FACTOID # 22: South Dakota has the highest employment ratio in America, but the lowest median earnings of full-time male employees.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Serum protein electrophoresis

Serum protein electrophoresis is a laboratory test that examines specific proteins in the blood called globulins. Blood must first be collected, usually into an airtight vial or syringe. Electrophoresis is a laboratory technique where the blood serum (the fluid portion of the blood) is placed on special paper treated with agarose gel and exposed to an electric current to separate the serum protein components into five classifications by size and electrical charge, those being albumin, alpha-1-globulins, alpha-2-globulins, beta globulins, and gamma globulins. Red blood cells (erythrocytes) are present in the blood and help carry oxygen to the rest of the cells in the body Blood is a circulating tissue composed of fluid plasma and cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets). ... A globular protein is a protein that is globe-like, or rounded in shape, often soluble in aqueous solution. ... A syringe consists of a plunger fitted to a tube, called the barrel, which has a small opening on one end. ... In electricity, current is the rate of flow of charges, usually through a metal wire or some other electrical conductor. ... You may be looking for albumen, or egg white. ... Gamma globulins are a class of proteins in the blood, identified by their position after serum protein electrophoresis. ...

Contents


Albumin

A fall of 30% is necessary before the decrease shows on electrophoresis. Usually a single band is seen. Heterozygous individuals may produce bisalbuminaemia - two equally staining bands, the product of two genes. Some varients give rise to a wide band or two bands of unequal intensity but none of these varients is associated with disease. Increased mobility results from the binding of bilirubin, nonesterified fatty acids, penecillin and acetyl salicyclic acid, and occaisionally from tryptic digestion in acute pancreatitis. Heterozygote cells are diploid or polyploid and have different alleles at a locus (position) on homologous chromosomes. ... Bilirubin is a yellow breakdown product of haem (heme in American English). ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid (or organic acid), often with a long aliphatic tail (long chains), either saturated or unsaturated. ... Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas. ...


Absence of albumin is rare. This condition is called analbuminaemia. A decreased level of albumin, however, is common in many diseases and is especially important in liver disease. The liver is an organ in vertebrates including humans. ...


Albumin - Alpha-1 Interzone

Even staining in this zone is due to alpha-1 lipoprotein (High density lipoprotein - HDL). Decrease occurs in severe inflammation, acute hepatitis, and cirrhosis. It is not easy to recognise. High density lipoproteins (HDL) form a class of lipoproteins, varying somewhat in their size (8-11 nm in diameter) and contents, that carry cholesterol from the bodys tissues to the liver. ... Hepatitis is a gastroenterological disease, featuring inflammation of the liver. ... Cirrhosis is a chronic disease of the liver in which liver tissue is replaced by connective tissue, resulting in the loss of liver function. ...


An increse appears in severe alcoholics and in women during pregnancy and in puberty.


The high levels of AFP that may occur in hepatomas may result in a sharp band between the albumin and the alpha-1 zone.


Alpha-1 Zone

Orosmucoid and antitrypsin migrate together but orosmucoid stains poorly so alpha-1 antitrypsin constitutes most of the alpha-1 band. Alpha-1 antitrypsin has an SG group and thiol compounds may be bound to the protein altering their mobility. A decreased band is seen in the deficiency state. It is decreased in the nephrotic syndrome. Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is a genetic disorder that can cause lung disease in adults and liver disease in adults and children. ...


Bence Jones protein may bind to and retard the alpha-1 band. Bence Jones proteins are often found in the blood and urine of patients suffering from a malignant disease of the bone marrow. ...


Alpha-1 - Alpha-2 Interzone

Two faint bands may be seen representing alpha-1 antichymotrypsin and vitamin D binding protein. These bands fuse and intensify in early inflammation due to an increase in alpha-1 antichymotrypsin, an acute phase protein. Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... Acute phase proteins are a class of proteins that are synthetized in the liver in response to inflammation. ...


Alpha-2 Zone

This zone consists principally of alpha-2 macroglobulin and hepatoglobulin. There are typically low levels in haemolytic anaemia (hepatoglobulin is a suicide molecule which binds with free haemoglobin released from red blood cells and these complexes are rapidly removed by phagocytes). Hepatoglobulin is raised as part of the acute phase response and therfore there is a typical increase in alpha-2 inflammation. A normal alpha-2 and a raised alpha-1 is typical in hepatic metastases and cirrhosis. Hemolysis (alternative spelling haemolysis) is the excessive breakdown of red blood cells. ... 3-dimensional structure of hemoglobin Hemoglobin or haemoglobin is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red cells of the blood in mammals and other animals. ... Human red blood cells Red blood cells are the most common type of blood cell and are the vertebrate bodys principal means of delivering oxygen to body tissues via the blood. ... A phagocyte is a cell that ingests (and destroys) foreign matter, such as microorganisms or debris via a process known as phagocytosis, in which these cells ingest and kill offending cells by cellular digestion. ... Metastasis (Greek: change of the state) is the spread of cancer from its primary site to other places in the body. ...


Hepatoglobulin/haemaglobin complexes migrate more cathodally than hepatoglobulin as seen in the alpha-2 - beta interzone. This is typically seen as a broadening of the alpha-2 zone.


Alpha-2 macroglobulin is raised in children and the elderly. This is seen as a sharp front to the alpha-2 band. It is of little diagnostic significance but is markedly raised in association with glomerilar protein loss - the characteristic increased alpha-2 of the nephrotic syndrome, associated with decreased albumin.


Alpha-2 globulins can be raised in cirrhosis, diabetes, and malignancy. Cirrhosis is a chronic disease of the liver in which liver tissue is replaced by connective tissue, resulting in the loss of liver function. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... When normal cells are damaged or old they undergo apoptosis; cancer cells, however, avoid apoptosis. ...


Alpha-2 - Beta Interzone

Cold insoluble globulin forms a band here which is not seen in plasma because it is precipitated by heparin. There are low levels in inflammation and high levels in pregnancy. Heparin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


B lipoprotein forms an irregular crenated band in this zone. High levels are seen in type II hypercholesterolaemia and in the nephrotic syndrome. Hypercholesterolemia (literally: high blood cholesterol) is the presence of high levels of cholesterol in the blood. ...


Beta Zone

Transferrin comprises the beta-1 band. Increased beta-1 protein is typical of iron deficient anaemia, pregnancy, and oestrogen therapy. Transferrin is a protein for iron ion delivery. ... Estrogens (or oestrogens) are a group of steroid compounds that function as the primary female sex hormone. ...


Beta-2 is comprised of C3 (Compliment protein 3). It is raised in the acute phase response.


Gamma Zone

The immunoglobulins are the only proteins present in the normal gamma region. IgA has the most anodal mobility and migrates in the beta-gamma region. High levels give rise to beta/gamma fusion as in cirrhosis, respiratory infection, skin disease, or rheumatiod arthritis. IgA deficiency occurs in 1:500 of the population, as is suggested by a pallor in the gamma zone. Schematic of antibody binding to an antigen An antibody is a protein complex used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects like bacteria and viruses. ... IGA may stand for: Koji Igarashi, a video game producer Interactive genetic algorithm International Geothermal Association Independent Glass Association International Gothic Association International Gamers Award International Goat Association Irish Games Association Irish Geological Association ImmunoGlobulin A - see IgA nephritis which is a renal disease IGA (supermarkets) Independent Grocers Association or... Upper respiratory tract infection, also popularly known as either the acronym URTI or URI, is the disease characterised by an acute infection which involves the upper respiratory tract: nose, sinuses, pharynx, or larynx. ... Dermatology is a branch of medicine dealing with the skin, its structure, functions, and diseases (from Greek derma, skin), as well as its appendages (nails, hair, sweat glands). ... Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, inflammatory autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to attack the joints. ...


Commonest causes of hypergammaglobulinaemia detected by electrophoresis are severe infection, chronic liver disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, and rheumatoid arthritis. An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ...


Hypogammaglobulinaemia is easily identifiable. It is normal in infants.


Zones or faint bands in the gamma region are often seen as a result of clones of immunoglobulins responding to antigenic challenge, e.g. in chronic hepatitis and chronic viral infections. Hepatitis is a gastroenterological disease, featuring inflammation of the liver. ... Infection is also the title of an episode of the television series Babylon 5; see Infection (Babylon 5). ...


C reactive protein can be seen as a faint band when the level is grossly abnormal, e.g. in tissue damage. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a plasma protein, an acute phase protein produced by the liver. ... Look up Tissue on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The word tissue has several meanings: Aerial tissu is an acrobatic art form, and is one of the circus arts. ...


Dense narrow bands composing of immunoglobulins of a single class and containing only one type of light chain are known as paraproteins or M (monoclonal) proteins. IgA paraproteins migrate most anodally and may be confused with beta globulins. Paraproteins can arise from benign or malignant clones of B cells and their recognition and investigation is very important. B cells are lymphocytes that play a large role in the humoral immune response (as opposed to the cell-mediated immune response). ...


Lysozyme may be seen as a band cathodal to the slowest gamma in myelomonocytic leukaemia in which it is released from tumour cells. Lysozyme 3D structure. ... Leukemia (leukaemia in Commonwealth English) is a group of blood diseases characterized by malignancies (cancer) of the blood-forming tissues. ... Tumor (American English) or tumour (British English) originally means swelling, and is sometimes still used with that meaning. ...


Myeloma is the commonest cause of IgA and IgG paraproteinaemias but chronic lymphatic leukaemia and lymphosarcoma are not uncommon and usually give rise to IgM paraproteins. Waldenstrom's macroglobulinaemia, a malignant lymphoma, also gives rise to an IgM paraprotein. Multiple myeloma (also known simply as myeloma or plasma cell myeloma) is a hematological malignancy of plasma cells, the cells of the immune system that produce antibodies. ... Schematic of antibody binding to an antigen An antibody is a protein complex used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects like bacteria and viruses. ... A diffuse malignant lymphoma. ... Schematic of antibody binding to an antigen An antibody is a protein complex used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects like bacteria and viruses. ... Lymphoma is a general term for malignancies of lymphocytes or, more rarely, of histiocytes. ...


Benign paraproteins are usually faint and do not show immunoparesis. Faint bands seen in the gamma region may be due to light chain disease, particularly if there is immune peresis.


Fibrinogen from plasma samples will be seen in the fast gamma region. Fibrin is a protein involved in the clotting of blood. ... The word plasma has a Greek root which means to be formed or molded (the word plastic shares this root). ...


 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m