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Encyclopedia > Seretse Khama
Sir Seretse Khama


In office
30 September 1966 – 13 July 1980
Vice President(s) Quett Masire
Preceded by Sekgoma Khama, King (Kgosi) Sekgoma II (1923-1925)
Succeeded by Quett Ketumile Joni Masire

Born July 1, 1921(1921-07-01)
Serowe
Died July 13, 1980 (aged 59)
Gaborone
Political party Botswana Democratic Party (BDP)
Spouse Ruth Williams Khama

Sir Seretse Khama KBE (July 1, 1921 - July 13, 1980) was the first President of Botswana. Image File history File links SeretseKhama. ... List of Heads of State of Botswana (Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office) Affiliations:- Sources http://www. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Contributed to peace keeping in African countries Sir Quett Ketumile Joni Masire, GCMG (born 23 July 1925, Kanye, Botswana) was the second President of Botswana for the Botswana Democratic Party from 1980 to 1998. ... Contributed to peace keeping in African countries Sir Quett Ketumile Joni Masire, GCMG (born 23 July 1925, Kanye, Botswana) was the second President of Botswana for the Botswana Democratic Party from 1980 to 1998. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Serowe (population approx. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Satellite image of Gaborone Location of Gaborone in Botswana Gaborone (pron. ... The Botswana Democratic Party is the governing conservative party in Botswana, led by president Festus Mogae. ... Ruth Williams, Lady Khama (1923 - 22 May 2002) was the wife of Botswanas first president, Sir Seretse Khama. ... Commanders Badge of the Order of the British Empire The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is an order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by George V. The Order includes five classes in civil and military divisions, in order of seniority: Knight or Dame Grand Cross... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... List of Heads of State of Botswana (Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office) Affiliations:- Sources http://www. ...

Contents

Childhood and education

Seretse Khama, born in Serowe, in what was then the Bechuanaland Protectorate, was the grandson of Khama III, king of the Bamangwato people. The name "Seretse" means “the clay that binds together,” and was given to him to celebrate the recent reconciliation of his father and grandfather; this reconciliation assured Seretse’s own ascension to the throne with his aged father’s death in 1925. At the age of four, Seretse became kgosi (king), with his uncle Tshekedi Khama as his regent and guardian. Serowe(population approx. ... An 1887 map showing the Crown Colony of Bechuanaland (shaded pink) and the Bechuanaland Protectorate (pink border) The Bechuanaland Protectorate (BP) was a protectorate established on March 31, 1885 by the United Kingdom in southern Africa. ... Khama III (1837?-1923), also known as Khama the Good, was the kgosi (meaning chief or king) of the Bamangwato people of Bechuanaland (now Botswana), who made his country a protectorate of the United Kingdom to ensure its survival against Boer and Ndebele encroachments. ... The Bamangwato (more correctly BagammaNgwato) people are one of the eight principal tribes of Botswana. ... Regent, from the Latin, a person selected to administer a state because the ruler is a minor or is not present or debilitated. ... A legal guardian is a person who has the legal authority (and the corresponding duty) to care for the personal and property interests of another person, called a ward. ...


After spending most of his youth in South African boarding schools, Khama attended Fort Hare University College there, graduating with a general B.A. in 1944. He then travelled to the United Kingdom and spent a year at Balliol College, Oxford, before joining the Inner Temple in London in 1946, to study to become a barrister. Fort Hare University is located on the Tyhume river in a South African town known as Alice in English or as eDikeni in the local isiXhosa language. ... A Bachelor of Arts (B.A. or A.B.) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course or program in the arts and/or sciences. ... and of the Balliol College College name Balliol College Named after John de Balliol Established 1263 Sister college St Johns College, Cambridge Master Andrew Graham JCR President Helen Lochead Undergraduates 403 MCR President Chelsea Payne Graduates 228 Location of Balliol College within central Oxford , Homepage Boatclub Balliol College (pronounced... The University of Oxford (usually abbreviated as Oxon. ... Combined coat of arms of the four Inns of Court. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... // Artists impression of an English and Irish barrister A barrister is a lawyer found in many common law jurisdictions which employ a split profession (as opposed to a fused profession) in relation to legal representation. ...


he was the founder of the modern day democratic botswana


Marriage and exile

In June of 1947, Khama met Ruth Williams, an English clerk at Lloyd's of London, and after a year of courtship, married her. The interracial marriage sparked a furore among both the apartheid government of South Africa and the tribal elders of the Bamangwato. On being informed of the marriage, Khama's uncle Tshekedi Khama demanded his return to Bechuanaland and the annulment of the marriage. Khama did return to Serowe but after a series of kgotlas (public meetings), was re-affirmed by the elders in his role as the kgosi. Ruth Williams Khama, travelling with her new husband, proved similarly popular. Admitting defeat, Tshekedi Khama left Bechuanaland, while Khama returned to London to complete his studies. Ruth Williams, Lady Khama (1923 - 22 May 2002) was the wife of Botswanas first president, Sir Seretse Khama. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Council of Lloyds be merged into this article or section. ... Othello and Desdemona from William Shakespeares Othello, a play often depicted as concerning a biracial couple. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... A kgotla is a public meeting or the traditional community council of a Botswana village. ...


However, the international ramifications of his marriage would not be so easily resolved. Having banned interracial marriage under the apartheid system, South Africa could not afford to have an interracial couple ruling just across their northern border. As Bechuanaland was then a British protectorate (not a colony), the South African government immediately exerted pressure to have Khama removed from his chieftainship. Britain’s Labour government, then heavily in debt from World War II, could not afford to lose cheap South African gold and uranium supplies. There was also a fear that South Africa might take more direct action against Bechuanaland, through economic sanctions or a military incursion.[1][2] The British government therefore launched a parliamentary enquiry into Khama’s fitness for the chieftainship. Though the investigation reported that he was in fact eminently fit for the rule of Bechuanaland, "but for his unfortunate marriage",[3] the government ordered the report suppressed (it would remain so for thirty years), and exiled Khama and his wife from Bechuanaland in 1951. In 1952, a new Conservative government declared the exile permanent. This article is about states protected and/or dominated by a foreign power. ... This article is about a type of political territory. ... The Republic of South Africa is a constitutional democracy with a three-tier system of government and an independent judiciary, operating under a Westminster-styled parliamentary system. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Lord Speaker Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and the oldest political party in the United Kingdom. ...


Return to politics

The sentence would not last nearly so long. Nationalist, communist, and human rights groups around the world immediately protested against the government decision, holding it up as evidence of British racism. In Britain itself there was wide anger at the decision and calls for the resignation of Lord Salisbury, the minister responsible.[4] A deputation of six Bamangwato travelled to London to see the exiled Khama and Lord Salisbury, in an echo of the 1895 deputation of three Bamangwato kgosis to Queen Victoria, but with no success. Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... The Right Honourable Robert Arthur James Gascoyne-Cecil, 5th Marquess of Salisbury, KG (August 27, 1893–February 23, 1972) was a grandson of the great 3rd Marquess. ... Victoria Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria) (24 May 1819–22 January 1901) was a Queen of the United Kingdom, reigning from 20 June 1837 until her death. ...


In 1956, the government finally relented, allowing Seretse and Ruth Khama to return to Bechuanaland as private citizens. Khama began an unsuccessful stint as a cattle rancher and dabbled in local politics. In 1960 he was diagnosed with diabetes.


In 1961, however, Khama leapt back onto the political scene by founding the nationalist Bechuanaland Democratic Party. His exile gave him an increased credibility with an independence-minded electorate, and the BDP swept aside its Socialist and Pan-Africanist rivals to dominate the 1965 elections. Now Prime Minister of Bechuanaland, Khama continued to push for Botswana's independence, from the newly-established capital of Gaborone. A 1965 constitution delineated a new Botswana government, and on September 30, 1966, Botswana gained its independence, with Khama acting as its first President. In 1966 Queen Elizabeth appointed Khama Knight Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire. Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Politics of Botswana Categories: Botswana political parties | Politics stubs ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... Pan-Africanism is a term which can have two separate, but related meanings. ... Satellite image of Gaborone Location of Gaborone in Botswana Gaborone (pron. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by King George V. The Order includes five classes in civil and military divisions; in decreasing order of seniority, these are Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross (GBE) Knight Commander...


Presidency

At the time of its independence, Botswana was among the world’s poorest countries. Tax revenues proved insufficient to cover the costs of government, forcing Botswana into heavy debt with Britain. The foreign policy situation was similarly bleak; trapped between the aggressive white minority governments of apartheid South Africa and Rhodesia, most observers believed that Botswana would have little choice but to become a satellite state to one or the other. [citation needed] A dominant minority is a group that has overwhelming political, economic or cultural dominance in a country or region despite representing a small fraction of the overall population (a demographic minority). ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... This article is about the former British colony of Southern Rhodesia, todays Zimbabwe. ...


Khama set out on a vigorous economic program intended to transform Botswana into an export-based economy, built around beef, copper, and diamonds. The 1967 discovery of Orapa’s enormous diamond deposits particularly aided this program, and between 1966 and 1980 Botswana had the fastest growing economy in the world. Much of this money was reinvested into infrastructure, health, and education costs, resulting in further economic development. Khama also instituted strong measures against corruption, the bane of so many other newly-independent African nations. For other uses, see Beef (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... This article is about the mineral. ... The Orapa diamond mine is the worlds largest diamond mine. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


On the foreign policy front, Khama allowed Rhodesian militant organizations to use Botswana as a base for raiding operations.[5] Shortly before his death, Khama would play a major role in negotiating the end of the Rhodesian civil war and the resulting creation and independence of Zimbabwe. Combatants Rhodesia ZANLA ZIPRA Government of Botswana Government of Tanzania Government of Zambia Mozambican Liberation Front [1] Commanders Ian Smith P. K. van der Byl Peter Walls ZANU: Robert Mugabe ZAPU: Joshua Nkomo Casualties unknown unknown Civilians killed = Around 30,000 The Rhodesian Bush War —­ as it was known at...


Khama remained president until his death from pancreatic cancer in 1980, when he was succeeded by Vice President Quett Masire. Forty thousand people paid their respects while Khama's body lay in state in Gaborone. He was buried in the Khama family graveyard on a hill in Serowe, Central District.[6] Pancreatic cancer is a malignant tumor within the pancreatic gland. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Contributed to peace keeping in African countries Sir Quett Ketumile Joni Masire, GCMG (born 23 July 1925, Kanye, Botswana) was the second President of Botswana for the Botswana Democratic Party from 1980 to 1998. ... Lying in state is a term used to describe the tradition in which a coffin is placed on view to allow the public at large to pay their respects to the deceased. ... Serowe(population approx. ... Central is one of the districts of Botswana. ...


He is the founding father of democracy in Botswana


References

  1. ^ Redfern, John (1955). "An appeal", Ruth and Seretse: "A Very Disreputable Transaction". London: Victor Gollancz, p221. “The British government knew well enough, throughout the dispute, that the Union [of South Africa]'s Nationalist Government was playing up the theme of the protectorates, and that it was within the Union's power to apply economic sanctions at any time. (The latest available figures show that more than half the cattle exported from Bechuanaland go to the Union...) 
  2. ^ Rider, Clare (2003). The "Unfortunate Marriage" of Seretse Khama. The Inner Temple Yearbook 2002/2003. Inner Temple. Retrieved on 2006-08-06. "Under the provisions of the South Africa Act of 1909, the Union laid claim to the neighbouring tribal territories and, as the Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations pointed out to the Cabinet in 1949, the 'demand for this transfer might become more insistent if we disregard the Union government's views'. He went on, 'indeed, we cannot exclude the possibility of an armed incursion into the Bechuanaland Protectorate from the Union if Serestse were to be recognised forthwith, while feeling on the subject is inflamed'."
  3. ^ Rider, Clare (2003). The "Unfortunate Marriage" of Seretse Khama. The Inner Temple Yearbook 2002/2003. Inner Temple. Retrieved on 2006-08-06. "Since, in their opinion, friendly and co-operative relations with South Africa and Rhodesia were essential to the well-being of the Bamangwato Tribe and the whole of the Protectorate, Serestse, who enjoyed neither, could not be deemed fit to rule. They concluded: 'We have no hesitation in finding that, but for his unfortunate marriage, his prospects as Chief are as bright as those of any native in Africa with whom we have come into contact'."
  4. ^ Redfern, John (1955). "The mean marquis", Ruth and Seretse: "A Very Disreputable Transaction". London: Victor Gollancz, p189. “Some sections of the press attacked him, the Daily Express with especial force: ... "For the nation's good, Lord Salisbury's first deed as Commonwealth Relations Secretary should be his last." 
  5. ^ 65 Robert Mugabe and the Betrayal of Zimbabwe
  6. ^ Tlou, Thomas; Parsons, Neil; Henderson, Willie (1995). Seretse Khama, 1921–1980. Braamfontein: Macmillan Boleswa, 391-2. ISBN 99912 60 31 5. 

Victor Gollancz (April 9, 1893–February 8, 1967) was a British publisher, socialist, and humanitarian. ... Motto Ex Unitate Vires (Latin: From Unity, strength} Anthem Die Stem van Suid-Afrika Capital Cape Town (legislative) Pretoria (administrative) Bloemfontein (judicial) Language(s) Afrikaans, Dutch, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1952-1961 Queen Elizabeth II Governor-General  - 1959-1961 Charles Robberts Swart Prime Minister  - 1958-1961 Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd... Combined coat of arms of the four Inns of Court. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations was a British Cabinet office existing between 1947 and 1966, responsible for dealing with British relationship with members of the Commonwealth of Nations (its former colonies). ... Combined coat of arms of the four Inns of Court. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Victor Gollancz (April 9, 1893–February 8, 1967) was a British publisher, socialist, and humanitarian. ... For other uses, see Daily Express (disambiguation). ... Thomas Tlou is a Botswana academic and historian, and former representative of Botswana at the United Nations. ... Macmillan Publishers Ltd, also known as The Macmillan Group, is a privately-held international publishing company owned by Georg von Holtzbrinck Publishing Group. ...

Further reading

  • Mungazi, Dickson (2004). We Shall Not Fail: Values In The National Leadership Of Seretse Khama, Nelson Mandela And Julius Nyerere. Africa World Press. ISBN 1-59221-250-6. 
  • Dutfield, Michael (1990). A Marriage of Inconvenience: Persecution of Ruth and Seretse Khama. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-04-440793-9.  From the 1990 film of the same name.
  • Williams, Susan. 2006. Colour Bar. Allen Lane. ISBN 0-7139-9811-3
  • Seager, Alan. 2005. The Shadow of a Great Rock. Connah’s Quay, Flintshire, England: I & D Books/ the author

For other people named Mandela, or other uses, see Mandela. ... Julius Kambarage Nyerere (April 13, 1922 - October 14, 1999) was President of Tanzania, and previously Tanganyika, from the countrys founding in 1964 until his retirement in 1985. ... HarperCollins is a publishing company owned by Rupert Murdochs News Corporation. ...

External links

Preceded by
(–)
President of Botswana
1966–1980
Succeeded by
Quett Masire

[[fi:Seretse Khama] List of Heads of State of Botswana (Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office) Affiliations:- Sources http://www. ... Contributed to peace keeping in African countries Sir Quett Ketumile Joni Masire, GCMG (born 23 July 1925, Kanye, Botswana) was the second President of Botswana for the Botswana Democratic Party from 1980 to 1998. ... List of Heads of State of Botswana (Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office) Affiliations:- Sources http://www. ... Contributed to peace keeping in African countries Sir Quett Ketumile Joni Masire, GCMG (born 23 July 1925, Kanye, Botswana) was the second President of Botswana for the Botswana Democratic Party from 1980 to 1998. ... Festus Gontebanye Mogae (born August 21, 1939) is the president of Botswana. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Botswana. ...


Sir Seretse Khama was the first Motswana to marry a white woman.


 
 

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