FACTOID # 6: Michigan is ranked 22nd in land area, but since 41.27% of the state is composed of water, it jumps to 11th place in total area.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Session Initiation Protocol
The five-layer TCP/IP model
5. Application layer

DHCP · DNS · FTP · Gopher · HTTP · IMAP4 · IRC · NNTP · XMPP · POP3 · SIP · SMTP · SNMP · SSH · TELNET · RPC · RTCP · RTSP · TLS · SDP · SOAP · GTP · STUN · NTP · (more) The TCP/IP model or Internet reference model, sometimes called the DoD model (DoD, Department of Defense), ARPANET reference model, is a layered abstract description for communications and computer network protocol design. ... The application layer is the seventh level of the seven-layer OSI model. ... (DHCP) is a set of rules used by a communications device such as a computer, router or network adapter to allow the device to request and obtain an IP address from a server which has a list of addresses available for assignment. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... This article is about the File Transfer Protocol standardised by the IETF. For other file transfer protocols, see File transfer protocol (disambiguation). ... Gopher is a distributed document search and retrieval network protocol designed for the Internet. ... Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a communications protocol used to transfer or convey information on the World Wide Web. ... The Internet Message Access Protocol (commonly known as IMAP or IMAP4, and previously called Internet Mail Access Protocol, Interactive Mail Access Protocol (RFC 1064), and Interim Mail Access Protocol[1]) is an application layer Internet protocol operating on port 143 that allows a local client to access e-mail on... “IRC” redirects here. ... The Network News Transfer Protocol or NNTP is an Internet application protocol used primarily for reading and posting Usenet articles, as well as transferring news among news servers. ... Jabber redirects here. ... In computing, local e-mail clients use the Post Office Protocol version 3 (POP3), an application-layer Internet standard protocol, to retrieve e-mail from a remote server over a TCP/IP connection. ... Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is the de facto standard for e-mail transmissions across the Internet. ... The simple network management protocol (SNMP) forms part of the internet protocol suite as defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). ... Secure Shell or SSH is a network protocol that allows data to be exchanged over a secure channel between two computers. ... For the packet switched network, see Telenet. ... Remote procedure call (RPC) is a protocol that allows a computer program running on one computer to cause a subroutine on another computer to be executed without the programmer explicitly coding the details for this interaction. ... RTP Control Protocol (RTCP) is a sister protocol of the Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP). ... The Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP), developed by the IETF and created in 1998 as RFC 2326, is a protocol for use in streaming media systems which allows a client to remotely control a streaming media server, issuing VCR-like commands such as play and pause, and allowing time-based... Transport Layer Security (TLS) and its predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), are cryptographic protocols that provide secure communications on the Internet for such things as web browsing, e-mail, Internet faxing, instant messaging and other data transfers. ... Session Description Protocol (SDP), is a format for describing streaming media initialization parameters. ... A collection of decorative soaps used for human hygiene purposes. ... GPRS Tunneling Protocol (or GTP) is an IP based protocol used within GSM and UMTS networks. ... STUN (Simple Traversal of UDP over NATs) is a network protocol which helps many types of software and hardware receive UDP data properly through home broadband routers that use network address translation (NAT). ... The Network Time Protocol (NTP) is a protocol for synchronizing the clocks of computer systems over packet-switched, variable-latency data networks. ...

4. Transport layer
TCP · UDP · DCCP · SCTP · RTP · RSVP · IGMP ·

PPTP · (more) In computing and telecommunications, the transport layer is the second highest layer in the four and five layer TCP/IP reference models, where it responds to service requests from the application layer and issues service requests to the Internet layer. ... The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite. ... User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite. ... The Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP) is a message-oriented transport layer protocol that is currently under development in the IETF. Applications that might make use of DCCP include those with timingconstraints on the delivery of data such that reliable in-order delivery, when combined with congestion control, is likely... In the field of computer networking, the IETF Signaling Transport (SIGTRAN) working group defined the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) as a transport layer protocol in 2002. ... The Real-time Transport Protocol (or RTP) defines a standardized packet format for delivering audio and video over the Internet. ... The Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP), described in RFC 2205, is a transport layer protocol designed to reserve resources across a network for an integrated services Internet. ... The Internet Group Management Protocol is a communications protocol used to manage the membership of Internet Protocol multicast groups. ... The Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) is a method for implementing virtual private networks. ...

3. Network/Internet layer
IP (IPv4 · IPv6) · OSPF · IS-IS · BGP · IPsec · ARP · RARP · RIP · ICMP · ICMPv6 ·(more)
2. Data link layer
802.11 · Wi-Fi · WiMAX · ATM · DTM · Token ring · Ethernet · FDDI · Frame Relay · GPRS · EVDO · HSPA · HDLC · PPP · L2TP · ISDN · (more)
1. Physical layer
Ethernet physical layer · Modems · PLC · SONET/SDH · G.709 · OFDM · Optical fiber · Coaxial cable · Twisted pair · (more)
This box: view  talk  edit

The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is an application-layer control (signaling) protocol for creating, modifying, and terminating sessions with one or more participants. It can be used to create two-party, multiparty, or multicast sessions that include Internet telephone calls, multimedia distribution, and multimedia conferences. (cit. RFC 3261). SIP is designed to be independent of the underlying transport layer; it can run on TCP, UDP, or SCTP. It was originally designed by Henning Schulzrinne (Columbia University) and Mark Handley (UCL) starting in 1996. The latest version of the specification is RFC 3261 from the IETF SIP Working Group. In November 2000, SIP was accepted as a 3GPP signaling protocol and permanent element of the IMS architecture. It is widely used as a signaling protocol for Voice over IP, along with H.323 and others. The network layer is third layer out of seven in OSI model and it is the third layer out of five in TCP/IP model. ... The Internet Protocol (IP) is a data-oriented protocol used for communicating data across a packet-switched internetwork. ... Internet Protocol version 4 is the fourth iteration of the Internet Protocol (IP) and it is the first version of the protocol to be widely deployed. ... Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is a network layer protocol for packet-switched internetworks. ... The Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocol is a hierarchical interior gateway protocol (IGP) for routing in Internet Protocol, using a link-state in the individual areas that make up the hierarchy. ... Is Is is Yeah Yeah Yeahs third EP, to be released on July 24, 2007. ... The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is the core routing protocol of the Internet. ... IPsec (IP security) is a suite of protocols for securing Internet Protocol (IP) communications by authenticating and/or encrypting each IP packet in a data stream. ... In computer networking, the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is the standard method for finding a hosts hardware address when only its network layer address is known. ... Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) is a network layer protocol used to obtain an IP address for a given hardware address (such as an Ethernet address). ... This article is chiefly about the Routing Information Protocol (RIP) for the Internet Protocol, but also discusses some other routing information protocols. ... The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite. ... The ICMP for IPv6 (Internet Control Message Protocol Version 6) is an integral part of the IPv6 architecture and must be completely supported by all IPv6 implementations. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... IEEE 802. ... Official Wi-Fi logo Wi-Fi (pronounced wye-fye, IPA: ), also unofficially known as Wireless Fidelity, is a wireless technology brand owned by the Wi-Fi Alliance intended to improve the interoperability of wireless local area network products based on the IEEE 802. ... Official WiMax logo WiMAX, the Wireless Interoperability for Microwave Access, is a telecommunications technology aimed at providing wireless data over long distances in a variety of ways, from point-to-point links to full mobile cellular type access. ... Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a cell relay, packet switching network and data link layer protocol which encodes data traffic into small (53 bytes; 48 bytes of data and 5 bytes of header information) fixed-sized cells. ... Dynamic synchronous Transfer Mode , or DTM for short, is a network protocol. ... Token-Ring local area network (LAN) technology was developed and promoted by IBM in the early 1980s and standardised as IEEE 802. ... Ethernet is a large, diverse family of frame-based computer networking technologies that operate at many speeds for local area networks (LANs). ... In computer networking, fiber-distributed data interface (FDDI) is a standard for data transmission in a local area network that can extend in range up to 200 km (124 miles). ... In the context of computer networking, frame relay consists of an efficient data transmission technique used to send digital information quickly and cheaply in a relay of frames to one or many destinations from one or many end-points. ... General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a Mobile Data Service available to users of Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and IS-136 mobile phones. ... Evolution-Data Optimized or Evolution-Data only, abbreviated as EV-DO or EVDO and often EV, is one telecommunications standard for the wireless transmission of data through radio signals, typically for broadband Internet access. ... High-Speed Packet Access (HSPA) is a collection of mobile telephony protocols that extend and improve the performance of existing UMTS protocols. ... High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC) is a bit-oriented synchronous data link layer protocol developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... In computing, the Point-to-Point Protocol, or PPP, is commonly used to establish a direct connection between two nodes. ... In computer networking, the Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) is a tunneling protocol used to support virtual private networks (VPNs). ... ISDN redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... IEEE photograph of a diagram with the original terms for describing Ethernet drawn by Robert M. Metcalfe around 1976. ... For other uses, see Modem (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Power band. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into articles entitled Synchronous optical networking, SONET and Synchronous digital hierarchy. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing (OFDM) — essentially identical to Coded OFDM (COFDM) — is a digital multi-carrier modulation scheme, which uses a large number of closely-spaced orthogonal sub-carriers. ... Optical fibers An optical fiber (or fibre) is a glass or plastic fiber designed to guide light along its length. ... Coaxial Cable For the weapon, see coaxial weapon. ... 25 Pair Color Code Chart 10BASE-T UTP Cable Twisted pair cabling is a common form of wiring in which two conductors are wound around each other for the purposes of cancelling out electromagnetic interference known as crosstalk. ... The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite. ... User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite. ... In the field of computer networking, the IETF Signaling Transport (SIGTRAN) working group defined the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) as a transport layer protocol in 2002. ... Alma Mater Columbia University in the City of New York is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ... Affiliations University of London Russell Group LERU EUA ACU Golden Triangle G5 Website http://www. ... The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is charged with developing and promoting Internet standards. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) is an architectural framework for delivering internet protocol (IP) multimedia to mobile users. ... List of signalling protocols: QSIG, H.225. ... An overview of how VoIP works A typical analog telephone adapter for connecting an ordinary phone to a VoIP network Ciscos implementation of VoIP - IP Phone Voice over Internet Protocol, also called VoIP (pronounced voyp), IP Telephony, Internet telephony, Broadband telephony, Broadband Phone and Voice over Broadband is the... H.323 is an umbrella recommendation from the ITU-T, that defines the protocols to provide audio-visual communication sessions on any packet network. ...


SIP has the following characteristics:

  • Transport-independent, because SIP can be used with UDP, TCP, ATM & so on.
  • Text-based, allowing for humans to read SIP messages.

Contents

Protocol design

SIP clients use TCP or UDP (typically on port 5060) to connect to SIP servers and other SIP endpoints. SIP is primarily used in setting up and tearing down voice or video calls. However, it can be used in any application where session initiation is a requirement. These include Event Subscription and Notification, Terminal mobility and so on. There are a large number of SIP-related RFCs that define behavior for such applications. All voice/video communications are done over separate session protocols, typically RTP. The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite. ... User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite. ... In internetworking and computer network engineering, Request for Comments (RFC) documents are a series of memoranda encompassing new research, innovations, and methodologies applicable to Internet technologies. ... The Real-time Transport Protocol (or RTP) defines a standardized packet format for delivering audio and video over the Internet. ...


A motivating goal for SIP was to provide a signalling and call setup protocol for IP-based communications that can support a superset of the call processing functions and features present in the public switched telephone network (PSTN). SIP by itself does not define these features; rather, its focus is call-setup and signalling. However, it has been designed to enable the building of such features in network elements known as Proxy Servers and User Agents. These are features that permit familiar telephone-like operations: dialing a number, causing a phone to ring, hearing ringback tones or a busy signal. Implementation and terminology are different in the SIP world but to the end-user, the behavior is similar. The Internet Protocol (IP) is a data-oriented protocol used for communicating data across a packet-switched internetwork. ... The public switched telephone network (PSTN) is the concatenation of the worlds public circuit-switched telephone networks, in much the same way that the Internet is the concatenation of the worlds public IP-based packet-switched networks. ...


SIP-enabled telephony networks can also implement many of the more advanced call processing features present in Signalling System 7 (SS7), though the two protocols themselves are very different. SS7 is a centralized protocol, characterized by a complex central network architecture and dumb endpoints (traditional telephone handsets). SIP is a peer-to-peer protocol. As such it requires only a simple (and thus scalable) core network with intelligence distributed to the network edge, embedded in endpoints (terminating devices built in either hardware or software). SIP features are implemented in the communicating endpoints (i.e. at the edge of the network) as opposed to traditional SS7 features, which are implemented in the network. Signaling System #7 (SS7) is a set of telephony signaling protocols which are used to set up the vast majority of the worlds PSTN telephone calls. ... A peer-to-peer based network. ...


Although many other VoIP signalling protocols exist, SIP is characterized by its proponents as having roots in the IP community rather than the telecom industry. SIP has been standardized and governed primarily by the IETF while the H.323 VoIP protocol has been traditionally more associated with the ITU. However, the two organizations have endorsed both protocols in some fashion. The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is charged with developing and promoting Internet standards. ... H.323 is an umbrella recommendation from the ITU-T, that defines the protocols to provide audio-visual communication sessions on any packet network. ... The International Telecommunication Union (ITU; French: Union internationale des télécommunications, Spanish: Unión Internacional de Telecomunicaciones) is an international organization established to standardize and regulate international radio and telecommunications. ...


SIP works in concert with several other protocols and is only involved in the signalling portion of a communication session. SIP acts as a carrier for the Session Description Protocol (SDP), which describes the media content of the session, e.g. what IP ports to use, the codec being used etc. In typical use, SIP "sessions" are simply packet streams of the Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP). RTP is the carrier for the actual voice or video content itself. Session Description Protocol (SDP), is a format for describing streaming media initialization parameters. ... The Internet Protocol (IP) is a data-oriented protocol used for communicating data across a packet-switched internetwork. ... It has been suggested that TCP and UDP port be merged into this article or section. ... A codec is a device or program capable of performing encoding and decoding on a digital data stream or signal. ... The Real-time Transport Protocol (or RTP) defines a standardized packet format for delivering audio and video over the Internet. ...


The first proposed standard version (SIP 2.0) was defined in RFC 2543. The protocol was further clarified in RFC 3261, although many implementations are still using interim draft versions. Note that the version number remains 2.0.


SIP is similar to HTTP and shares some of its design principles: It is human readable and request-response structured. SIP shares many HTTP status codes, such as the familiar '404 not found'. SIP proponents also claim it to be simpler than H.323. However, some would counter that while SIP originally had a goal of simplicity, in its current state it has become as complex as H.323. Others would argue that SIP is a stateless protocol, hence making it possible to easily implement failover and other features that are difficult in stateful protocols such as H.323. SIP and H.323 are not limited to voice communication but can mediate any kind of communication session from voice to video or future, unrealized applications. HTTP (for HyperText Transfer Protocol) is the primary method used to convey information on the World Wide Web. ... H.323 is an umbrella recommendation from the ITU-T, that defines the protocols to provide audio-visual communication sessions on any packet network. ... H.323 is an umbrella recommendation from the ITU-T, that defines the protocols to provide audio-visual communication sessions on any packet network. ... H.323 is an umbrella recommendation from the ITU-T, that defines the protocols to provide audio-visual communication sessions on any packet network. ...


SIP network elements

Hardware endpoints — devices with the look, feel, and shape of a traditional telephone, but that use SIP and RTP for communication — are commercially available from several vendors. Some of these can use Electronic Numbering (ENUM) or DUNDi to translate existing phone numbers to SIP addresses, so calls to other SIP users can bypass the telephone network, even though your service provider might normally act as a gateway to the PSTN network for traditional phone numbers (and charge you for it). Today, software SIP endpoints are common. For other uses, see Telephone (disambiguation). ... The Real-time Transport Protocol (or RTP) defines a standardized packet format for delivering audio and video over the Internet. ... TElephone NUMber Mapping (ENUM or Enum) is a suite of protocols to unify the telephone system with the Internet by using E.164 addresses with DDDS and DNS. The acronymn ENUM can also mean E164 NUmber Mapping. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The public switched telephone network (PSTN) is the concatenation of the worlds public circuit-switched telephone networks, in much the same way that the Internet is the concatenation of the worlds public IP-based packet-switched networks. ...


SIP also requires proxy and registrar network elements to work as a practical service. Although two SIP endpoints can communicate without any intervening SIP infrastructure, which is why the protocol is described as peer-to-peer, this approach is impractical for a public service. There are various implementations that can act as proxy and registrar.


From the RFCs:

"SIP makes use of elements called proxy servers to help route requests to the user's current location, authenticate and authorize users for services, implement provider call-routing policies, and provide features to users."
"SIP also provides a registration function that allows users to upload their current locations for use by proxy servers. "
"Since registrations play an important role in SIP, a User Agent Server that handles a REGISTER is given the special name registrar."
"It is an important concept that the distinction between types of SIP servers is logical, not physical."

Image:SIP signaling.png Image File history File links Summary selfmade compilation from sipcenter. ...


Instant messaging (IM) and presence

A standard instant messaging protocol based on SIP, called SIMPLE, has been proposed and is under development. SIMPLE can also carry presence information, conveying a person's willingness and ability to engage in communications. Presence information is most recognizable today as buddy status in IM clients. // Instant messaging (IM) is a form of real-time communication between two or more people based on typed text. ... In computing, SIMPLE (Session Initiation Protocol for Instant Messaging and Presence Leveraging Extensions) is an instant messaging (IM) and presence protocol suite based on Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). ... In computer and telecommunications networks, presence information is a status indicator that conveys ability and willingness of a potential communication partner - for example a user to communicate. ...


Some efforts have been made to integrate SIP-based VoIP with the XMPP specification used by Jabber. Most notably Google Talk, which extends XMPP to support voice, plans to integrate SIP. Google's XMPP extension is called Jingle and, like SIP, it acts as a Session Description Protocol carrier. IP Telephony, also called Internet telephony, is the technology that makes it possible to have a telephone conversation over the Internet or a dedicated Internet Protocol (IP) network instead of dedicated voice transmission lines. ... Jabber redirects here. ... Official logo of the Jabber Software Foundation Jabber is a collection of open, real-time communication technologies built on the Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP). ... Google Talk is a Windows application for Voice over IP and instant messaging, offered by Google. ... Jingle is an extension to the Jabber/XMPP protocol, to allow for peer-to-peer (p2p) signalling, and thereby multimedia interactions such as voice or video. ... Session Description Protocol (SDP), is a format for describing streaming media initialization parameters. ...


SIP itself defines a method of passing instant messages between endpoints, similar to SMS messages. This is not generally supported by commercial operators. “SMS” redirects here. ...


Commercial applications

Firewalls typically block media packet types such as UDP, though one way around this is to use TCP tunnelling and relays for media in order to provide NAT and firewall traversal. One solution involves tunnelling the media packets within TCP or HTTP packets to a relay. This solution uses additional functionality in conjunction with SIP, and packages the media packets into a TCP stream which is then sent to the relay. The relay then extracts the packets and sends them on to the other endpoint. If the other endpoint is behind a symmetrical NAT, or corporate firewall that does not allow VOIP traffic, the relay would transfer the packets to another tunnel. One disadvantage of this approach is that TCP was not designed for real time traffic such as voice, so an optimized form of the protocol is sometimes used. User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite. ... The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite. ... In Computer Networking, the process of Network Address Translation (NAT, also known as Network Masquerading, Native Address Translation or IP Masquerading) involves re-writing the source and/or destination addresses of IP packets as they pass through a Router or firewall. ... IP Telephony, also called Internet telephony, is the technology that makes it possible to have a telephone conversation over the Internet or a dedicated Internet Protocol (IP) network instead of dedicated voice transmission lines. ...


As envisioned by its originators, SIP's peer-to-peer nature does not enable network-provided services. For example, the network can not easily support legal interception of calls (referred to in the United States by the law governing wiretaps, CALEA). Emergency calls (calls to E911 in the USA) are difficult to route. It is difficult to identify the proper Public Service Answering Point, PSAP because of the inherent mobility of IP end points and the lack of any network location capability. However, as commercial SIP services begin to take off practical solutions to these problems are being proven. Standards being developed by such organizations as 3GPP and 3GPP2 define applications of the basic SIP model which facilitate commercialization and enable support for network-centric capabilities such as CALEA. The Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (CALEA) is a controversial United States wiretapping law passed in 1994 (Pub. ... Enhanced 911 service or E911 service is a North American telephone network feature that automatically associates the physical address with the calling partys telephone number. ... A Service Access Point or SAP is an identifying label for network endpoints used in OSI networking. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The 3rd Generation Partnership Project 2 (3GPP2) is a collaboration agreement that was established in December 1998. ... The Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (CALEA) is a controversial United States wiretapping law passed in 1994 (Pub. ...


Many VoIP phone companies allow customers to bring their own SIP devices, as SIP-capable telephone sets, or softphones. The new market for consumer SIP devices continues to expand. IP Telephony, also called Internet telephony, is the technology that makes it possible to have a telephone conversation over the Internet or a dedicated Internet Protocol (IP) network instead of dedicated voice transmission lines. ... In computing, a soft phone is software that simulates a real phone and runs on a general purpose computer, rather than a dedicated device. ...


The free software community started to provide more and more of the SIP technology required to build both end points as well as proxy and registrar servers leading to a commoditization of the technology, which accelerates global adoption. SIPfoundry has made available and actively develops a variety of SIP stacks, client applications and SDKs, in addition to entire IP PBX solutions that compete in the market against mostly proprietary IP PBX implementations from established vendors. // The free software community is also called the open source community or the Linux community. ... SIPfoundry is a not for profit open source community. ... The Internet Protocol Private Branch eXchange (IP PBX) is telephone switching equipment that resides in a private business instead of the telephone company. ...


The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Advanced Networking Technologies Division provides a public domain implementation of the JAVA Standard for SIP JAIN-SIP which serves as a reference implementation for the standard. The stack can work in proxy server or user agent scenarios and has been used in numerous commercial and research projects. It supports RFC 3261 in full and a number of extension RFCs including RFC 3265 (Subscribe / Notify) and RFC 3262 (Provisional Reliable Responses) etc. As a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce’s Technology Administration, the National Institute of Standards (NIST) develops and promotes measurement, standards, and technology to enhance productivity, facilitate trade, and improve the quality of life. ...


See also

SIP enabled PBXes and/or SIP User Agents utilize the Session Initiation Protocol(SIP) to interconnect and to establish voice sessions between each other over an IP Network. ... SIP requests are the codes used by Session Initiation Protocol for communication. ... SIP responses are the codes used by Session Initiation Protocol for communication. ... The following list of SIP software documents software applications which use SIP as a voice over IP protocol. ... In computing, Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP) is a protocol used within a distributed Voice over IP system that can appear to the outside world as a single VoIP gateway. ... The IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) is an architectural framework for delivering internet protocol (IP) multimedia to mobile users. ... IP Telephony, also called Internet telephony, is the technology that makes it possible to have a telephone conversation over the Internet or a dedicated Internet Protocol (IP) network instead of dedicated voice transmission lines. ... A Private Branch eXchange (PBX) is a telephone exchange that serves a particular business or office, as opposed to one that a common carrier or telephone company operates for many businesses or for the general public. ... Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is an IETF standard protocol (RFC 3261 and several others for extensions, orginated by 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project; a mobile network standardisation body)) for IP-communication, enabling IP-Telephony gateways, client endpoints, PBXs and other communication systems or devices to communicate with each other. ... SCCP is a proprietary VoIP terminal control protocol originally developed by Selius Corporation. ... ZRTP is an extension to Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) which describes a method of Diffie-Hellman key agreement for Secure Real-time Transport Protocol (SRTP). ... The objective of this article is to provide a comprehensive list of SIP compliant VoIP devices - SIP Phones. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Session Initiation Protocol (sip) Charter (1523 words)
SIP: Session Initiation Protocol (RFC 3261) (647976 bytes)
An Extension to the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) for Symmetric Response Routing (RFC 3581) (29121 bytes)
Session Timers in the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) (RFC 4028) (65363 bytes)
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m