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Encyclopedia > Serial Copy Management System

The Serial Copy Management System or SCMS was created in response to the digital audio tape (DAT) invention, in order to prevent DAT recorders from making second-generation or serial copies. SCMS sets a "copy" bit in all copies, which prevents anyone from making further copies of those first copies. It does not, however, limit the number of first-generation copies made from a master. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Serial is a term, originating in literature, for a format by which a story is told in contiguous installments in sequential issues of a single periodical publication. ... This article is about the unit of information; for other uses, see Bit (disambiguation). ... Master is a term that indicates a person from stanton). ...


The copy protection looks for some bits written on the subcode data. There are three states of these bits: Copy allowed (00), Copy once (11) and copy prohibited (10). If the source has the copy bits 00, and you make a copy of this, the copy will have the bit set as 00 too, allowing copies of the copies. If the source has the copy bits set as 11, every copy of this material will have the bits set to 10 and the copy from the copy would be prohibited. These bits are transferred over digital links, not over analog links.


SCMS was an early form of digital rights management (DRM). Digital rights management (DRM) is the umbrella term referring to any of several technologies used to enforce pre-defined policies controlling access to software, music, movies, or other digital data. ...


History of SCMS

SCMS was created as a compromise between electronics manufacturers, which wanted to make DAT machines available in the United States, and the RIAA, which previously hampered the availability of DAT machines in the US via lawsuit threats. The RIAA did not want low-cost digital recorders readily available, since it felt that such technology would result in widespread piracy. These lawsuit threats resulting in a chilling effect, preventing DAT decks from becoming readily affordable. The Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) is a special interest group representing the U.S. recording industry, and the body responsible for certifying gold and platinum albums and singles in the USA. For more information about sales data see list of best selling albums and list of best selling... The Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) is a special interest group representing the U.S. recording industry, and the body responsible for certifying gold and platinum albums and singles in the USA. For more information about sales data see list of best selling albums and list of best selling... A chilling effect is a situation where speech or conduct is suppressed or limited by fear of penalization at the hands of an individual or group. ...


In 1987, a member of the RIAA proposed a system where DAT recorders would have copy protection in them. The copy protection would look for the presence of frequencies in a particular high-frequency band; if there was no audio present in this band, the recorder would assume that the music in question was copy protected, and would not allow recording of the music. The record companies would then release all music with this particular frequency band filtered out. It would be illegal to manufacture a DAT machine with the presence of audio in this frequency band; the RIAA was lobbying Congress to make this the law of the land.


The reaction to this proposed scheme was very negative. The Home Recording Rights Coalition orchestrated a letter writing campaign opposing this scheme. Editorials in musician's and home stereo magazines attacked this scheme. The proposed law never made it out of committee. The Home Recording Rights Coalition is a non-profit advocacy organization in the U.S., whose mission is to protect the rights of consumers to view, listen to, and record radio and television broadcasts. ...


Even after this law was shot down, the RIAA still threatened to sue anyone who released an affordable consumer DAT recorder in the US. No one made such a recorder available.


Finally, in 1992, the RIAA and the electronics companies compromised by passing the Audio Home Recording Act. In this law, blank digital media (including DAT tapes) would be taxed, with the money going to the RIAA, and a new copy protection scheme, SCMS, would be enforced. SCMS was universally disliked by home musicians who used DAT decks to record their own music; it obtained the unfavorable name "Scums". Audio Home Recording Act of 1992 (AHRA) amended the US Copyright Act by adding chapter 10 DIGITAL AUDIO RECORDING DEVICES AND MEDIA. The act was prompted by the release of the Sony Digital Audio Tape (DAT). ...


SCMS was also included in consumer models of MiniDisc players. The Sony MZ1 MiniDisc player, the first to hit the market in 1992. ...


Defeating SCMS

Software and design defects in certain models of consumer Minidisc player allow SCMS to be defeated. Professional-grade Minidisc systems come with SCMS disabled, but these run at several thousand US dollars.


A European electronic hobby magazine (Elektor) published a construction project in the 1990's. The project when completed was designed to be inserted in the digital link between SMCS enabled devices (the article was designed around the optical TOSLINK interface, but it would have been easy to adapt it to the S/PDIF coaxial link). The project intercepted the SMCS control bits, 10 and 11 and substituted the 'Copy Allowed' (00) code. TOSLINK connector (JIS F05) TOSLINKâ„¢ is a standardized optical fibre connection system. ... Fiber optic transmitting module TOTX173 S/PDIF or S/P-DIF stands for Sony/Philips Digital Interface Format, also IEC 958 type II, part of IEC-60958. ...


There is another way that SMCS can be defeated, but it requires copying the Table of Contents from a blank disc that allows copying, to a recorded 'copy disallowed disc'. The method is labourious, and suffers the disadvantage that the track marks and titles are lost in the process. Further details will not be reproduced here for obvious reasons.


  Results from FactBites:
 
Serial Copy Management System - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (704 words)
The Serial Copy Management System or SCMS was created in response to the digital audio tape (DAT) invention, in order to prevent DAT recorders from making second-generation or serial copies.
If the source has the copy bits set as 11, every copy of this material will have the bits set to 10 and the copy from the copy would be prohibited.
The copy protection would look for the presence of frequencies in a particular high-frequency band; if there was no audio present in this band, the recorder would assume that the music in question was copy protected, and would not allow recording of the music.
Serial Copy Management System - definition of Serial Copy Management System in Encyclopedia (490 words)
SCMS was created as a compromise between electronics manufactors, who wanted to make DAT machines available in the United States, and the RIAA, who previously hampered the availbility of DAT machines in the US via lawsuit threats.
If the source has the copy bits 00, and you try to make a copy of this, the copy will have the bit set as 00 too, allowing copies of the copies.
Of course, if the copy bit is set to 11 you can't make any copy of the material.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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