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Encyclopedia > Serotonin
Serotonin
IUPAC name 5-Hydroxytryptamine or
3-(2-aminoethyl)-1H-indol-5-ol
Identifiers
CAS number [50-67-9]
PubChem 5202
MeSH Serotonin
SMILES NCCc1c[nH]c2ccc(O)cc12
InChI 1/C10H12N2O/c11-4-3-7-6-12-10-2-1- 8(13)5-9(7)10/h1-2,5-6,12-13H,3-4,11H2
Properties
Molecular formula C10H12N2O
Molar mass 176.215
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references

Serotonin (pronounced /ˌsɛrəˈtoʊnən/) (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter synthesized in serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract of animals including humans. Serotonin is also found in many mushrooms and plants, including fruits and vegetables. Professional wrestling has accrued a considerable number of slang, in-references and jargon. ... Ravens Nest was a professional wrestling stable led by Raven that was present in Extreme Championship Wrestling between 1995 and 1997. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2000x1431, 33 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Serotonin ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x831, 185 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Serotonin History of the molecule ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. ... The IUPAC International Chemical Identifier (InChI), developed by IUPAC and NIST, is a digital equivalent of the IUPAC name for any particular covalent compound. ... A chemical formula is an easy way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... The plimsoll symbol as used in shipping In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals exactly). ... In biochemistry, monoamines are a group of organic compounds containing only one amino group. ... Chemical structure of D-aspartic acid, a common amino acid neurotransmitter. ... This article is about cells in the nervous system. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... Serotonin Enterochromaffin (EC) cells (Kulchitsky cells) are a type of enteroendocrine cell[1] occurring in the epithelia lining the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract. ... Gut redirects here. ... The word Animals when used alone has several possible meanings in the English language. ... Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ... Basidiocarps (mushrooms) of the fungus Leucocoprinus sp. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Vegetable (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Function

In the central nervous system, serotonin plays an important role as a neurotransmitter in the modulation of anger, aggression, body temperature, mood, sleep, sexuality, appetite, and metabolism, as well as stimulating vomiting.[citation needed] A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... Chemical structure of D-aspartic acid, a common amino acid neurotransmitter. ... This article is about the emotion. ... In psychology and other social and behavioral sciences, aggression refers to behavior that is intended to cause harm or pain. ... Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when temperature surrounding is very different. ... A mood is a relatively lasting affective state. ... For other uses, see Sleep (disambiguation). ... This article is about sexual practices (i. ... The appetite is the desire to eat food, felt as hunger. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... Heaving redirects here. ...


In addition, serotonin is also a peripheral signal mediator. It is found extensively in the human gastrointestinal tract as about 80-90% of the body's total serotonin is found in the enterochromaffin cells in the gut.[1][2] In the blood, the major storage site is platelets, which collect serotonin for use in mediating post-injury vasoconstriction.[citation needed] Generally, a periphery is a boundary or outer part of any space or body. ... Gut redirects here. ... A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ...


Gross anatomy

The neurons of the raphe nuclei are the principal source of 5-HT release in the brain.[3] The raphe nuclei are neurons grouped into about nine pairs and distributed along the entire length of the brainstem, centered around the reticular formation.[4] The raphe nuclei (Latin for the bit in a fold or seam) is a moderately sized cluster of nuclei found in the brain stem, and releases serotonin to the rest of the brain. ... The brain stem is the stalk of the brain below the cerebral hemispheres. ... The reticular formation is a part of the brain which is involved in stereotypical actions, such as walking, sleeping, and lying down. ...


Axons from the neurons of the raphe nuclei form a neurotransmitter system, reaching large areas of the brain. Axons of neurons in the caudal dorsal raphe nucleus terminate in the following locations: Neurotransmitter systems are systems of neurons in the brain expressing certain types of neurotransmitters, and thus form distinct systems. ... The dorsal raphe nucleus consists of rostral and caudal subdivisions. ...

On the other hand, axons of neurons in the rostral dorsal raphe nucleus terminate in e.g.: Figure 1a: A human brain, with the cerebellum in purple. ... Figure 1a: A human brain, with the cerebellum in purple. ... The Spinal cord nested in the vertebral column. ... The dorsal raphe nucleus consists of rostral and caudal subdivisions. ...

Thus, activation of this serotonin system has effects on large areas of the brain. The thalamus (from Greek θάλαμος = bedroom, chamber, IPA= /ˈθæləməs/) is a pair and symmetric part of the brain. ... Coronal slices of human brain showing the basal ganglia, the striatum and pallidum globus pallidus: external segment (GPe), subthalamic nucleus (STN), globus pallidus: internal segment (GPi), and substantia nigra (SN). ... The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). ... The nucleus accumbens (NAcc), also known as the accumbens nucleus or as the nucleus accumbens septi (Latin for nucleus leaning against the septum), is a collection of neurons located where the head of the caudate and the anterior portion of the putamen meet just lateral to the septum pellucidum. ... The neocortex (Latin for new bark or new rind) is a part of the brain of mammals. ... Cingulate gyrus is a gyrus in the medial part of the brain. ... The cingulum is a collection of white matter fibers projecting from the cingulate gyrus to the entorhinal cortex in the brain, allowing for communication between components of the limbic system. ... For other uses, see Hippocampus (disambiguation). ... This article is about part of the human brain. ...


Microanatomy

Serotonin is released from serotonergic varicosities (swellings) into the extra neuronal space, but not from synaptic terminal boutons as other neurotransmitters.[citation needed] Serotonin diffuses over a relatively wide gap (>20µm) to activate 5-HT receptors located on the dendrites, cell bodies and presynaptic terminals of adjacent neurons. Bouton can refer to: De Dion-Bouton Bouton (synapse) Category: ... In the field of neurochemistry, 5-HT receptors are receptors for the neurotransmitter and peripheral signal mediator serotonin, also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT. 5-HT receptors are located on the cell membrane of nerve cells and other cell types in animals and mediate the effects of serotonin... Dendrites (from Greek dendron, “tree”) are the branched projections of a neuron that act to conduct the electrical stimulation received from other neural cells to the cell body, or soma, of the neuron from which the dendrites project. ... In a synapse between two neurons, the cell that releases the neurotransmitter is referred to as the presynaptic cell. ...


Receptors
Main article: 5-HT receptor

5-HT receptors are the receptors for serotonin. They are located on the cell membrane of nerve cells and other cell types in animals and mediate the effects of serotonin as the endogenous ligand and of a broad range of pharmaceutical and hallucinogenic drugs. With the exception of the 5-HT3 receptor, a ligand gated ion channel, all other 5-HT receptors are G protein coupled seven transmembrane (or heptahelical) receptors that activate an intracellular second messenger cascade.[citation needed] In the field of neurochemistry, 5-HT receptors are receptors for the neurotransmitter and peripheral signal mediator serotonin, also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT. 5-HT receptors are located on the cell membrane of nerve cells and other cell types in animals and mediate the effects of serotonin... In the field of neurochemistry, 5-HT receptors are receptors for the neurotransmitter and peripheral signal mediator serotonin, also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT. 5-HT receptors are located on the cell membrane of nerve cells and other cell types in animals and mediate the effects of serotonin... In biochemistry, a receptor is a protein on the cell membrane or within the cytoplasm or cell nucleus that binds to a specific molecule (a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter, hormone, or other substance, and initiates the cellular response to the ligand. ... This article is about cells in the nervous system. ... Look up Endogenous in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In chemistry, a ligand is an atom, ion, or molecule (see also: functional group) that generally donates one or more of its electrons through a coordinate covalent bond to, or shares its electrons through a covalent bond with, one or more central atoms or ions (these ligands act as a... The general group of pharmacological agents commonly known as hallucinogens can be divided into three broad categories: psychedelics, dissociatives, and deliriants. ... The 5-HT3 receptors are excitatory ligand-gated cation channel receptors, a unique property in the 5-HT receptor family. ... Ion channels are pore-forming proteins that help to establish and control the small voltage gradient that exists across the plasma membrane of all living cells (see cell potential) by allowing the flow of ions down their electrochemical gradient. ... The seven transmembrane α-helix structure of a G-protein-coupled receptor. ... In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word intracellular means inside the cell. It is used in contrast to extracellular (outside the cell). ... In biology, second messengers are low-weight diffusible molecules that are used in signal transduction to relay signals within a cell. ...


Genetic factors

Serotonin has broad activities in the brain, and genetic variation in serotonin receptors and the serotonin transporter, which facilitates reuptake of serotonin into presynapses, have been implicated in neurological diseases. Drugs targeting serotonin-induced pathways are being used in the treatment of many psychiatric disorders, and one focus of clinical research is the influence of genetics on serotonin action and metabolism in psychiatric settings. Such studies have revealed that the variation in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter protein accounts for nearly 10% of total variance in anxiety-related personality [5], and the effect of this gene on depression was found to interact with the environment [6]. The serotonin transporter is a monoamine transporter protein. ... Look up depression in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Levels of serotonin in the brain show association with aggression (Caspi et al. 2002), and a mutation in the gene which codes for the 5-HT2A receptor may double the risk of suicide for those with that genotype.[7] The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...


Termination

Serotonergic action is terminated primarily via uptake of 5-HT from the synapse. This is through the specific monoamine transporter for 5-HT, 5-HT reuptake transporter, on the presynaptic neuron. Various agents can inhibit 5-HT reuptake including MDMA (ecstasy), amphetamine, cocaine, dextromethorphan (an antitussive), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Reuptake, or re-uptake, is the reabsorption of a neurotransmitter by the neurotransmitter transporter of a pre-synaptic neuron after it has performed its function of transmitting a neural impulse. ... Monoamine transporters, as the name implies, transfer monoamine neurotransmitters in or out of a cell. ... The serotonin transporter is a monoamine transporter protein. ... ecstasy and religious ecstasy MDMA, most commonly known today by the street name ecstasy, is a synthetic entactogen of the phenethylamine family whose primary effect is to stimulate the brain to rapidly secrete large amounts of serotonin, causing a general sense of openness, empathy, energy, euphoria, and well-being. ... Amphetamine is a prescription CNS stimulant commonly used to treat attention-deficit disorder (ADD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children. ... For other uses, see Cocaine (disambiguation). ... Dextromethorphan (DXM or DM) is an antitussive (cough suppressant) drug found in many over-the-counter cold and cough medicines. ... A cough medicine is a drug used to treat coughing and related conditions. ... Chemical structure of the tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline Tricyclic antidepressants are a class of antidepressant drugs first used in the 1950s. ... SSRI redirects here; for other uses, see SSRI (disambiguation). ...


Endothelial cell function and Serotonin

5-hydroxytryptamine evokes endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation and stimulates phosphorylation of p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in bovine aortic endothelial cell cultures.[8]


Other functions

Recent research suggests that serotonin plays an important role in liver regeneration and acts as a mitogen (induces cell division) throughout the body.[9] The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... A mitogen is a chemical, usually some form of a protein that encourages a cell to commence cell division, triggering mitosis. ...


Pathology

If neurons that make serotonin — serotonergic neurons — are abnormal in infants, there is a risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).[10][11] Low levels of serotonin may also be associated with intense religious experiences.[12] Science and Religion are portrayed to be in harmony in the Tiffany window Education (1890). ...


Recent research conducted at Rockefeller University shows that in both patients who suffer from depression and in mice that model the disorder, levels of the p11 protein are decreased. This protein is related to serotonin transmission within the brain.[13] Founders Hall Rockefeller University is a private university focusing primarily on graduate and postgraduate education research in the biomedical fields, located between 63rd and 68th Streets along York Avenue, on the Upper East Side of Manhattan island in New York City, New York. ...


Synthesis

The pathway for the synthesis of serotonin from tryptophan
The pathway for the synthesis of serotonin from tryptophan

In the body, serotonin is synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan by a short metabolic pathway consisting of two enzymes: tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) and amino acid decarboxylase (DDC). The TPH-mediated reaction is the rate-limiting step in the pathway. TPH has been shown to exist in two forms: TPH1, found in several tissues, and TPH2, which is a brain-specific isoform. There is evidence that genetic polymorphisms in both these subtypes influence susceptibility to anxiety and depression. There is also evidence that ovarian hormones can affect the expression of TPH in various species, suggesting a possible mechanism for postpartum depression and premenstrual stress syndrome. Image File history File links Serotonin_biosynthesis. ... Image File history File links Serotonin_biosynthesis. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... Tryptophan (abbreviated as Trp or W)[1] is one of the 20 standard amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins, and an essential amino acid in the human diet. ... In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) is an enzyme (EC 1. ... Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (EC 4. ... Biological tissue is a collection of interconnected cells that perform a similar function within an organism. ... In biology, a protein isoform is a version of a protein with some small differences, usually a splice variant or the product of some posttranslational modification. ... In biology, polymorphism can be defined as the occurrence in the same habitat of two or more forms of a trait in such frequencies that the rarer cannot be maintained by recurrent mutation alone. ... Major endocrine glands. ... Postpartum depression (also postnatal depression) is a form of clinical depression which can affect women, and less frequently men, after childbirth. ... PMS redirects here. ...


Serotonin taken orally does not pass into the serotonergic pathways of the central nervous system because it does not cross the blood-brain barrier. However, tryptophan and its metabolite 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), from which serotonin is synthesized, can and do cross the blood-brain barrier. These agents are available as dietary supplements and may be effective serotonergic agents. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a membranic structure that acts primarily to protect the brain from chemicals in the blood, while still allowing essential metabolic function. ... Tryptophan (abbreviated as Trp or W)[1] is one of the 20 standard amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins, and an essential amino acid in the human diet. ... A metabolite is the product of metabolism. ... 5-Hydroxytryptophan or 5-HTP is a naturally-occurring amino acid, a precursor to the neurotransmitter serotonin and an intermediate in tryptophan metabolism. ... A dietary supplement is intended to supply nutrients, (vitamins, minerals, fatty acids or amino acids) that are missing or not consumed in sufficient quantity in a persons diet. ...


One product of serotonin breakdown is 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5 HIAA), which is excreted in the urine. Serotonin and 5 HIAA are sometimes produced in excess amounts by certain tumors or cancers, and levels of these substances may be measured in the urine to test for these tumors. 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) is a breakdown product of serotonin that is excreted in the urine. ... This article is about the urine of animals generally. ... For malignant tumors specifically, see cancer. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ...


Serotonergic drugs

Several classes of drugs target the 5-HT system including some antidepressants, antipsychotics, anxiolytics, antiemetics, and antimigraine drugs as well as the psychedelic drugs and empathogens. Many drugs are provided in tablet form. ... Prozac, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Venlafaxine An antidepressant is a psychiatric medication or other substance (nutrient or herb) used for alleviating depression or dysthymia (milder depression). ... The term antipsychotic is applied to a group of drugs used to treat psychosis. ... An anxiolytic is a drug prescribed for the treatment of symptoms of anxiety. ... An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea. ... This article is about the disorder. ... A fractal pattern similar to the spiral patterns that may be seen as the result of some psychedelic drug experiences. ... The term empathogen was coined in 1983 by Ralph Metzner to denote chemical agents inducing feelings of empathy. ...


Psychoactive drugs

The psychedelic drugs psilocin/psilocybin, DMT, mescaline, and LSD mimic the action of serotonin primarily at 5-HT2A receptor. The empathogen MDMA (ecstasy) releases serotonin from synaptic vesicles of neurons. A fractal pattern similar to the spiral patterns that may be seen as the result of some psychedelic drug experiences. ... Psilocin,(4-HO-DMT) sometimes called psilocine or psilotsin, is a psychedelic (hallucinogenic) mushroom alkaloid. ... Psilocybin (also known as psilocybine) is a psychedelic alkaloid of the tryptamine family, found in psilocybin mushrooms. ... Dimethyltryptamine (DMT), also known as N,N-dimethyltryptamine, is a psychedelic tryptamine. ... Not to be confused with mesclun. ... Lysergic acid diethylamide, commonly called LSD, LSD-25, or acid. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The term empathogen was coined in 1983 by Ralph Metzner to denote chemical agents inducing feelings of empathy. ... ecstasy and religious ecstasy MDMA, most commonly known today by the street name ecstasy, is a synthetic entactogen of the phenethylamine family whose primary effect is to stimulate the brain to rapidly secrete large amounts of serotonin, causing a general sense of openness, empathy, energy, euphoria, and well-being. ... The word synaptic refers to the synapse in neuroanatomy. ... This article is about cells in the nervous system. ...


Antidepressants

The MAOIs prevent the breakdown of monoamine neurotransmitters (including serotonin), and therefore increase concentrations of the neurotransmitter in the brain. MAOI therapy is associated with many adverse drug reactions, and patients are at risk of hypertensive emergency triggered by foods with high tyramine content and certain drugs. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of antidepressant drugs prescribed for the treatment of depression. ... Monoamine neurotransmitters are neurotransmitters and neuromodulators that contain one amino group that is connected to an aromatic ring by a two-carbon chain (-CH2-CH2-). All monoamines are derived from aromatic amino acids like phenylalanine, tyrosine, histidine, tryptophan, and the thyroid hormones by the action of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase... A hypertensive emergency is severe hypertension with acute impairment of an organ system (especially the central nervous system, cardiovascular system and/or the renal system) and the possibility of irreversible organ-damage. ... In organic chemistry tyramine (4-hydroxy-phenethylamine, para-tyramine, p-tyramine) is a monoamine compound derived from the amino acid tyrosine. ...


Some drugs inhibit this re-uptake of serotonin, again making it stay in the synapse longer. The tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) inhibit the re-uptake of both serotonin and norepinephrine. The newer selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have fewer (though still numerous) side-effects and fewer interactions with other drugs. Chemical structure of the tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline Tricyclic antidepressants are a class of antidepressant drugs first used in the 1950s. ... Norepinephrine (INN)(abbr. ... Myoglobin (blue) with its ligand heme (orange) bound. ... SSRI is an acronym that stands for several things: It is a class of antidepressants called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor SSRI also is used as the stock symbol for Silver Standard Resources Inc. ...


Antiemetics

5-HT3 antagonists such as ondansetron, granisetron, and tropisetron are important antiemetic agents. They are particularly important in treating the nausea and vomiting that occur during anticancer chemotherapy using cytotoxic drugs. Another application is in treatment of post-operative nausea and vomiting. Applications to the treatment of depression and other mental and psychological conditions have also been investigated with some positive results. Skeletal formula of ondansetron, the prototypical 5-HT3 antagonist The 5-HT3 antagonists are a class of medications which act as receptor antagonists at the 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptor (5-HT3 receptor), a subtype of serotonin receptor found in terminals of the vagus nerve and certain areas of the brain. ... Ondansetron (INN) (IPA: ) is a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist used mainly to treat nausea and vomiting following chemotherapy. ... Granisetron is used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy and radiation therapy. ... Tropisetron (INN) is a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist used mainly to treat nausea and vomiting following chemotherapy, although it has been used experimentally as an analgesic in cases of fibromyalgia. ... An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... Heaving redirects here. ... Chemotherapy, in its most general sense, refers to treatment of disease by chemicals that kill cells, specifically those of micro-organisms or cancer. ...


Serotonin syndrome

Extremely high levels of serotonin can have toxic and potentially fatal effects, causing a condition known as serotonin syndrome. In practice, such toxic levels are essentially impossible to reach through an overdose of a single anti-depressant drug, but require a combination of serotonergic agents, such as an SSRI with an MAOI.[14] The intensity of the symptoms of serotonin syndrome vary over a wide spectrum, and the milder forms are seen even at non-toxic levels.[15] For example, recreational doses of MDMA (ecstasy) will generally cause such symptoms but only rarely lead to true toxicity.[citation needed] Serotonin syndrome is a rare, but potentially life-threatening adverse drug reaction that results from intentional self-poisoning, therapeutic drug use, inadvertent interactions between drugs, or the recreational use of certain drugs. ... A drug overdose occurs when a chemical substance (i. ... SSRI is an acronym that stands for several things: It is a class of antidepressants called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor SSRI also is used as the stock symbol for Silver Standard Resources Inc. ... Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of antidepressant drugs prescribed for the treatment of depression. ... ecstasy and religious ecstasy MDMA, most commonly known today by the street name ecstasy, is a synthetic entactogen of the phenethylamine family whose primary effect is to stimulate the brain to rapidly secrete large amounts of serotonin, causing a general sense of openness, empathy, energy, euphoria, and well-being. ... // Toxic and Intoxicated redirect here – toxic has other uses, which can be found at Toxicity (disambiguation); for the state of being intoxicated by alcohol see Drunkenness. ...


Chronic diseases resulting from serotonin 5-HT2B overstimulation

Main article: Cardiac fibrosis

In blood, serotonin stored in platelets is active wherever platelets bind, as a vasoconstrictor to stop bleeding, and also as a fibrocyte mitotic, to aid healing. Because of these effects, overdoses of serotonin, or serotonin agonist drugs, may cause acute or chronic pulmonary hypertension from pulmonary vasoconstriction, or else syndromes of retroperitoneal fibrosis or cardiac valve fibrosis (endocardial fibrosis) from overstimulation of serotonic growth receptors on fibrocytes.[citation needed] Cardiac fibrosis refers to an abnormal thickening of the heart valves due to inappropriate proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts. ... Retroperitoneal fibrosis or Ormonds disease is a disease featuring the proliferation of fibrous tissue in the retroperitoneum, the compartiment of the body containing the kidneys, aorta, renal tract and various other structures. ... Cardiac fibrosis refers to an abnormal thickening of the heart valves due to inappropriate proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts. ...


Serotonin itself may cause a syndrome of cardiac fibrosis when it is eaten in large quantities in the diet (the Matoki banana of East Africa) or when it is over-secreted by certain mid-gut carcinoid tumors.[citation needed] The valvular fibrosis in such cases is typically on the right side of the heart, since excess serotonin in the serum outside platelets is metabolized in the lungs, and does not reach the left circulation.[citation needed] Picture of a carcinoid tumour that encroaches into lumen of the small bowel. ...


Serotonergic agonist drugs in overdose in experimental animals not only cause acute (and sometimes fatal) pulmonary hypertension, but there is epidemiologic evidence that chronic use of certain of these drugs produce a chronic pulmonary hypertensive syndrome in humans.[citation needed] Some serotinergic agonist drugs also cause fibrosis anywhere in the body, particularly the syndrome of retroperitoneal fibrosis, as well as cardiac valve fibrosis.[16] Agonists In pharmacology an agonist is a substance that binds to a specific receptor and triggers a response in the cell. ... In medicine, pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an increase in blood pressure in the pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein, or pulmonary capillaries, together known as the lung vasculature, leading to shortness of breath, dizziness, fainting, and other symptoms, all of which are exacerbated by exertion. ... Retroperitoneal fibrosis or Ormonds disease is a disease featuring the proliferation of fibrous tissue in the retroperitoneum, the compartiment of the body containing the kidneys, aorta, renal tract and various other structures. ... Cardiac fibrosis refers to an abnormal thickening of the heart valves due to inappropriate proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts. ...


In the past, three groups of serotonergic drugs have been epidemiolgically linked with these syndromes. They are the serotonergic vasoconstrictive anti-migraine drugs (ergotamine and methysergide),[17] the serotonergic appetite suppressant drugs (fenfluramine, chlorphentermine, and aminorex), and certain anti-parkinsonian dopaminergic agonists, which also stimulate serotonergic 5-HT2B receptors. These include pergolide and cabergoline, but not the more dopamine-specific lisuride.[18] As with fenfluramine, some of these drugs have been withdrawn from the market after groups taking them showed a statistical increase of one or more of the side effects described. An example is pergolide. The drug was in decreasing use since reported in 2003 to be associated with cardiac fibrosis.[19] Two independent studies published in the New England Journal of Medicine in January 2007, implicated pergolide along with cabergoline in causing valvular heart disease.[20][21] As a result of this, the FDA removed pergolide from the U.S. market in March, 2007.[22] (Since cabergoline is not approved in the U.S. for Parkinson's Disease, but for hyperprolactinemia, the drug remains on the market. Treatment for hyperprolactinemia requires lower doses than that for Parkinson's Disease, diminishing the risk of valvular heart disease).[23] Ergotamine is a vasoconstrictor used for migraine prevention and is sometimes mixed with caffeine. ... Methysergide (UML-491) is a prescription drug used for prophylaxis of migraine headaches and is sold under the brand names Sansert® and Deseril® in 2mg dosages. ... Fenfluramine is a drug that was part of the Fen-Phen anti-obesity medication (the other drug being phentermine). ... Chlorphentermine (Apsedon, Desopimon, Lucofen) is a stimulant drug which was used as an appetite suppressant. ... Aminorex is an anorectic stimulant drug of the 2-Amino-5-Aryloxazoline class. ... Pergolide is an ergoline-based dopamine receptor agonist used for the treatment of Parkinsons disease. ... // Introduction and Phrmacology Cabergoline (brand names Dostinex® and Cabaser®), an ergot-derivative, is a potent dopamine receptor agonist on D2-Receptors. ... Lisuride (brand name in Germany Dopergin) is an anti-Parkinsons drug of the iso-ergoline class, chemically related to the dopaminergic ergoline Parkinsons drugs. ... Pergolide is an ergoline-based dopamine receptor agonist used for the treatment of Parkinsons disease. ... The New England Journal of Medicine (New Engl J Med or NEJM) is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society. ... // Introduction and Phrmacology Cabergoline (brand names Dostinex® and Cabaser®), an ergot-derivative, is a potent dopamine receptor agonist on D2-Receptors. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... FDA redirects here. ...


Because neither the amino acid L-tryptophan nor the SSRI-class antidepressants raise blood serotonin levels[citation needed], they are not under suspicion to cause the syndromes described. However, since 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) does raise blood serotonin levels, it is under some of the same scrutiny as actively serotonergic drugs.[citation needed] Tryptophan is an amino acid and essential in human nutrition. ... SSRI is an acronym that stands for several things: It is a class of antidepressants called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor SSRI also is used as the stock symbol for Silver Standard Resources Inc. ... 5-HTP (5-Hydroxy-tryptophan) is decarboxylated to the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) by the enzyme aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase. ...


Illness Caused by lack of serotonin

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) can be a debilitating disorder with the following two anxiety-related essential features: obsessions (undesirable, recurrent, disturbing thoughts) and compulsions (repetitive or ritualized behaviors). Some research shows that it may have to do with serotonin, which helps to keep people from repeating the same behaviors over and over again. A person who has OCD may not have enough serotonin. Therefore, many people who have OCD can function better when they take medicines that increase the amount of serotonin in their brain.


In unicellular organisms

Serotonin is used by a variety of single-cell organisms for various purposes. Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have been found to be toxic to algae.[24] The gastrointestinal parasite Entamoeba histolytica secretes serotonin, causing a sustained secretory diarrhea in some patients.[25][26] Patients infected with Entamoeba histolytica have been found to have highly elevated serum serotonin levels which returned to normal following resolution of the infection.[27] Entamoeba histolytica also responds to the presence of serotonin by becoming more virulent.[28] For the infection and disease caused by this parasite, refer to Amoebiasis. ... For the infection and disease caused by this parasite, refer to Amoebiasis. ... For the infection and disease caused by this parasite, refer to Amoebiasis. ...


In plants

Serotonin is found in mushrooms and plants, including fruits and vegetables. The highest values of 25–400 mg/kg have been found in nuts of the walnut (Juglans) and hickory (Carya) genuses. Serotonin concentrations of 3–30 mg/kg have been found in plantain, pineapple, banana, kiwifruit, plums, and tomatoes. Moderate levels from 0.1–3 mg/kg have been found in a wide range of tested vegetables.[29] Serotonin is one compound of the poison contained in the stinging hairs of the stinging nettle (Urtica dioica). It should be noted that serotonin, unlike its precursors 5-HTP and tryptophan, does not cross the blood–brain barrier. Several plants contain serotonin together with a family of related tryptamines that are methylated at the amino (NH2) and hydroxy (OH) groups, are N-oxides, or miss the OH group. Examples are plants from the Anadenanthera genus that are used in the hallucinogenic yopo snuff. For other uses, see Mushroom (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Popular Japanese fashion magazine throughout the 1990s; the photography of which has recently been reissued in two collections from Phaidon press. ... For other uses, see Vegetable (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Walnut (disambiguation). ... Species See text Comparison of Carya nuts Ripe hickory nuts ready to fall, Andrews, SC Hickory is a tree of the genus Carya, including 17-19 species of deciduous trees with pinnately compound leaves and large nuts. ... This article is about the fruit. ... For other uses, see Pineapple (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Binomial name C.F.Liang. ... Species See text. ... For other uses, see Tomato (disambiguation). ... Binomial name L. The stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) is a herbaceous flowering plant, also known in the United States as 7-minute-itch, native to Europe, Asia, northern Africa, and North America, and is the best known member of the nettle genus Urtica. ... The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a membranic structure that acts primarily to protect the brain from chemicals in the blood, while still allowing essential metabolic function. ... Tryptamine (3-(2-aminoethyl)indole) is a monoamine compound that is widespread in nature. ... In chemistry a methyl-group is a hydrophobic Alkyl functional group which is derived from methane (CH4). ... The general structure of an amine Amines are organic compounds and a type of functional group that contain nitrogen as the key atom. ... This prefix in chemical nomenclature indicates the presence of a hydroxyl functional group (-OH). ... An amine oxide, also known as amine-N-oxide and N-oxide, is a chemical compound that contains the functional group R3N+-O− (sometimes written as R3N=O or R3N→O). ... Species See text Anadenanthera is a genus of South American trees in the Legume family, Leguminosae or Fabaceae. ... Hallucinogenic drug - drugs that can alter sensory perceptions. ... Binomial name Anadenanthera peregrina Speg. ...


In animals

Serotonin as a neurotransmitter is found in all animals, including insects. Several toad venoms, as well as that of the Brazilian Wandering Spider and stingray, contain serotonin and related tryptamines. Chemical structure of D-aspartic acid, a common amino acid neurotransmitter. ... Binomial name Girard in Baird, 1859 The Colorado River Toad or Bufo alvarius, also known as the Sonoran Desert Toad, is a psychoactive toad found in the Southwestern United States and northern Mexico. ... For other uses, see Stingray (disambiguation). ...


History

Isolated and named in 1948 by Maurice M. Rapport, Arda Green, and Irvine Page of the Cleveland Clinic,[30] the name serotonin is something of a misnomer and reflects the circumstances of the compound's discovery. It was initially identified as a vasoconstrictor substance in blood serum – hence serotonin, a serum agent affecting vascular tone. This agent was later chemically identified as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) by Rapport, and, as the broad range of physiological roles were elucidated, 5-HT became the preferred name in the pharmacological field. An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy the notability guideline or one of the following guidelines for inclusion on Wikipedia: Biographies, Books, Companies, Fiction, Music, Neologisms, Numbers, Web content, or several proposals for new guidelines. ... The Cleveland Clinic (formally known as the Cleveland Clinic Foundation) is a multispecialty academic medical center located in Cleveland, Ohio, United States. ... Look up Misnomer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ...


References

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  4. ^ |The Raphe nuclei group of neurons are located along the brain stem from the labels 'Mid Brain' to 'Oblongata', centered on the pons. ( See relevant image.)
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  17. ^ books.google.com Acessed May 6, 2008
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  20. ^ Schade, Rene; Andersohn, Frank; Suissa, Samy; Haverkamp, Wilhelm & Garbe, Edeltraut (2007-01-04), “Dopamine Agonists and the Risk of Cardiac-Valve Regurgitation”, New England Journal of Medicine 356 (1): 29-38, <http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/full/356/1/29> 
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The raphe nuclei (Latin for the bit in a fold or seam) is a moderately sized cluster of nuclei found in the brain stem, and releases serotonin to the rest of the brain. ... Neurons (also called nerve cells) are the primary cells of the nervous system. ... The reticular formation is a part of the brain which is involved in stereotypical actions, such as walking, sleeping, and lying down. ... In biological anatomy, the mesencephalon (or midbrain) is the middle of three vesicles that arise from the neural tube that forms the brain of developing animals. ... The medulla oblongata is the lower portion of the brainstem. ... For other uses, see Pons (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Gray715. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The Canadian Medical Association Journal (CMAJ) is a general medical journal that is published bimonthly in Canada by the Canadian Medical Association (CMA). ... Science is the academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and is considered one of the worlds most prestigious scientific journals. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Adverse Drug Reactions Advisory Committee or ADRAC is a subcommittee of the Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) which monitors the safety of medicines in Australia. ... The Therapeutic Goods Administration or TGA is the regulatory body for therapeutic goods (including medicines, medical devices, gene technology, and blood products) in Australia. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... FDA redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links

Autacoids are biological factors that are primarily characterized by the effect they have upon smooth muscle. ... Angiotensin is an oligopeptide in the blood that causes vasoconstriction, increased blood pressure, and release of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex. ... In biochemistry, eicosanoids are a class of oxygenated hydrophobic molecules that largely function as autocrine and paracrine mediators. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A kinin is any of various structurally related polypeptides, such as bradykinin and kallikrein, that act locally to induce vasodilation and contraction of smooth muscle. ... A platelet-activating factor, also known as a PAF or paf-acether is a potent phospholipid activator and mediator of many leucocyte functions, including platelet aggregation, inflammation, and anaphylaxis. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Serotonin definition - Depression Symptoms, Causes, and Treatments Including Clinical and Manic Depression on ... (204 words)
Serotonin: A hormone, also called 5-hydroxytryptamine, in the pineal gland, blood platelets, the digestive tract, and the brain.
Serotonin acts both as a chemical messenger that transmits nerve signals between nerve cells and that causes blood vessels to narrow.
For example, medications that affect the action of serotonin are used to treat depression.
Serotonin (559 words)
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) is a monoamine neurotransmitter found in cardiovascular tissue, the peripheral nervous system, blood cells, and the central nervous system.
The biosynthesis of serotonin from the amino acid tryptophan is similar to that found for the catecholamines, and 5-hydroxytryptophan can cross the BBB to increase central levels of 5-HT.
Although serotonin is metabolized by monoamine oxidase to 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, most of the serotonin released into the post-synaptic space is removed by the neuron through a reuptake mechanism inhibited by the tricyclic antidepressants (see lecture notes for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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