FACTOID # 10: The total number of state executions in 2005 was 60: 19 in Texas and 41 elsewhere. The racial split was 19 Black and 41 White.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Seriation (archaeology)

In archaeology, seriation is a method in relative dating in which artifacts of numerous sites, in the same culture, are placed in chronological order. In the words of archeologist Gehrard, "whoever sees one monument has really seen none; whoever has seen a thousand has only seen one." (cited in Molino 1974, p.87). The method was first developed by Oscar Montelius. Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech/discourse) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains and environmental data, including architecture, artifacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... Before the advent of absolute dating in the 20th century, archaeologists and geologists were largely limited to the use of Relative Dating techniques. ... Oscar Montelius (9 September 1843–4 November 1921) was a Swedish archaeologist who refined the concept of seriation, a relative chronological dating method. ...


Where absolute dating methods, such as carbon dating, cannot be applied, archaeologists have to use relative dating methods to date archaeological finds and features. Seriation is a standard method of dating in North American archaeology. It can be used to date stone tools, pottery fragments, and other artifacts. Absolute dating is the process of determining a specific archaeological date. ... Radiocarbon dating is the use of the naturally occurring isotope of carbon-14 in radiometric dating to determine the age of organic materials, up to ca. ... Before the advent of absolute dating in the 20th century, archaeologists and geologists were largely limited to the use of Relative Dating techniques. ...


William Flinders Petrie excavated at Diospolis Parva in Egypt in the late nineteenth century. He found that the graves he was uncovering contained no evidence of their dates and their discrete nature meant that a sequence could not be constructed through their stratigraphy. Petrie listed the contents of each grave on pieces of paper and swapped the papers around until he arrived at a sequence he was satisfied with (Petrie 1899). He reasoned that the most accurate sequence would be the one where concentrations of certain design styles had the shortest duration across the sequence of papers. Egyptologist Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie (3 June 1853 - 28 July 1942) was a pioneer of systematic methodology in archaeology. ... Stratigraphy, a branch of geology, is basically the study of rock layers and layering (stratification). ...


Later work using multivariate statistics, such as correspondance analysis (Kendall 1971), has supported the effectiveness of Petrie's seriation method for producing correct sequences.


Assuming that design styles follow a bell curve of popularity – starting slowly, growing to a peak and then dying away as another style becomes popular – provides the basis for frequency seriation. It also assumes that design popularity will be broadly similar from site to site within the same culture. Following these hemoglobanous rules, an assemblage of objects can be placed into sequence so that sites with the most similar proportions of certain styles are always together. In archaeology, culture refers to either of two separate but allied concepts: An archaeological culture is a pattern of similar artefacts and features found within a specific area over a limited period of time. ... An assemblage is an archaeological term meaning a group of different artefacts found in association with one another, that is, in the same context. ...


See also

Dating material drawn from the archaeological record can made by a direct study of a artifact or may be deduced by association with materials found in the context the item is drawn from or inferred by its point of discovery in the sequence relative to datable contexts. ... In archaeology, not only the context (physical location) of a discovery a significant fact but the formation of the context is as well. ... Association in archaeology refers to a close relationship between two or more objects. ... The Harris Matrix or Harris-Winchester Matrix is a method of recording and interpreting archaeological sites. ... Absolute dating is the process of determining a specific archaeological date. ... Before the advent of absolute dating in the 20th century, archaeologists and geologists were largely limited to the use of Relative Dating techniques. ...

References

  • Fagan, B. (2005). "Ancient North America". Thames & Hudson Ltd, London
  • Kendall, D.G. (1971). "Seriation from abundance matrices," in Mathematics in the Archaeological and Historical Sciences. Edited by F. R. Hodson, D. G. Kendall, and P. Tautu, pp. 215-252. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-85224-213-1.
  • Montelius, O. (1903). Die typologische Methode. Stockholm: Selbstverlag
  • O'Brien, Michael J. and R. Lee Lyman (1999). Seriation, Stratigraphy, and Index Fossils: The Backbone of Archaeological Dating. New York: Plenum Press. ISBN 0-306-46152-8.
  • Petrie, F. W. M. (1899). Sequences in prehistoric remains. Journal of the Anthropological Institute 29:295-301

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m