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Encyclopedia > Seti I
Seti I
Preceded by:
Ramesses I
Pharaoh of Egypt
19th Dynasty
Succeeded by:
Ramesses II
Image of Seti I from a column fragment
Image of Seti I from a column fragment
Reign 1290 BC to 1279 BC
Praenomen

Menmaatre
Eternal is the Strength of Re[1]
Nomen



Seti Merenptah
He of the god Seth, beloved of Ptah[2]
Horus
name
Kanakht Khaemwaset-Seankhtawy
Nebty
name
Wehemmesut Sekhemkhepesh
Derpedjetpesdjet
Golden
Horus
Wehemkhau Weserpedjutemtawnebu[3]
Consort(s) Queen Tuya
Issue Tia, Amennefernebes, Ramesses II,
Henutmire (?)
Father Ramesses I
Mother Sitre
Died 1279 BC
Burial KV17
Major
Monuments
Mortuary Temple of Seti I, Temple at Abydos,
Great Hypostyle Hall

Menmaatre Seti I (sometimes called Sethi I) was a Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt (Nineteenth dynasty of Egypt), the son of Ramesses I and Queen Sitre, and the father of Ramesses II. As with all dates in Ancient Egypt, the actual dates of his reign are unclear, and various historians claim different dates, with 1294 BC1279 BC[4] and 1290 BC to 1279 BC[5] being the most commonly used by scholars today. These 2 dates are dependent on the chronological system used by a particular Egyptologist. The ancient Egyptians counted time from a king's accession day as Year One of a Pharaoh's reign. When a Pharaoh died or fell from power, the following day immediately became Year number 1 of his successor's reign. To identify Seti I's Year 1 with a specific BC year, a chronologist must not only take into account the existing evidence from various sources, but which set of interpretations that he/she finds valid, so different chronologists and historians can have different views on the subject. Menpehtyre Eternal is the Strength of Re[2] Nomen Ra-messes Re has fashioned him[1] Consort(s) Queen Sitre Issue Seti I Died 1290 BC Burial KV16 Menpehtyre Ramesses I (traditional English: Ramesses or Rameses ) was the founding Pharaoh of Ancient Egypts 19th dynasty. ... Pharaoh was the ancient Egyptian name for the office of kingship. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Nineteenth Dynasty. ... Usermaatre-setepenre The Justice of Re is Powerful, Chosen of Re Nomen Ramesses (meryamun) Born of Re, (Beloved of Amun) Horus name [2] Kanakht Merymaa Golden Horus [2] Userrenput-aanehktu[1] Consort(s) Henutmire, Isetnofret, Nefertari Maathorneferure Issue Bintanath, Khaemweset, Merneptah, Amun-her-khepsef, Meritamen see also: List of children... Image File history File links Seti1-ColumnFragment-CloseUp. ... Image File history File links Seti1-ColumnFragment-CloseUp. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... (Redirected from 1290 BC) Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1340s BC 1330s BC 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC - 1290s BC - 1280s BC 1270s BC 1260s BC 1250s BC 1240s BC Events and Trends December 15 1290 BC - Seti I, Pharaoh of Egypt dies. ... (Redirected from 1279 BC) Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC 1290s BC 1280s BC - 1270s BC - 1260s BC 1250s BC 1240s BC 1230s BC 1220s BC Events and Trends Significant People Categories: 1270s BC ... The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian Pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. ... The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian Pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. ... In Egyptian mythology, Set (also spelled Sutekh, Setesh, Seteh, Seth) is an ancient god, who was originally the god of the desert, one of the two main biomes that constitutes Egypt, the other being the small fertile area on either side of the Nile. ... Ptah In Egyptian mythology, Ptah (also spelt Peteh) was the deification of the primordial mound in the Ennead cosmogony, which was more literally referred to as Ta-tenen (also spelt Tathenen), meaning risen land, or as Tanen, meaning submerged land. ... The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian Pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. ... The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian Pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. ... The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian Pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. ... Queen Tuya was the wife of Seti I of Egypt and mother of Ramesses II. References Grajetkzi, Wolfram (2005) Ancient Egyptian Queens – a hieroglyphic dictionary Categories: | | | ... Tia was an Ancient Egyptian princess during the 19th dynasty; the daughter of Pharaoh Seti I and Queen Tuya and the elder sister of Ramesses II. She is attested only on monuments dating tp Ramesses reign. ... Amennefernebes was the eldest son of Seti I and wife Queen Tuya and the elder brother of Ramesses II. He appaers to have died early in his youth. ... Usermaatre-setepenre The Justice of Re is Powerful, Chosen of Re Nomen Ramesses (meryamun) Born of Re, (Beloved of Amun) Horus name [2] Kanakht Merymaa Golden Horus [2] Userrenput-aanehktu[1] Consort(s) Henutmire, Isetnofret, Nefertari Maathorneferure Issue Bintanath, Khaemweset, Merneptah, Amun-her-khepsef, Meritamen see also: List of children... Henutmire was an Ancient Egyptian princess and queen, one of the eight Great Royal Wives of Pharaoh Ramesses II. She is possibly the third and youngest child of Seti I and Queen Tuya, and the younger sister of Ramesses II and Princess Tia. ... Menpehtyre Eternal is the Strength of Re[2] Nomen Ra-messes Re has fashioned him[1] Consort(s) Queen Sitre Issue Seti I Died 1290 BC Burial KV16 Menpehtyre Ramesses I (traditional English: Ramesses or Rameses ) was the founding Pharaoh of Ancient Egypts 19th dynasty. ... Queen Sitre (Daughter of Re) was the Great Royal Wife of Pharaoh Ramesses I of Egypt and mother of Seti I.[1] She was buried in a tomb in the Valley of the Queens (QV38). ... Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC 1290s BC 1280s BC - 1270s BC - 1260s BC 1250s BC 1240s BC 1230s BC 1220s BC Events and Trends Significant People Categories: 1270s BC ... Tomb KV17, located in Egypts Valley of the Kings and also known by the names Belzonis tomb, the Tomb of Apis, and the Tomb of Psammis, son of Nechois, is the tomb of Pharaoh Seti I of the Nineteenth Dynasty. ... View of remaining buildings in the Mortuary Temple of Seti I The Mortuary Temple of Seti I is the memorial temple (or mortuary temple) of Pharaoh Seti I.[1] It is located in the Theban necropolis in Upper Egypt, across the River Nile from the modern city of Luxor, near... Abydos (Arabic: أبيدوس, Greek Αβυδος), one of the most ancient cities of Upper Egypt, is about 11 km (6 miles) west of the Nile at latitude 26° 10 N. The Egyptian name was Abdju (technically, 3bdw, hieroglyphs shown to the right), the hill of the symbol or reliquary, in which the sacred... Entrance to the Hypostyle Hall The Great Hypostyle Hall of Karnak, located within the Karnak temple complex, in the Precinct of Amon-Re, is one of the most visited monuments of Ancient Egypt. ... Pharaoh was the ancient Egyptian name for the office of kingship. ... Khafres Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Nineteenth Dynasty. ... Menpehtyre Eternal is the Strength of Re[2] Nomen Ra-messes Re has fashioned him[1] Consort(s) Queen Sitre Issue Seti I Died 1290 BC Burial KV16 Menpehtyre Ramesses I (traditional English: Ramesses or Rameses ) was the founding Pharaoh of Ancient Egypts 19th dynasty. ... Queen Sitre was the wife of Ramses I of Egypt and mother of Seti I. Categories: People stubs ... Usermaatre-setepenre The Justice of Re is Powerful, Chosen of Re Nomen Ramesses (meryamun) Born of Re, (Beloved of Amun) Horus name [2] Kanakht Merymaa Golden Horus [2] Userrenput-aanehktu[1] Consort(s) Henutmire, Isetnofret, Nefertari Maathorneferure Issue Bintanath, Khaemweset, Merneptah, Amun-her-khepsef, Meritamen see also: List of children... Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1340s BC 1330s BC 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC - 1290s BC - 1280s BC 1270s BC 1260s BC 1250s BC 1240s BC Events and Trends December 15 1290 BC - Seti I, Pharaoh of Egypt dies. ... Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC 1290s BC 1280s BC - 1270s BC - 1260s BC 1250s BC 1240s BC 1230s BC 1220s BC Events and Trends Significant People Categories: 1270s BC ... Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1340s BC 1330s BC 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC - 1290s BC - 1280s BC 1270s BC 1260s BC 1250s BC 1240s BC Events and Trends December 15 1290 BC - Seti I, Pharaoh of Egypt dies. ... Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC 1290s BC 1280s BC - 1270s BC - 1260s BC 1250s BC 1240s BC 1230s BC 1220s BC Events and Trends Significant People Categories: 1270s BC ...


The name Seti means "of Set", which indicates that he was consecrated to the god Set. As with most Pharaohs, Seti had a number of names. Upon his ascension, he took the prenomen mn-m3‘t-r‘, which translates as Menmaatre in Egyptian, meaning "Eternal is the Justice of Re." His better known nomen, or birth name is technically transliterated as sty mry-n-ptḥ, which is usually realised as Sety Merenptah, meaning "Man of Set, beloved of Ptah". The Greeks called him Sethosis. Manetho incorrectly considered him to be the founder of the 19th dynasty. In Egyptian mythology, Set (also spelled Sutekh, Setesh, Seteh, Seth) is an ancient god, who was originally the god of the desert, one of the two main biomes that constitutes Egypt, the other being the small fertile area on either side of the Nile. ... Pharaoh was the ancient Egyptian name for the office of kingship. ... Ptah In Egyptian mythology, Ptah (also spelt Peteh) was the deification of the primordial mound in the Ennead cosmogony, which was more literally referred to as Ta-tenen (also spelt Tathenen), meaning risen land, or as Tanen, meaning submerged land. ... Manetho, also known as Manethon of Sebennytos, was an Egyptian historian and priest from Sebennytos who lived during the Ptolematic era, circa 3rd century BC. Manetho recorded Aegyptiaca (History of Egypt). ...

Contents

The Alleged Coregency of Seti I

Around Year 9 of his reign, Seti appointed his son Rameses II as the Crown Prince and his chosen successor, but the evidence for a coregency between the two kings is likely illusory. Peter J. Brand who has published an extensive biography on this Pharaoh and his numerous works, stresses in his thesis[6] that relief decorations at various temple sites at Karnak, Qurnah and Abydos which associate Ramesses II with Seti I, were actually carved after Seti's death by Ramesses and cannot be used as source material to support a coregency between the two monarchs. In addition, the late William Murnane who first endorsed the theory of a coregency between Seti I and Ramesses II[7] later revised his view of the presumed coregency and rejected the idea that Ramesses II had begun to count his own regnal years while Seti I was still alive.[8] Finally, Kenneth Kitchen rejects the term coregency to describe the relationship between Seti I and Ramesses II; he describes the earliest phase of Ramesses II's career as a "prince regency" where the young Ramesses enjoyed all the trappings of royalty including the use of a royal titulary and harem but did not count his regnal years until after his father's death.[9] This is due to the fact that the evidence for a coregency between the two kings is vague and highly ambiguous. Two important inscriptions from the first decade of Ramesses' reign, namely the Abydos Dedicatory Inscription and the Kuban Stela of Ramesses II, consistently give the latter titles associated with those of a Crown Prince only, namely the "king's eldest son and hereditary prince" or "child-heir" to the throne "along with some military titles."[10] Peter James Brand is a Canadaian Egyptologist born 5 April 1967 in Toronto, Ontario; he is also a naturalized American citizen. ... Kurna, Qurna or Qurnah is a town in middle Egypt, on the west bank of the Nile, in the Theban necropolis. ... Emeritus Professor Kenneth A. Kitchen (University of Liverpool publicity photograph, 2006). ... Coming from the Arab tradition, the harîm حريم (compare haram) is the part of the household forbidden to male strangers. ...


Hence, no clear evidence supports the hypothesis that Ramesses II was already a coregent under his father. Brand stresses that:

Ramesses' claim that he was crowned king by Seti, even as a child in his arms [in the Dedicatory Inscription], is highly self-serving and open to question although his description of his role as crown prince is more accurate...The most reliable and concrete portion of this statement is the enumeration of Ramesses' titles as eldest king's son and heir apparent, well attested in sources contemporary with Seti's reign."[11]

Reign

Seti I's reign length was either 11 or 15 full Years. While the English Egyptologist Kenneth Kitchen believes that it was 15 years, circumstantial evidence currently suggests that the shorter figure is the right one. There are no dates known for Seti I after his 11th Year which is significant if he enjoyed a reign of 15 Years because he is quite well documented in the historical records. A continuous break in the record for his Year 12, 13, 14 or 15 appears somewhat unlikely. Emeritus Professor Kenneth A. Kitchen (University of Liverpool publicity photograph, 2006). ...


More importantly, Peter J. Brand noted that the king personally opened new rock quarries at Aswan to build obelisks and colossal statues in his Year 9.[12] This event is commemorated on two rock stelas in Aswan. However, most of Seti's obelisks and statues — such as the Flaminian and Luxor obelisks were only partly finished or decorated by the time of his death since they were completed early under his son's reign based on epigraphic evidence. (Ramesses II exclusively used the prenomen 'Usermaatre' in his first year and did not adopt the final form of his royal title--'Usermaatre Setepenre'--until late into his second year.)[13] Brand aptly notes that this evidence calls into question the idea of a 15 Year reign for Seti I and suggests that "Seti died after a ten to eleven year reign" because only two years would have passed between the opening of the Rock Quarries and the partial completion and decoration of these monuments. [14] This explanation conforms better with the evidence of the unfinished state of Seti I's monuments and the fact that Ramesses II had to complete the decorations on "many of his father's unfinished monuments, including the southern half of the Hypostyle Hall at Karnak and portions of his father's temples at Gurnah and Abydos" during the very first Year of his own reign.[15] Critically, Brand notes that the larger of the two Aswan rock stelas state that Seti I "has ordered the commissioning of multitudinous works for the making of very great obelisks and great and wondrous statues (ie: colossi) in the name of His Majesty, L.P.H. He made great barges for transporting them, and ships crews to match them for ferrying them from the quarry." (KRI 74:12-14)[16] However, despite this promise, Brand stresses that Peter James Brand (born 5 April 1967) is a Canadian Egyptologist from Toronto, Ontario. ... Egypt: Site of Aswan (bottom). ... Luxor on Nile, at Luxor Temple with mosque. ... Usermaatre-setepenre The Justice of Re is Powerful, Chosen of Re Nomen Ramesses (meryamun) Born of Re, (Beloved of Amun) Horus name [2] Kanakht Merymaa Golden Horus [2] Userrenput-aanehktu[1] Consort(s) Henutmire, Isetnofret, Nefertari Maathorneferure Issue Bintanath, Khaemweset, Merneptah, Amun-her-khepsef, Meritamen see also: List of children... Map of Karnak, showing major temple complexes Interior of Temple First pylon of precinct of Amun viewed from the west Al-Karnak (Arabic الكرنك, in Ancient Egypt was named Ipet Sut, the most venerated place) is a small village in Egypt, located on the banks of the River Nile some 2. ...

...there are few obelisks and apparently no colossi inscribed for Seti. Ramesses II, however, was able to complete the two obelisks and four seated colossi from Luxor within the first years of his reign, the two obelisks in particular being partly inscribed before he adopted the final form of his prenomen sometime in [his] year two. This state of affairs strongly implies that Seti died after ten to eleven years. Had he ruled on until his fourteenth or fifteenth year, then surely more of the obelisks and colossi he commissioned in [his] year nine would have been completed, in particular those from Luxor. If he in fact died after little more than a decade on the throne, however, then at most two years would have elapsed since the Aswan quarries were opened in year nine, and only a fraction of the great monoliths would have been complete and inscribed at his death, with others just emerging from the quarries so that Ramesses would be able to decorate them shortly after his accession....It now seems clear that a long, fourteen-to fifteen-year reign for Seti I can be rejected for lack of evidence. Rather, a tenure of ten or more likely probably eleven, years appears the most likely scenario.[17]

The German Egyptologist Jürgen von Beckerath also accepts that Seti I's reign lasted only 11 Years.[18] Seti's Highest known date is Year 11, IV Shemu day 12 or 13 on a sandstone stela from Gebel Barkal[19] but he would have briefly survived for 2 to 3 days into his Year 12 before dying based on the date of Ramesses II's rise to power. Seti I's accession date has been determined by Wolfgang Helck to be III Shemu day 24, which is very close to Ramesses II's known accession date of III Shemu day 27. [20] Jürgen von Beckerath (born 19 February 1920) is a prominent German Egyptologist. ... Jebel Barkal or Gebel Barkal is small a mountain located some 400 km north of Khartoum, in Sudan, on a large bend of the Nile River, in the region called Nubia. ...

Temple of Seti I at Abydos
Temple of Seti I at Abydos

After the enormous social upheavals generated by Akhenaten's religious reform, Horemheb, Ramesses I and Seti I's main priority was to re-establish order in the kingdom and to reaffirm Egypt's sovereignty over Canaan and Syria, which had been compromised by the increasing external pressures from the Hittites state. Seti, with energy and determination, confronted the Hittites several times in battle. Without succeeding in destroying the Hittites as a potent danger to Egypt, he reconquered most of the disputed territories for Egypt and generally concluded his military campaigns with victories. The memory of such enterprises was perpetuated by some large pictures placed on the front of the temple of Amun, situated in Karnak. A funerary temple for Seti was constructed in what is now known as Qurna, on the west bank of the Nile at Thebes while a magnificent temple made of white marble at Abydos featuring exquisite relief scenes was started by Seti, and later completed by his son. His capital was at Memphis. He was considered a great king by his peers, but his fame has been overshadowed since ancient times by that of his son Ramesses II. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 415 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) // Temple de Séthi Ier, Grand temple dAbydos, Abydos, (Égypte). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 415 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) // Temple de Séthi Ier, Grand temple dAbydos, Abydos, (Égypte). ... For other uses, see Akhenaten (disambiguation). ... Djeserkheperure Setepenre Holy are the Manifestations of Re, Chosen of Re Nomen Horemheb Meryamun Horus is in Jubilation, Beloved of Amun Consort(s) Mutnedjmet Amenia Died 1292 BC Burial KV57 Djeserkheperure Horemheb was the last Pharaoh of Ancient Egypts 18th Dynasty from c. ... Menpehtyre Eternal is the Strength of Re[2] Nomen Ra-messes Re has fashioned him[1] Consort(s) Queen Sitre Issue Seti I Died 1290 BC Burial KV16 Menpehtyre Ramesses I (traditional English: Ramesses or Rameses ) was the founding Pharaoh of Ancient Egypts 19th dynasty. ... For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people from Kaneš who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite... Amun (also spelled Amon, Amoun, Amen, and rarely Imen, Greek Ἄμμων Ammon, and Ἅμμων Hammon, Egyptian Yamanu) was the name of a deity, in Egyptian mythology, who gradually rose to become one of the most important deities in Ancient Egypt, before fading into obscurity. ... Map of Karnak, showing major temple complexes Interior of Temple First pylon of precinct of Amun viewed from the west Al-Karnak (Arabic الكرنك, in Ancient Egypt was named Ipet Sut, the most venerated place) is a small village in Egypt, located on the banks of the River Nile some 2. ... View of remaining buildings in the Mortuary Temple of Seti I The Mortuary Temple of Seti I is the memorial temple (or mortuary temple) of Pharaoh Seti I.[1] It is located in the Theban necropolis in Upper Egypt, across the River Nile from the modern city of Luxor, near... Kurna, Qurna or Qurnah is a town in middle Egypt, on the west bank of the Nile, in the Theban necropolis. ... The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ... Thebes Thebes (, Thēbai) is the Greek designation of the ancient Egyptian niwt (The) City and niwt-rst (The) Southern City. It is located about 800 km south of the Mediterranean, on the east bank of the river Nile (). Thebes was the capital of Waset, the fourth Upper Egyptian nome... Abydos (Arabic: أبيدوس, Greek Αβυδος), one of the most ancient cities of Upper Egypt, is about 11 km (6 miles) west of the Nile at latitude 26° 10 N. The Egyptian name was Abdju (technically, 3bdw, hieroglyphs shown to the right), the hill of the symbol or reliquary, in which the sacred... For other uses, see Memphis. ...


Seti I fought a series of wars in Western Asia, Libya and Nubia in the first decade of his reign. The main source for Seti’s military activities are his battle scenes on the north exterior wall of the Karnak Hypostyle Hall, along with several royal stela with inscriptions mentioning battles in Canaan and Nubia.


In his first regnal year, he led his armies along the “Ways of Horus,” the coastal road that led from the Egyptian city of Tjaru (Zarw/Sile) in the north-east corner of the Egyptian Nile Delta along the northern coast of the Sinai peninsula ending in the town of “Canaan” in the modern Gaza strip. The Ways of Horus consisted of a series of military forts, each with a well, that are depicted in detail in the king’s war scenes on the north wall of the Karnak Hypostyle Hall. While crossing the Sinai, the king’s army fought local beduins called the Shasu. In Canaan, he received the tribute of some of the city states he visited. Others, including Beth-Shan and Yenoam, had to be captured but were easily defeated. The attack on Yenoam is illustrated in his war scenes, while other battles, such as the defeat of Beth-Shan, were not shown because the king himself did not participate, sending a division of the army instead. The year one campaign continued into Lebanon where the king received the submission of its chiefs who were compelled to cut down valuable cedar wood themselves as tribute. Tjaru was an ancient Egyptian fortress on the Way of Horus, the major road leading out of Egypt into Canaan. ...


At some unknown point in the reign, Seti I defeated an incursion of Libyan tribesmen on his western border. Although defeated, the Libyans would pose an ever increasing threat to Egypt in the reigns of Merenptah and Ramesses III. The Egyptian army also put down a minor “rebellion” in Nubia in the 8th year of Seti I. Seti himself did not participate in it although his Crown Prince, the future Ramesses II, may have.


The greatest achievement of Seti I’s foreign policy was the capture of the Syrian town of Kadesh and neighboring territory of Amurru from the Hittite Empire. Kadesh had been lost to Egypt since the time of Akhenaten. Tutankhamun and Horemheb had both failed to recapture the city from the Hittites. Seti I was successful here and defeated a Hittite army that tried to defend it. Kadesh, however, soon reverted to Hittite control because the Egyptians did not or could not maintain a permanent military occupation of Kadesh and Amurru which were close to the Hittite homelands. It is unlikely that Seti I made a peace treaty with the Hittites or voluntarily returned Kadesh and Amurru to them but he may have reached an informal understanding with the Hittite king Muwatalli on the precise boundaries of the Egyptian and Hittite Empire. Five years after Seti I’s death, however, his son Ramesses II resumed hostilities and made a failed attempt to recapture Kadesh. Kadesh was, henceforth, effectively lost to the Hittites even though Ramesses temporarily occupied this city in his 8th year. Muwatalli II was a king of the Hittite empire (New kingdom) from 1285 BC–1273 BC. The elder son of Mursili II, he is best known as the Hittite ruler who fought Ramesses II at the Battle of Kadesh around 1285 BC. Categories: Historical stubs | Hittite kings ...


The traditional view of Seti I’s wars was that he restored the Egyptian empire after it had been lost in the time of Akhenaten. This was based on the chaotic picture of Egyptian controlled Syria and Palestine seen in the Amarna letters, a cache of diplomatic correspondence from the time of Akhenaten found at Akhenaten’s capital at el-Amarna in Middle Egypt. Recent scholarship, however, indicates that the Empire was not lost at this time, except for its northern border provinces of Kadesh and Amurru in Syria and Lebanon. While evidence for the military activities of Akhenaten, Tutankhamun and Horemheb is fragmentary or ambiguous, Seti I has left us an impressive war monument that glorifies his achievement along with a number of texts, all of which tend to magnify his personal achievements on the battlefield. EA 161, letter by Aziru, leader of Amurru, (stating his case to pharaoh), one of the Amarna letters in cuneiform writing on a clay tablet. ...


Burial

Head of the mummy of Seti I
Head of the mummy of Seti I

Seti's well preserved tomb (KV17) was found in 1817 by Giovanni Battista Belzoni, in the Valley of the Kings; it proved to be the longest—at more than 120 meters—and deepest of all the New Kingdom royal tombs. It was also the first tomb to feature decorations on every passageway and chamber with highly refined bas-reliefs and colorful paintings - fragments of which, including a large column depicting Seti I with the goddess Hathor, can be seen in the Museo Archeologico, Florence. This decorative style set a precedent which was followed in full or in part in the tombs of later New Kingdom kings. However's Seti's mummy was not discovered until 1881, in the mummy cache (tomb DB320) at Deir el-Bahri, and has since been kept at the Cairo Museum. His huge sarcophagus, carved in one piece and intricately decorated on every surface (including the goddess Nut on the interior base), is in Sir John Soane's Museum[21], in London, England; Soane bought it for exhibition in his open collection in 1824, when the British Museum refused to pay the £2,000 demanded. From an examination of Seti's extremely well preserved mummy, Seti I appears to have been less than forty years old when he died unexpectedly. This is in stark contrast to the situation with Horemheb, Ramesses I and Ramesses II who all lived to an advanced age. The reasons for his relatively early death are uncertain, but there is no evidence of violence on his mummy. His mummy was found with its head decapitated, but this may have been caused after his death by tomb robbers. The Amun priest carefully reattached his head to his body with the use of linen cloths. It has been suggested that he died from a disease which had affected him for years, possibly related to his heart. The latter was found placed in the right part of the body, while the usual practice of the day was to place it in the left part during the mummification process. Opinions vary whether this was a mistake, an attempt to have Seti's heart work better in his afterlife than it did during his lifetime or even that Seti was born with his heart on the right side of his body, a rare occurrence [citation needed]. Seti I was about 1.7 metres (5 ft 7 in) tall.[22] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (586x800, 68 KB) The unwrapped mummy of Seti I, photographed in 1889 by the German Egyptologist Emil Brugsch (1842-1930). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (586x800, 68 KB) The unwrapped mummy of Seti I, photographed in 1889 by the German Egyptologist Emil Brugsch (1842-1930). ... Tomb KV17, located in Egypts Valley of the Kings and also known by the names Belzonis tomb, the Tomb of Apis, and the Tomb of Psammis, son of Nechois, is the tomb of Pharaoh Seti I of the Nineteenth Dynasty. ... 1817 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Giovanni Battista Belzoni, from Narrative of the Operations and Recent Discoveries Within the Pyramids, Temples, Tombs and Excavations in Egypt and Nubia by Giovanni Battista Belzoni,London, 1820. ... Location of the valley in the Theban Hills, West of the Nile, October 1988 (red arrow shows location) The Valley of the Kings (Arabic: وادي الملوك Wadi Biban el-Muluk; Gates of the King)[1] is a valley in Egypt where for a period of nearly 500 years from the 16th to... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Tomb DB320 is located next to Deir el-Bahri, in the Theban Necropolis, opposite modern Luxor contained an extraordinary cache of mummified remains and funeral equipment of more than 50 kings, queens, royals and various nobility. ... Djeser-Djeseru – the focal point of the complex Deir el-Bahri (Arabic دير البحري dayr al-baḥrÄ«, literally meaning, “The Northern Monastery”) is a complex of mortuary temples and tombs located on the west bank of the Nile, opposite the city of Luxor, Egypt. ... Main entrance of the Egyptian Museum The Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, known commonly as the Egyptian Museum, in Cairo, Egypt, is home to the most extensive collection of pharaonic antiquities in the world. ... In Egyptian mythology, Nuit or Nut was the sky goddess, in contrast to most other mythologies, which usually have a sky father. ... The Soane Museum is a museum of architecture, and was formerly the house and studio of Sir John Soane. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The British Museum in London, England is one of the worlds greatest museums of human history and culture. ... Djeserkheperure Setepenre Holy are the Manifestations of Re, Chosen of Re Nomen Horemheb Meryamun Horus is in Jubilation, Beloved of Amun Consort(s) Mutnedjmet Amenia Died 1292 BC Burial KV57 Djeserkheperure Horemheb was the last Pharaoh of Ancient Egypts 18th Dynasty from c. ... Dextrocardia is a peculiar condition in which the heart is positioned on the right side of the chest while it is normally on the left (mirror-image). ...


In Popular Culture

  • Seti I was portrayed by actor Aharon Ipalé in the films The Mummy and its sequel The Mummy Returns as a pharaoh who is murdered by his high priest Imhotep and his mistress Anck-su-namun. In 2006, Ipalé reprised the role in The Ten Commandments: The Musical. [23]

The Mummy is a film written and directed in 1999 by Stephen Sommers and starring Brendan Fraser and Rachel Weisz, with Arnold Vosloo as the reanimated mummy of the title. ... The Mummy Returns is a 2001 American movie starring Brendan Fraser, Rachel Weisz, and Arnold Vosloo, and is directed by Stephen Sommers. ...

References

  • Epigraphic Survey, The Battle Reliefs of King Sety I. Reliefs and Inscriptions at Karnak vol. 4. (Chicago, 1985).
  • Gaballa A. Gaballa, Narrative in Egyptian Art. (Mainz, 1976)
  • Michael G. Hasel, Domination & Resistance: Egyptian Military Activity in the Southern Levant, 1300-1185 BC, (Leiden, 1998). ISBN 90-04-10984-6
  • Kenneth Kitchen, Pharaoh Triumphant: The Life and Times of Ramesses II (Warminster, 1982). ISBN 0-85668-215-2
  • Mario Liverani, Three Amarna Essays, Monographs on the Ancient Near East 1/5 (Malibu, 1979).
  • William J. Murnane, The Road to Kadesh, (Chicago, 1990)
  • Alan R. Schulman, “Hittites, Helmets & Amarna: Akhenaten’s First Hittite War,” Akhenaten Temple Project volume II, (Toronto, 1988), 53-79.
  • Anthony J. Spalinger, “The Northern Wars of Seti I: An Integrative Study.” Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt 16 (1979). 29–46.
  • Anthony J. Spalinger, “Egyptian-Hittite Relations at the Close of the Amarna Age and Some Notes on Hittite Military Strategy in North Syria,” Bulletin of the Egyptological Seminar 1 (1979):55-89.

Michael Gerald Hasel is an American archaeologist and Egyptologist. ... Emeritus Professor Kenneth A. Kitchen (University of Liverpool publicity photograph, 2006). ...

Notes

  1. ^ Peter Clayton, Chronicle of the Pharaohs, Thames and Hudson Ltd, 1994. p.140
  2. ^ Clayton, op. cit., p.140
  3. ^ Sety I Menmaatre (Sethos I) King Sety I. Digital Egypt. UCL. Retrieved on 2007-02-15.
  4. ^ Michael Rice (1999). Who's Who in Ancient Egypt. Routledge. 
  5. ^ J. von Beckerath (1997). Chronologie des Äegyptischen Pharaonischen (in German). Phillip von Zabern, 190. 
  6. ^ Peter J. Brand (1998). "The Monuments of Seti I and their Historical Significance" (PDF).
  7. ^ William Murnane (1977). Ancient Egyptian Coregencies.  Seminal book on the Egyptian coregency system
  8. ^ W. Murnane (1990). The road to Kadesh: A Historical interpretation of the battle reliefs of King Sety I at Karnak. SAOC, 93 footnote 90. 
  9. ^ KA Kitchen, Pharaoh Triumphant: The Life and Times of Ramesses II, King of Egypt, Benben Publication, (1982), pp.27-30
  10. ^ Peter J. Brand (2000). The Monuments of Seti I: Epigraphic, Historical and Art Historical Analysis. Brill, 315-316. 
  11. ^ Brand, The Monuments of Seti I, p.316
  12. ^ Peter J. Brand, pp.101-114 paper titled "The 'Lost' Obelisks and Colossi of Seti I JARCE 34(1997)
  13. ^ Brand., JARCE 34, pp.106-107
  14. ^ Brand., JARCE 34, p.114
  15. ^ Brand., JARCE 34, p.107
  16. ^ Brand., JARCE 34, p.104
  17. ^ Brand. The Monuments of Seti I, 308. 
  18. ^ von Beckerath, Chronologie, p.190
  19. ^ Brand, The Monuments of Seti I, p.308
  20. ^ Brand, The Monuments of Seti I, pp.301-302
  21. ^ Egyptian Collection at the Sir John Soane's Museum. Retrieved on 2007-02-15.
  22. ^ Christine Hobson, Exploring the World of the Pharaohs: A Complete Guide to Ancient Egypt, Thames & Hudson, (1993), p.97
  23. ^ The Ten Commandments: The Musical. IMDB. Retrieved on 2007-02-15.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Christian Settipani (born January 31, 1961) is the Technical Director of an IT company in the Paris area. ...

External links

  • Seti I's Mummy
  • The Monuments of Seti I and their Historical Significance: Epigraphic, Art and Historical Analysis(PDF)
Preceded by
Ramesses I
Pharaoh of Egypt
Nineteenth Dynasty
Succeeded by
Ramesses II

  Results from FactBites:
 
Egypt: Seti (Sethos) I (827 words)
Seti I was the father of perhaps Egypt's greatest rulers, Ramesses II, and was in his own right also a great leader.
Seti's reliefs are on the north side and their fine style is evident when compared to later additions.
Seti's mummy is said to be the finest of all surviving royal mummies, though it was not found in his tomb.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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