodamas. ... Antigone by Frederic Leighton Antigone (Eng. ... In Greek mythology, Ismene was a daughter of Oedipus and Jocasta and sister to Antigone. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Bust of Aeschylus from the Capitoline Museums, Rome Aeschylus (525 BC—456 BC; Greek: Ασχύλος) was a playwright of Ancient Greece. ... In Greek mythology, Polynices was the son of Oedipus and Jocasta. ... Thebes (in Demotic Greek: Θήβα — Thíva, Katharevousa: — Thēbai or Thíve) is a city in Greece, situated to the north of the Cithaeron range, which divides Boeotia from Attica, and on the southern edge of the Boeotian plain. ... Eteocles and Polynices being carried away, dead, after the Battle of Thebes, in an 1897 illustration from Stories from the Greek Tragedians by Alfred Church In Greek mythology, Eteocles was the son of Oedipus and Jocasta, the father of Laodamas. ... A statue of Euripides Euripides (Greek: Ευριπίδης) (c. ... The Phoenician Women (Also known by the Greek title, Phoenissae) is a tragedy by Euripides based on the same story as Aeschylus play Seven Against Thebes. ...


An early telling was contained in the lost Greek Thebaid, an early epic poem that was regarded as forming part of a Theban Cycle, which discerning critics by the fifth century no longer attributed to Homer. Fragments of its text survive as quotes. The Thebaid is an Ancient Greek epic poem of uncertain authorship (see Cyclic poets) sometimes attributed by early writers to Homer. ... In mathematics, see epic morphism. ... The Theban Cycle is a collection of four lost epics of ancient Greek literature which related the mythical history of the Boiotian city of Thebes. ... Homer (Greek: , Hómēros) was a legendary early Greek poet and aoidos (singer) traditionally credited with the composition of the Iliad and the Odyssey. ...

Contents

Plot summary

When Oedipus stepped down as King of Thebes, he gave the kingdom to his two sons, Eteocles and Polynices, who agreed to alternate the throne every year.[1] After the first year, Eteocles refused to step down and Polynices attacked Thebes with his supporters (the eponymous seven against Thebes). Both brothers killed each other in single combat. Their maternal uncle, King Creon, who ascended to the throne of Thebes, decreed that Polynices, "who came back from exile, and sought to consume utterly with fire the city of his fathers," is not to be buried: "touching this man, it hath been proclaimed to our people that none shall grace him with sepulture or lament, but leave him unburied, a corpse for birds and dogs to eat, a ghastly sight of shame." Oedipus with the Sphinx, from an Attic red-figure cylix from the Vatican Museum, ca. ... Eteocles and Polynices being carried away, dead, after the Battle of Thebes, in an 1897 illustration from Stories from the Greek Tragedians by Alfred Church In Greek mythology, Eteocles was the son of Oedipus and Jocasta, the father of Laodamas. ... In Greek mythology, Polynices was the son of Oedipus and Jocasta. ... In Greek mythology, Creon, or Kreeon (ruler), son of Menoeceus, was a king of the city of Thebes and the father of Haemon and Megara by his wife, Eurydice. ...


Due to the popularity of Sophocles's Antigone, the ending of Seven Against Thebes was rewritten about fifty years after Aeschylus's death.[2] Where the play (and the trilogy of which it is the last volume) was meant to end with somber mourning for the dead brothers, it instead contains the ending as follows:


Antigone, their sister, defied the order, (explaining that "I owe a longer allegiance to the dead than to the living: in that world I shall abide for ever") but was caught. Creon decreed that she was to be buried alive, even though she was betrothed to his son, Haemon. He declares "'Tis Death that shall stay these bridals for me." The gods, through the blind prophet Tiresias, expressed their disapproval of Creon's decision ("one begotten of thine own loins shall have been given by thee, a corpse for corpses; because thou hast thrust children of the sunlight to the shades, and ruthlessly lodged a living soul in the grave"), which convinced him to rescind his order, and he went to bury Polynices. However, Antigone had already hanged herself rather than be buried alive. When Creon arrived at the tomb where she was to be interred, his son, Haemon, attacked him and then killed himself. When Creon's wife, Eurydice, was informed of their death she, too, took her own life. Antigone by Frederic Leighton Antigone (Eng. ... In Greek mythology, Haemon (bloody) (or Haimon) was the son of Creon and Eurydice. ... In Greek mythology, Tiresias (also transliterated as Teiresias) was a blind prophet famous for changing his sex, the son of the shepherd Everes and the nymph Chariclo. ... In Greek mythology, there were two characters named Eurydice (Eurydíkê). // Wife of Orpheus The more famous was a woman—or a nymph—who was the wife of Orpheus. ...


Also during this battle, Capaneus was killed by a lightning bolt from Zeus as punishment for his arrogance. His wife, Evadne, threw herself on his funeral pyre. Also, Megareus killed himself because Tiresias prophesied that the voluntary death of a Theban would save Thebes. In Greek mythology, Capaneus was a son of Hipponous and husband of Evadne, with whom he fathered Sthenelus. ... The Statue of Zeus at Olympia Phidias created the 12-m (40-ft) tall statue of Zeus at Olympia about 435 BC. The statue was perhaps the most famous sculpture in Ancient Greece, imagined here in a 16th century engraving Zeus (in Greek: nominative: Zeús, genitive: Díos), is... In Greek mythology, there were two people named Evadne. ... In Greek mythology, Megareus referred to two different people King of Megara With the aid of Apollo, Alcathous rebuilt the walls of Megara, for which Megareus, gave him his daughter, Periboea, as a wife. ... In Greek mythology, Tiresias (also transliterated as Teiresias) was a blind prophet famous for changing his sex, the son of the shepherd Everes and the nymph Chariclo. ...


The mythic content

The mytheme of the "outlandish" and "savage" Seven who threatened the city has traditionally seemed to be based on Bronze Age history in the generation before the Trojan War[3], when in the Iliad's Catalogue of Ships only the remnant Hypothebai subsists on the ruins. Yet archaeologists have been hard put to locate seven gates in "seven-gated Thebes":[4]In 1891 Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff declared that the seven gates existed only for symmetry with the seven assailants, whose very names vary: some have their own identity, like Amphiaraus the seer, "who had his sanctuary and his cult afterwards... Others appear as stock figures to fill out the list," Burkert remarks. "To call one of them Eteoklos, vis-à-vis Eteoklos the brother of Polyneikes, appears to be the almost desperate invention of a faltering poet"[5] Burkert follows a suggestion made by Ernest Howald in 1939 that the Seven are pure myth led by Adrastos (the "inescapable") on his magic horse, seven demons of the Underworld; Burkert draws parallels in an Akkadian epic text, the story of Erra the plague god, and the Seven (Sibitti), called upon to destroy mankind, but who withdraw from Babylon at the last. The city is saved when the brothers simulateneously run each other through. Burkert adduces a ninth-century relief from Tell Halaf which would exactly illustrate a text from II Samuel 7: "But each siezed his opponent by the forelock and thrust his sword into his side so that all fell together". In the study of mythology, a mytheme is an irreducible nugget of myth, an unchanging element, similar to a cultural meme, one that is always found shared with other, related mythemes and reassembled in various ways—bundled was Claude Lévi-Strausss image— or linked in more complicated relationships... The fall of Troy by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769) From the collections of the granddukes of Baden, Karlsruhe The Trojan War was waged, according to legend, against the city of Troy in Asia Minor, by the armies of the Achaeans (Mycenaean Greeks), after Paris of Troy stole Helen from... It has been suggested that Deception of Zeus be merged into this article or section. ... Map of Homeric Greece The famous Catalogue of Ships (νεων κατολογος) is recorded as a part of Book II (verses 494–760, PP Il. ... Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff (22 December 1848 - 25 September 1931) was a German classical philologist. ... In Greek mythology, Amphiaraus, or Amphiaraos (doubly-cursed) was the son of Oicles and husband of Eriphyle. ... Eteocles and Polynices being carried away, dead, after the Battle of Thebes, in an 1897 illustration from Stories from the Greek Tragedians by Alfred Church In Greek mythology, Eteocles was the son of Oedipus and Jocasta, the father of Laodamas. ... In Greek mythology, the underworld indicates the kingdom of deaths. ... Erra is a planet alleged by Billy Meier to orbit the star Taygeta in the Pleiades. ... Hunting scene relief in basalt found at Tell Halaf, dated 850-830 BCE Tell Halaf is an archaeological site in the Al Hasakah governorate of northeastern Syria, near the Turkish border. ...

Eteocles and Polynices being carried away, dead, after the Battle of Thebes, by Alfred Church
Eteocles and Polynices being carried away, dead, after the Battle of Thebes, by Alfred Church

The Seven Against Thebes were Eteocles and Polynices being carried away, dead, after the Battle of Thebes- Project Gutenberg eText 14994 - http://www. ... Eteocles and Polynices being carried away, dead, after the Battle of Thebes- Project Gutenberg eText 14994 - http://www. ... Eteocles and Polynices being carried away, dead, after the Battle of Thebes, in an 1897 illustration from Stories from the Greek Tragedians by Alfred Church In Greek mythology, Eteocles was the son of Oedipus and Jocasta, the father of Laodamas. ... In Greek mythology, Polynices was the son of Oedipus and Jocasta. ...

  1. Adrastus
  2. Amphiaraus
  3. Capaneus
  4. Hippomedon
  5. Parthenopeus
  6. Polynices
  7. Tydeus

Allies: In Greek mythology, Adrastus, or Adrastos (he who stands his ground, son of Talaus) was one of the three kings at Argos, along with Iphis and Amphiaraus, who was married to Adrastus sister Eriphyle. ... In Greek mythology, Amphiaraus, or Amphiaraos (doubly-cursed) was the son of Oicles and husband of Eriphyle. ... In Greek mythology, Capaneus was a son of Hipponous and husband of Evadne, with whom he fathered Sthenelus. ... In Greek mythology, Hippomedon was one of the Seven Against Thebes and father of Polydorus. ... In Greek mythology, Parthenopeus (son of a pierced maidenhead, also Parthenopaeus) was one of the Seven Against Thebes and the son of Atalanta and Hippomenes (or Ares or Meleager). ... In Greek mythology, Polynices was the son of Oedipus and Jocasta. ... In Greek mythology, Tydeus was the father of Diomedes and husband of Deipyle. ...

  1. Eteoclus and Mecisteus. Some sources, however, state that Eteoclus and Mecisteus were in fact two of the seven, and that Tydeus and Polynices were allies. This is due to the fact that both Tydeus and Polynices were foreigners. However, Polyneices was the cause of the entire conflict, and Tydeus performed acts of valour far surpassing Eteoclus and Mecisteus. Either way, all nine men were present (and killed) in the battle, save Adrastus.

The defenders of Thebes included In Greek mythology, Eteoclus was the son of Iphis. ... In Greek mythology, Mecisteus was the son of Talaus and and Lysimache. ...

  1. Creon
  2. Megareus
  3. Poriclymenus
  4. Melanippus
  5. Polyphontes
  6. Hyperbius
  7. Actor
  8. Lasthenes

See also Epigoni, the mythic theme of the Second War of Thebes In Greek mythology, Creon, or Kreeon (ruler), son of Menoeceus, was a king of the city of Thebes and the father of Haemon and Megara by his wife, Eurydice. ... In Greek mythology, Megareus referred to two different people King of Megara With the aid of Apollo, Alcathous rebuilt the walls of Megara, for which Megareus, gave him his daughter, Periboea, as a wife. ... In Greek mythology, Poriclymenus (or Periclymenus) referred to two different people. ... In Greek mythology, there were three people named Melanippus: Son of Agrius, killed by Heracles Son of Perigune and Theseus Son of Astacus, defended Thebes in the Seven Against Thebes. ... In Greek mythology, Polyphontes was the son of Autophonus. ... In Greek mythology, Actor was a son of King Deion, of Phocis and Diomede, the daughter of Xuthus. ... This is an article about the Greek myth. ...


Notes

  1. ^ The alternation of "co-kings" survived into historic times at culturally conservative Sparta.
  2. ^ Aeschylus. "Prometheus Bound, The Suppliants, Seven Against Thebes, The Persians." Philip Vellacott's Introduction, pp.7-19. Penguin Classics.
  3. ^ "There is no reason to suppose that the tale was not based on historical fact" Cambridge Ancient History II (1978:168), noted by Burkert 1992:107n.
  4. ^ Burkert 1993:107-08 briefly surveys the attempts, with bibliography.
  5. ^ Burkert 1993:108.

Coordinates 37°4′ N 22°26′ E Country Greece Periphery Peloponnese Prefecture Laconia Population 18,184 source (2001) Area 84. ...

References

  • Burkert, Walter 1992. The Orientalizing Revolution: Near Eastern Influence on Greek Culture in the Early Archaic Age "Seven against Thebes" pp 106-14. Burkert draws parallels between Greek and Ancient Near Eastern materials. Notes and bibliography.

Walter Burkert (born Neuendettelsau (Bavaria), February 2, 1931), the most eminent living scholar of Greek myth and cult, is an emeritus professor of classics at the University of Zurich, Switzerland who has also taught in the United Kingdom and the United States. ...

Translations

  • A. S. Way, 1906 - verse
  • E. D. A. Morshead, 1908 - verse: on-line text
  • G. M. Cookson, 1922 - verse
  • Herbert Weir Smyth, 1922 - prose: full text
  • David Grene, 1956 - verse
  • Philip Vellacott, 1961 - verse
Plays by Aeschylus

  Results from FactBites:
 
Seven Against Thebes - MSN Encarta (195 words)
Seven Against Thebes, in Greek mythology, ill-fated expedition against the city of Thebes undertaken by seven chieftains and their followers under the leadership of Adrastus, king of Árgos, and Polynices, the son of Oedipus, the former king of Thebes.
The seven gates of Thebes were defended by seven Theban champions.
Ten years after the disaster, the sons of the seven warriors, the Epigoni, successfully marched against the city to avenge the deaths of the heroes.
SEVEN AGAINST THEBES, Greek Mythology Link - www.maicar.com (2676 words)
And while Eteocles 1 sat in his precarious throne at Thebes, and was suspected of being a man who breaks his promises because of his power ambitions, his brother Polynices, who succeeded in raising an army to defend his own rights, was now suspected of wishing to cause his own native land's destruction.
Capaneus, counted as the assailant of the Electran (Ogygian) Gate at Thebes, was son of Hipponous 1 and Astynome 1, daughter of King Talaus of Argos.
The celebrated Tydeus 2 from Calydon was sent by the SEVEN to tell Eteocles 1 that he must cede the kingdom to Polynices, as they had agreed among themselves, and during his embassy, defending himself from an ambush, killed fifty men in single combat.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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