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Encyclopedia > Serbian language
Serbian
српски
srpski 
Pronunciation: ['sə̆rpskiː]
Spoken in: Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and others. 
Region: Central Europe, Southern Europe
Total speakers: over 12 million 
Ranking: around 63
Language family: Indo-European
 Slavic
  South Slavic
   Western South Slavic
    Serbian 
Official status
Official language of: Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, and in some Macedonian municipalities
Regulated by: Board for Standardization of the Serbian Language
Language codes
ISO 639-1: sr
ISO 639-2: scc (B)  srp (T)
ISO 639-3: srp 

Serbian (српски језик; srpski jezik) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. The former standard is known as Serbo-Croatian, now split into Serbian, Croatian and Bosnian standards. Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to... Anthem Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, Bright Dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Demonym Montenegrin Government Republic  -  President Filip Vujanović  -  Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence due to the dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   -  Declared June 3, 2006... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Southern Europe is a region of the European continent. ... This is a list of languages placed in order by the number of native-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. ... Current distribution of Human Language Families A language family is a group of related languages said to have descended from a common proto-language. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to... Anthem Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, Bright Dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Demonym Montenegrin Government Republic  -  President Filip Vujanović  -  Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence due to the dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   -  Declared June 3, 2006... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... Image File history File links Serbian_language_map. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Unicode is an industry standard allowing computers to consistently represent and manipulate text expressed in any of the worlds writing systems. ... Shtokavian (Å tokavian, Å¡tokavski/штокавски) is the primary dialect of the Central South Slavic languages system, Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian language. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to... Anthem Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, Bright Dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Demonym Montenegrin Government Republic  -  President Filip Vujanović  -  Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence due to the dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   -  Declared June 3, 2006... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in Croatia. ... There are currently 1. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Two alphabets are used to write the Serbian language: a variation on the Cyrillic alphabet, devised by Vuk Karadžić, and a variation on the Latin alphabet, devised by Ljudevit Gaj. The characters of the two alphabets map to each other one-to-one. For other uses, see Alphabet (disambiguation). ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Vuk Stefanović Karadžić (Serbian Cyrillic: Вук Стефановић Караџић) (November 7, 1787 - February 7, 1864) was a Serbian linguist and major reformer of the Serbian language. ... The Latin alphabet used by the Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin, Serbian and Serbo-Croat languages was devised by Ljudevit Gaj, in his book 1830 Kratka osnova horvatsko-slavenskog pravopisanja (A short primer of Croatian-Slavonic orthography) (Note that there is an ongoing debate as to whether some or all of these... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... Ljudevit Gaj Ljudevit Gaj (August 8, 1809, Krapina – April 20, 1872) was a Croatian linguist, politician, journalist and writer. ...


Serbian orthography is very consistent: approximation of the principle "one letter per sound". This principle is represented by Adelung's saying, "Write as you speak and read as it is written", the principle used by Vuk Stefanović Karadžić when reforming the Cyrillic orthography of Serbian in the 19th century. Johann Christoph Adelung, from a portrait by Anton Graff Johann Christoph Adelung (8 August 1732 – 10 September 1806) was a German grammarian and philologist. ... Vuk Stefanović Karadžić (Serbian Cyrillic: Вук Стефановић Караџић) (November 7, 1787 - February 7, 1864) was a Serbian linguist and major reformer of the Serbian language. ...


Standard Serbian is based on the Štokavian dialect. The Ekavian variant is spoken mostly in Serbia and Ijekavian in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, south-western Serbia, and Croatia. The base for is the Ijekavian dialect is East-Herzegovinian, and of the Ekavian, the Šumadija-Vojvodina dialect. Features of other Shtokavian dialects, as well of the Torlakian dialect, which is spoken in southern Serbia, are not accepted as standard. Anthem Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, Bright Dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Demonym Montenegrin Government Republic  -  President Filip Vujanović  -  Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence due to the dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   -  Declared June 3, 2006... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to... Torlakian is the name used for the Slavic dialects spoken in Southern and Eastern Serbia, Northwest Republic of Macedonia (Kratovo-Kumanovo) and Northwest Bulgaria (Vidin-Bregovo). ...

Central South Slavic
languages and dialects
(Central South Slavic diasystem)
Bosnian · Bunjevac
Burgenland Croatian · Croatian
Montenegrin · Našinski · Serbian · Serbo-Croatian
Šokac
Romano-Serbian · Slavoserbian
Differences between Serbian, Croatian and Bosnian
Dialects
Chakavian · Kajkavian · Molise Croatian
Shtokavian · Torlak · Užice speech
Alphabets
Modern
Gaj’s Latin alphabet · Serbian Cyrillic
Historical
Bosnian Cyrillic · Glagolitic
v  d  e

Contents

Bunjevac language or Bunjevac dialect (Bunjevački jezik or Bunjevački dijalekat) is a language/dialect spoken by Bunjevac ethnic group in Vojvodina province of Serbia and Montenegro. ... Burgenland Croatian language or dialect (gradišćanskohrvatski jezik) belongs to the South Slavic branch of the Slavic languages. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... NaÅ¡inski is the Torlakian dialect used by the Gorani in southern Kosovo. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Å okac language (Å okački jezik) was a language listed in Austro-Hungarian censuses. ... The Romano-Serbian language is a language in the Western group of South Slavic languages. ... The Slavoserbian language (славяносербскій [slavjanoserbskij], словенскій [slovenskij]; in Serbian славеносрпски/slavenosrpski) is a form of the Serbian language which was predominantly used at the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century by educated Serbian citizens in Vojvodina, and the Serbian diaspora in other parts of the Habsburg Monarchy. ... The standard Bosnian, Croatian, and Serbian languages differ in various aspects as outlined below. ... Chakavian (Čakavian, čakavski) dialect is one of the three dialects of Croatian language. ... Location map of Kajkavian Kajkavian (kajkavski) dialect is one of the three dialects of the Croatian language. ... Molise Croatian dialect (also: Molise Slavic, Slavisano, na-naÅ¡o) is spoken in the Campobasso Province in the Molise Region of Italy, in three villages — Montemitro (Mundimitar), Aquaviva Collercroce (Živavoda Kruč) and San Felice del Molise (Å tifilić). These have approximately 3,000 speakers. ... Shtokavian (Å tokavian, Å¡tokavski/штокавски) is the primary dialect of the Central South Slavic languages system, Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian language. ... Torlak[1] (Торлачки говор or Torlački govor) is the name used for the Slavic dialects spoken in southern and eastern Serbia, northeast Republic of Macedonia (Kratovo-Kumanovo), northwest Bulgaria (Vidin-Bregovo), and further afield in the CaraÅŸ-Severin County in Romania. ... Užican speech (Serbian: ужички говор or užički govor), also known as Zlatiborian speech (златиборски говор or zlatiborski govor) is a dialect of the Serbian language. ... The variant of the Latin alphabet devised by Ljudevit Gaj, in his book 1830 Kratka osnova horvatsko-slavenskog pravopisanja (A short primer of Croatian-Slavic orthography), is currently used as the only script of the Bosnian and Croatian standard languages, and as one of the two scripts of the Serbian... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Bosancica is a script, that was used in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia (Dalmatia and Dubrovnik). ... The Glagolitic alphabet or Glagolitsa is the oldest known Slavic alphabet. ...

Writing systems

Serbian Cyrillic and Serbian Latin, from Comparative orthography of European languages. Source: Vuk Stefanović Karadžić "Srpske narodne pjesme" (Serbian folk poems), Vienna, 1841
Serbian Cyrillic and Serbian Latin, from Comparative orthography of European languages. Source: Vuk Stefanović Karadžić "Srpske narodne pjesme" (Serbian folk poems), Vienna, 1841

Serbian language can be written in two different alphabets: Serbian Cyrillic script (ћирилица) and the Serbian Latin (latinica). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1086x1489, 228 KB)Serbian Cyrillic and Serbian Latin cca. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1086x1489, 228 KB)Serbian Cyrillic and Serbian Latin cca. ... Vuk Stefanović Karadžić (Serbian Cyrillic: Вук Стефановић Караџић) (November 7, 1787 - February 7, 1864) was a Serbian linguist and major reformer of the Serbian language. ... “Wien” redirects here. ... 1841 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... The Latin alphabet used by the Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin, Serbian and Serbo-Croat languages was devised by Ljudevit Gaj, in his book 1830 Kratka osnova horvatsko-slavenskog pravopisanja (A short primer of Croatian-Slavonic orthography) (Note that there is an ongoing debate as to whether some or all of these...

Cyrillic Latin   Cyrillic Latin
А A Н N
Б B Њ Nj
В V О O
Г G П P
Д D Р R
Ђ Đ С S
Е E Т T
Ж Ž Ћ Ć
З Z У U
И I Ф F
Ј J Х H
К K Ц C
Л L Ч Č
Љ Lj Џ
М M Ш Š

The sort order of the two alphabets is different. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... A (А, а) is the first letter of the Cyrillic alphabet. ... For other uses of A, see A (disambiguation). ... Look up Н, н in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up N, n in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Б, б in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Cyrillic letter Nje (Њ, њ) was originally a ligature of Н and Ь. It is used in the Serbian language, where it represents a voiced palatal nasal. ... Majuscule and minuscule Ç‹ in sans-serif and serif fonts. ... Ve (Ð’, в) is the third letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the sound . ... Look up V, v in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... O (О, о) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the vowel /o/. Categories: Cyrillic letters | Substubs ... Look up O, o in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Г, г in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Pe (П, п) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the consonant /p/. It arose directly from the Greek letter Pi (Π, Ï€). The shape of capital printed Pe can be described as a square with the bottom line missing, not to be confused with El (Cyrillic), which has a curved left. ... Template:WiktionarSDypar2 P is the sixteenth letter of the modern Latin alphabet. ... De (Д, д) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet. ... For the emoticon :D, see Emoticon. ... Er (Р, р) is the eighteenth letter of the Cyrillic alphabet. ... Look up R, r in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Dje, or Djerv (Ђ, Ñ’) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, used in the Serbian language to represent the sound , a voiced alveolo-palatal affricate. ... D with stroke can describe several letters used in various languages, past and present. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Look up S, s in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ye, or E (Е, е), is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet. ... Look up E, e in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Te (Т, т) is the letter representing the consonant /t/ in the Cyrillic alphabet. ... Its name in English is tee . ... Zhe (Ж, ж) is the letter of Cyrillic alphabet which represents the voiced postalveolar fricative (listen), similar to the s in the English word treasure. Zhe is the 7th letter of the Bulgarian and Belarusian alphabets, the 8th letter in the Macedonian, Russian and Serbian alphabets, and the 9th in the Ukrainian... Caron redirects here, for the French actress, see Leslie Caron. ... Tshe (Ћ, Ñ›) is 23rd letter of the Serbian Cyrillic alphabet. ... The acute accent ( Â´ ) is a diacritic mark used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin script. ... Ze (З, з) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the consonant /z/. Its easily confusable with the number 3, for example the stages of the N1 rocket. ... Look up Z, z in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... U (У, у) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the vowel /u/. Categories: Cyrillic letters | Substubs ... Look up U, u in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... I or Y (И, и) is a letter in the Cyrillic alphabet, pronounced in Russian, or in Ukrainian. ... Look up I, i in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ef (Ф, ф) is the twenty-first letter of the Cyrillic alphabet. ... Look up F, f in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Je (Ј, ј) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, used in the Serbian and Macedonian languages. ... J# redirects here for technical reasons; see J Sharp. ... Kha, or Ha, (Х, х) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the consonant /x/. Categories: Cyrillic letters | Substubs ... Look up H, h in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ka (К, к) is a letter in the Cyrillic alphabet. ... Look up K, k in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Tse (Ц, ц) is a letter in the Cyrillic alphabet. ... Look up C, c in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... El (Л, л) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet. ... Look up L, l in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Che (Ч, ч) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the consonant cluster /tS/ or /tS/ (like the ch in change). Categories: Cyrillic letters | Stub ... ÄŒ in uper- and lowercase ÄŒ is the fourth letter of the Croatian, Czech, Serbian and Slovenian alphabet. ... The Cyrillic letter lje (Љ, љ) was originally a ligature of Л and Ь. It is used in the Serbian language. ... Lj in uper- and lowercase LJ is also an abbreviation for LiveJournal Lj (lj in lower case) is a letter present in some Slavic languages such as Serbian and Croatian, where it is pronounced (IPA) . For example, the word ljiljan is pronounced . ... Dzhe (Џ, ÑŸ) is a letter of Vuk Karadžićs Cyrillic alphabet reform, used in Serbian and Macedonian to represent the affricate (like the J in English jump). It replaces the digraph дж from some other Cyrillic alphabets. ... DŽ (minuscule dž, titlecase Dž) is the seventh letter of the Croatian alphabet, after D and before Đ. It is pronounced as . ... Em (М, м) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the consonant /m/. Code positions This article is a substub, the first step on the way to becoming a full article. ... Look up M, m in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sha (Ш, ш) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the consonant sound or . ... Å  in upper- and lowercase The grapheme Å , Å¡ (Latin S with caron) is used in various contexts: In Slavic languages: it is the 25th letter of the Croatian and Bosnian and 20th letter of the Slovenian alphabet, and is also used in the Czech language, Slovak language and Slovenian language, where it... Alphabetical redirects here. ...

  • Cyrillic order (called Azbuka (азбука)): А Б В Г Д Ђ Е Ж З И Ј К Л Љ М Н Њ О П Р С Т Ћ У Ф Х Ц Ч Џ Ш
  • Latin order (called abeceda): A B C Č Ć D Dž Đ E F G H I J K L Lj M N Nj O P R S Š T U V Z Ž

Use of scripts

Cyrillic alphabet was in exclusive use in Serbia before the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes was formed (1918), but Latin was used by Serbs in the coastal area of modern Montenegro as well as in Croatia (Dubrovnik-Neretva County), and Bosnia and Herzegovina (mainly Herzegovina which adjoins the latter two areas). Some famous literary historians and critics from Belgrade, as Jovan Skerlić, proposed to abolish literary chaos and end arguments by accepting Latin as the only alphabet. Especially during the socialist era, Latin has made a major breakthrough even in Serbia proper. Since the constitutional reforms in the early 1970s, most documents were published in "Serbo-Croatian" Cyrillic and "Croato-Serbian" (sometimes Serbo-Croatian) Latin[1]. Enciklopedija Jugoslavije was published in Zagreb in "Croatian or Serbian" (the way Croats referred to Serbo-Croatian language) Latin, "Serbo-Croat" (the way Serbs, Montenigriens, Muslims and all other nations in Yugoslavia referred to Serbo-Croatian langage) Cyrillic, Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian and Hungarian. The only Yugoslav (not traditionally Serbian, Croatian nor Bosnian) newspaper Borba was printed in both alphabets: one page in Cyrillic, the following page in Latinic and so on all through the journal, with the script of the front page alternating between the two every day. Whilst Serbo-Croat was widely accepted (before the Yugoslav Wars), the Cyrillic alphabet was used predominantly in central Serbia and in Montenegro (until the late 1990s). The Latin alphabet was preferred in Croatia and the only one used by the Croats. In Belgrade, the northern Serbian province of Vojvodina and in Bosnia and Herzegovina and in the larger more vibrant towns of Serbia, either alphabet would be used as and how the writer would choose. The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state which existed from December 1, 1918 to mid-April 1941. ... Anthem Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, Bright Dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Demonym Montenegrin Government Republic  -  President Filip Vujanović  -  Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence due to the dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   -  Declared June 3, 2006... Dubrovnik-Neretva county - Dubrovačko-neretvanska županija is the southernmost Croatian and Dalmatian county. ... This article is about the geographic area of Herzegovina. ... The Encyclopedia of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croatian: Enciklopedija Jugoslavije) was the national encyclopedia of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Serbo-Croatian (srpskohrvatski or hrvatskosrpski) is a name for a language of the Western group of the South Slavic languages. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... The term Serbia proper is often used in English to refer to the part of Serbia that lies outside the northern and southern autonomous provinces of Kosovo and Vojvodina. ... Anthem Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, Bright Dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Demonym Montenegrin Government Republic  -  President Filip Vujanović  -  Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence due to the dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   -  Declared June 3, 2006... Location of Belgrade within Serbia Coordinates: Country Serbia District City of Belgrade Municipalities 17 Government  - Mayor Nenad Bogdanović (DS) (since 2004)  - Ruling parties DS/DSS/G17+ Area  - City 3,222. ... Vojvodina (red) is one of Serbias two autonomous provinces Capital (and largest city) Novi Sad Official languages Ethnic groups  2. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to...


The exact percentage of use of alphabets is difficult to assess today. Of the major newspapers, Politika, Večernje Novosti, Glas Javnosti, and Dnevnik are printed in Cyrillic, while Blic, Kurir, Danas and Press use Latin. Of the major TV outlets, only the public service Radio Television of Serbia uses primarily Cyrillic (as well as former BK TV), while Pink, B92 and most others use Latin. An informal poll on the Internet forum Serbian Cafe showed no apparent preference.[2] According to the data collected by Association for Protection of Cyrillic, over 80% of public inscriptions in Novi Sad is in Latin, and over 60% in Belgrade; 5/6 of (randomly sampled) magazines is in Latin, as well as vast majority of university textbooks (however, the proportion is the opposite for high-school ones).[3] Politika/Политика is a Serbian newspaper. ... Večernje novosti is a Belgrade-based daily. ... Glas javnosti is a daily newspaper published in Belgrade. ... Dnevnik (Дневник), lit. ... Specsavers Blic Optik is a Swedish opticians store chain. ... Kurir is a high-circulation daily tabloid published in Belgrade. ... Danas is a daily newspaper published in Belgrade. ... Press is a daily tabloid published in Belgrade. ... Radio Television of Serbia (Serbian: (PTC) or ) is the public broadcaster in Serbia. ... Radio Televizija Brača Karić Telekom (RTV BK Telecom) is a privately-owned independent radio-television company based in Belgrade, Serbia. ... The use of the word pink as a color first occurred in the 17th century to describe the light red flowers of pinks, flowering plants in the genus Dianthus. ... B92 (Б92) is a radio and television station in Belgrade, Serbia. ...


Many e-mail and even web documents written in Serbian use basic ASCII, where Serbian Latin letters that use diacritics (Ž Ć Č Š) are either replaced with the base, undiacritised forms (Z C C S) or with two letter combinations that are pronounced similarly (Zh, Tj, Ch, Sh), letter Đ is replaced with Dj, and Dž with Dz. The original words are then recognized from the context. This is not an official alphabet, and is considered bad practice, but there are some documents in Serbian that use this simplified alphabet. This is common practice in other languages that use letters with diacritics. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Image:ASCII fullsvg There are 95 printable ASCII characters, numbered 32 to 126. ... Example of a letter with a diacritic A diacritical mark or diacritic, also called an accent, is a small sign added to a letter to alter pronunciation or to distinguish between similar words. ...


Equivalence of scripts

The Cyrillic letters /Љ/, /Њ/ and /Џ/ are represented by digraphs in the Latin alphabet. In digraphs, letters are always written together - even in top-down text - and are also sorted as one letter (e.g. ljubav, love, comes after lopta, ball). The present Cyrillic script, having been devised for the language itself, is precise because there is no ambiguity involved in reading Lj, Nj and Dž: for example, both Cyrillic /инјекција/ (mathematical injection or medical injection) and /његов/ (his) are written with "nj" in Latin form. Thus, automatic transliteration of Cyrillic text to Latin is straightforward, but automatic transliteration of Latin text to Cyrillic requires additional heuristic rules. Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Alphabetical redirects here. ... Lj in uper- and lowercase See LJ for other meanings. ... Majuscule and minuscule Ç‹ in sans-serif and serif fonts. ... Dž in titlecase and lowercase Dž (titlecase form; all-capitals form DŽ, lowercase dž) is the seventh letter of the Croatian alphabet and the Latin forms of Serbian and Macedonian, after D and before Đ. It is pronounced as . ... An injective function. ... An injection is a method of putting liquid into the body with a hollow needle and a syringe which is pierced through the skin long enough for the material to be forced into the body. ...


Phonology

Vowels

The Serbian vowel system is simple, with only five vowels. All vowels are monophthongs. The oral vowels are as follows:[4] Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... A monophthong (in Greek μονόφθογγος = single note) is a pure vowel sound, one whose articulation at both beginning and end is relatively fixed, and which does not glide up or down towards a new position of articulation; compare diphthong. ...

Latin script Cyrillic script IPA Description English approximation
a а [a] open central unrounded father
i и [i] close front unrounded seek
e е [ɛ̝] (open-)mid front unrounded ten
o о [ɔ̝] (open-)mid back rounded caught (British)
u у [u] closed back rounded boom

Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Vowels See also: IPA, Consonants Near‑close Close‑mid Mid Open‑mid Near‑open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels See also: IPA, Consonants Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels See also: IPA, Consonants Near‑close Close‑mid Mid Open‑mid Near‑open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels See also: IPA, Consonants Near‑close Close‑mid Mid Open‑mid Near‑open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ...

Consonants

The consonant system is more complicated, and its characteristic features are series of affricate and palatal consonants. As in English, voicedness is phonemic, but aspiration is not. The consonant phoneme table for Serbian is as follows (corresponding Latin letters are below the IPA symbols) In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ... An affricate is a consonant that begins like a stop (most often an alveovelar, such as [t] or [d]) and that doesnt have a release of its own, but opens directly into a fricative (or, in one language, into a trill). ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... In human language, a phoneme is the theoretical representation of a sound. ... In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies the release of some obstruents. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ...

Consonant Phonemes of Serbian
Bilabial Labio-
Dental
Dental Alveolar Post-
Alveolar
Palatal Velar
Plosive /p/
P
/b/
B
/t/
T
/d/
D
/k/
K
/g/
G
Nasal /m/
M
/n/
N
/ɲ/
Nj
Fricative /f/
F
/s/
S
/z/
Z
/ʃ/
Š
/ʒ/
Ž
/x/
H
Affricate /ʦ/
C
/tʃ/
Č
/dʒ/
/ʨ/
Ć
/ʥ/
Đ
Approximant /ʋ/ [a]
V
/j/
J
Trill /r/
R
Laterals /l/
L
/ʎ/
Lj
^  V is often also described as a (lowered) fricative ([v̞]),[4][5] which is phonetically closer. However, on phonological level, it doesn't interact with unvoiced consonants as a fricative normally would, but as an approximant.

'/r/ can be syllabic, playing the role of a vowel in certain words (it can even have a long accent). For example, the tongue-twister na vrh brda vrba mrda involves four words with syllabic r. A similar feature exists in Czech, Slovak, Macedonian and many other languages. In some vernaculars /l/ can be syllabic as well. However, in the standard language, it appears only in loanwords as in the name for the Czech river "Vltava" for instance, or debakl (дебакл), monokl (монокл) and bicikl (бицикл). In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips. ... In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lips and the upper teeth, or viceversa. ... In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lips and the upper teeth, or viceversa. ... Dentals are consonants such as t, d, n, and l articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both, rather than with the gum ridge as in English. ... Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. ... Postalveolar (or palato-alveolar) consonants are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue between the alveolar ridge (the place of articulation for alveolar consonants) and the palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants). ... Postalveolar (or palato-alveolar) consonants are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue between the alveolar ridge (the place of articulation for alveolar consonants) and the palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants). ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the middle or back part of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... A stop or plosive or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... Affricate consonants begin as stops (most often an alveolar, such as or ) but release as a fricative (such as or or, in a couple of languages, into a fricative trill) rather than directly into the following vowel. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ... In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the articulator and the place of articulation. ... Laterals are L-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue. ... A tongue-twister is a phrase in any language that is designed to be difficult to articulate properly. ...


In Serbian, the phonemes /č, ć, đ, dž/ (in contrast to Croatian and Bosnian vernaculars) have in most vernaculars an independent phonetic realization.[6]


Phonetic interactions

While the basic sound system is fairly simple, Serbian phonology is very complicated: there are numerous interactions (sandhi rules) between voices at morpheme boundaries which cause sound changes, with numerous exceptions. The changes include: Phonology (Greek phonē = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ... Sandhi is a cover term for a wide variety of phonological processes that occur at morpheme or word boundaries. ... In morpheme-based morphology, a morpheme is the smallest lingual unit that carries a semantic interpretation. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...

  • Two types of Iotation
    • So called older, includes all Slavic languages
    • So called newer: d, t, l, n + j > đ, ć, lj, nj.
  • Three types of palatalization, includes all Slavic languages:
    • First, involving shift of velar consonants k, g and h into postalveolar č, ž and š in front of front vowels e and i,
    • Second (aka sibilarization), involving shift of k, g and h into alveolar c, z and s in front of e and i
    • Third (aka second sibilarization), involving shift of k, g, h into c, z, s after e, i and a.
  • Voicing and Devoicing assimilation
  • Assimilation by place of articulation
  • Elision in complex consonant clusters
  • L→O shift, where final and pre-consonant L morphed into O (historic)
  • "Labile A", referring to sound "a" occurring only in nominative and genitive plural of nouns with several suffixes (most commonly -ak and -ac): točak (wheel) (N) → točka (G) → točku (D) etc.

Iotation is a form of palatalisation which occurs in Slavic languages. ... Palatalization means pronouncing a sound nearer to the hard palate, making it more like a palatal consonant; this is towards the front of the mouth for a velar or uvular consonant, but towards the back of the mouth for a front (e. ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... Postalveolar (or palato-alveolar) consonants are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue between the alveolar ridge (the place of articulation for alveolar consonants) and the palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants). ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. ... Phoneticians define phonation as use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ... Assimilation is a regular and frequent sound change process by which a phoneme changes to match an adjacent phoneme in a word. ... Assimilation is a regular and frequent sound change process by which a phoneme changes to match an adjacent phoneme in a word. ... Places of articulation (passive & active): 1. ... In music, see elision (music). ... The nominative case is a grammatical case for a noun, which generally marks the subject of a verb, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Ending (linguistics) be merged into this article or section. ...

Voicing/devoicing

In consonant clusters all consonants are either voiced or voiceless. All the consonants are voiced (if the last consonant is normally voiced) or voiceless (if the last consonant is normally voiceless). This rule does not apply to approximants — a consonant cluster may contain voiced approximants and voiceless consonants; as well as to foreign words (Washington would be transcribed as VašinGton/ВашинГтон), personal names and when consonants are not inside of one syllable. In linguistics, a consonant cluster is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ...


Prosody

Accents

Serbian has an extended system of accentuation. From the phonological point of view it has four accents which are divided into two groups according to their quality:

  • there are two accents with falling intonation ("old accents")- the short one and the long one
  • there are two accents with rise in intonation ("new accents")- the short one and the long one

However, their realization varies according to vernacular. That is why Daničić, Budmani, Matešić and other scientists have given different descriptions of the four Serbian accents. The old accents are rather close to Italian and English accent types, and the new ones to German (this can be easily seen through loanwords). Đuro Daničić (born April 4, 1825 in Novi Sad, died November 17, 1882 in Zagreb), was Serbian philologist, translator, linguistic historian and lexicographer. ... Pero Budmani Pero Budmani (1835 – 1914) born in Ragusa (Dubrovnik) was a linguist who first used the name Serbo-Croatian in his book of grammar (Grammatica della lingua serbo-croata; Vienna, 1867). ...


Here is one possibility of phonetic realization of 4 Serbian accents:

  1. Short falling (kratkosilazni; symbol `` – double grave) as in Mïlica (PNfem). Pronunciation: /ˈmilitsa/ ('i' is stressed and short, as in English thick,cut).
  2. Long falling (dugosilazni; symbol ^) as in pîvo (meaning beer). Pronunciation: /piːvo/ ('i' is stressed, first low, than high and than again low, as in English seek, Italian Gino, Marco).
  3. Short rising (kratkouzlazni; symbol ` – grave)as in màskara (meaning eye makeup). Pronunciation: /ˈmaskara/ (the first 'a' is slightly stressed, the second 'a' is higher than the first one, and the third 'a' is even higher than the second one, as in German Arbeiter, Matratze).
  4. Long rising (dugouzlazni; symbol ´) as in čokoláda (meaning chocolate). Pronunciation: /tʃɔkɔˈlaːda/ ('a' is stressed, longer than the other vowels, and the intonation is slightly rising, as in German Balade or Schokolade).

The "finest" realization—the differences between the accents are relatively small, words are pronounced without any special effort—can be found in the most respectable vernaculars of Piva and Drobnjak and in Belgrade and partly in familiar vernaculars in Kolubara district and south-western Banat. These two groups of vernaculars gave the base for Belgrade old speaker school. Already in surronding Nikšić (Montenegro), Dubrovnik (Croatia), Užice (Serbia) area stress is more intensive. Modern surveys have shown for instance, that there is a minimal difference in Piva and Drobnjak (where the family of Vuk Stefanović Karadžić had come from) between the syllables that carry short-stressed accent with fall intonation and the short-stressed with rise intonation. In the first edition of Vuk's dictionary (1818), Vuk even marked these two accents as one and the same accent.[7] The difference between the short-stressed accent with falling acentuation and the short-stressed with rise accent is almost lost in two-syllable words (cf. the surveys of Pavle Ivić on Serbian prosody).[8] The informal speech- slang in Belgrade has very special, neutralized accentuation (the oppositions falling/rising, short/long is only partly based on genuine word accents, far more on phonetic letter structure of the word). The grave accent ( ` ) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek until 1982 (polytonic orthography), French, Catalan, Welsh, Italian, Vietnamese, Scottish Gaelic, Norwegian, Portuguese and other languages. ... The grave accent ( ` ) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek until 1982 (polytonic orthography), French, Catalan, Welsh, Italian, Vietnamese, Scottish Gaelic, Norwegian, Portuguese and other languages. ... Coordinates Mayor NebojÅ¡a Radojičić (DPS - SDP) Municipality area 2,065 km² Population (2003 census)  - city  - municipality  - density 58,212 75,282 36. ... Nickname: 1995 map of Dubrovnik The location of Dubrovnik within Croatia Coordinates: , Country Croatia County Dubrovnik-Neretva county Government  - Mayor Dubravka Å uica (HDZ) Area  - City 143. ... Užice (Serbian Cyrillic: Ужице) is a town located in Serbia and Montenegro at 43. ... Vuk Stefanović Karadžić (Serbian Cyrillic: Вук Стефановић Караџић) (November 7, 1787 - February 7, 1864) was a Serbian linguist and major reformer of the Serbian language. ...


Unstressed (postaccent) lengths

Not only the stressed syllables can be short or long. Other syllables have that feature as well. In neo-shtokavian vernaculars, the unstressed long syllable (unstressed length) can occur only after the accented syllable (these lengths are usually called postaccent lengths. Their symbol is macron (-): dèvōjka (meaning girl), Jugòslāvīja (Yugoslavia). Shtokavian (Štokavian, štokavski) is the primary dialect of the Central South Slavic languages system, Serbian, Bosnian and Croatian. ... A macron, from Greek (makros) meaning large, is a diacritic ¯ placed over a vowel originally to indicate that the vowel is long. ...


The phonetic realization of postaccent lengths is different. In vernaculars of Piva and Drobnjak they are rather very short, without any stress components. In some other East-Herzegowinian vernaculars, they are almost stressed (of course, less intense than the really stressed syllable). In many vernaculars—for instance in Belgrade, and in many places in Vojvodina—postaccents lengths are almost lost. That's why foreign students are not expected to pay much attention to them. Location of Belgrade within Serbia Coordinates: Country Serbia District City of Belgrade Municipalities 17 Government  - Mayor Nenad Bogdanović (DS) (since 2004)  - Ruling parties DS/DSS/G17+ Area  - City 3,222. ... Vojvodina (red) is one of Serbias two autonomous provinces Capital (and largest city) Novi Sad Official languages Ethnic groups  2. ...


History

Before 1400, most Serbian vernaculars had two accents, both with fall intonation—the short one and the long one. That is why they are called "old accents". By 1500, the old accents moved by one syllable towards the beginning of the word, changing their quality to rising accents. For instance junâk (hero) became jùnāk. The old accents, logically remained only when they were on first syllable. Not all dialects had that evolution; those who had it are called neo-shtokavian. The irradiation point was in east Herzegovina, between Prokletije mountains and town of Trebinje. Since the 1500s people had been emigrating from this area. The biggest migrations were to the north, then toward Military Krajina and to the seaside (Dubrovnik area, including islands of Mljet and Šipan). In 1920s and 1930s royal government tried to settle people from this poor mountainous area to Kosovo basin. Vojvodina was settled with inhabitants from this area after the WW II. Shtokavian (Štokavian, štokavski) is the primary dialect of the Central South Slavic languages system, Serbian, Bosnian and Croatian. ... This article is about the geographic area of Herzegovina. ... Prokletije is a mountain range in eastern Montenegro, southern Serbia and northern Albania, the highest point of which is Lake Crest (Albania), the tallest peak in the Dinaric Alps, at 2,692 m. ... Trebinje (Cyrillic: Требиње) is the southern-most municipality and town in Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Military Frontier (Military Border, Military Krajina, Vojna Krajina, Militärgrenze, Confiniaria militaria) was a borderland of Habsburg Austria which acted as the cordon sanitaire against the Turks from the Middle Ages (Croatian Krajina) or from the late 1600s (Slavonian and Banat Krajina) until the 19th century. ... Nickname: 1995 map of Dubrovnik The location of Dubrovnik within Croatia Coordinates: , Country Croatia County Dubrovnik-Neretva county Government  - Mayor Dubravka Å uica (HDZ) Area  - City 143. ... Mljet (Latin Melita, Italian Meleda) is the most southerly and easterly of the larger Adriatic islands of the Dalmatia region of Croatia. ... Å ipan is the largest of the Elaphiti Islands, 17 km northwest of Dubrovnik; separated from the mainland coast by the Kolocepski Channel; area 16. ... Vojvodina (red) is one of Serbias two autonomous provinces Capital (and largest city) Novi Sad Official languages Ethnic groups  2. ...


When all old accents had moved to the beginning of the word for one syllable, this was the result:

  • In words with two or more syllables the last syllable cannot be stressed
  • One-syllable words can have only falling accents
  • In polysyllabic words, if an inner syllable is stressed, then it can have only a rising accent (there are exceptions- in standard and in many vernaculars, for instance when there is a ` - - combination)
  • In a word with two or more syllables, if the first syllable is stressed, than it can have any of the four accents.

Grammar

Morphology

Declension

There are seven cases in Serbian: nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, vocative, instrumental and locative. It is commonly mistaken, that locative and dative have the same form, and that morphologically the number of cases is six. The accent is in many examples different in dative and locative: cf. strâni "to the site" (dative)/ (na) stráni "on the site" (locative) or (ka) sâtu "to the clock(tower)"/ (na) sátu "on the clock". The nominative case is a grammatical case for a noun. ... The genitive case is a grammatical case that indicates a relationship, primarily one of possession, between the noun in the genitive case and another noun. ... The dative case is a grammatical case generally used to indicate the noun to whom something is given. ... The accusative case (abbreviated ACC) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb. ... The vocative case is the case used for a noun identifying the person being addressed, found in Latin among other languages. ... In linguistics, the instrumental case (also called the eighth case) indicates that a noun is the instrument or means by which the subject achieves or accomplishes an action. ... Locative is a case which indicates a location. ...


The number of cases, in concert with a non-fixed word-order, can make Serbian difficult to learn for speakers of languages without a strong case system.


Conjugation

Further in Serbian conjugation


Serbian verbs are conjugated in 4 past tenses - perfect, aorist, imperfect, and pluperfect, of which the last two have a very limited use (imperfect is still used in some dialects, but majority of native Serbian speakers consider it archaic); 1 future tense (aka 1st future tense - as opposed to the 2nd future tense or the future exact, which is considered a tense of the conditional mood by some contemporary linguists), and 1 present tense. These are the tenses of the indicative mood. Apart from the indicative mood, there is also the imperative mood. The conditional mood has two more tenses, the 1st conditional (commonly used in conditional clauses, both for possible and impossible conditional clauses), and the 2nd conditional (without use in spoken language - it should be used for impossible conditional clauses). Serbian language has active and passive voice. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Aorist (from Greek αοριστος, indefinite) is a term used in certain Indo-European languages to refer to a particular grammatical tense and/or aspect. ... Imperfect has several meanings: The imperfect tense in linguistics an imperfect cadence in music theory This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The pluperfect tense exists in most Indo-European languages, including English. ... It has been suggested that Future perfect tense be merged into this article or section. ... The conditional mood (or conditional tense) is the form of the verb used in conditional sentences to refer to a hypothetical state of affairs, or an uncertain event that is contingent on another set of circumstances. ... The present tense is the tense (form of a verb) that is often used to express: Action at the present time A state of being A habitual action An occurrence in the near future An action that occurred in the past and continues up to the present There are two... In linguistics, many grammars have the concept of grammatical mood, which describes the relationship of a verb with reality and intent. ... In linguistics, many grammars have the concept of grammatical mood, which describes the relationship of a verb with reality and intent. ...


As for the non-finite verb forms, Serbian language has 1 infinitive, 2 adjectival participles (the active and the passive), and 2 adverbial participles (the present and the past). In grammar, infinitive is the name for certain verb forms that exist in many languages. ... Adjectival participle is a lexical category in the grammar of some languages (Russian [1], Hungarian, many Eskimo languages, e. ... Look up Adverbial participle in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Syntax

The default word order is Subject-Verb-Object. However, since inflection in most cases uniquely determines the role in sentence, Serbian is mostly a free word order language, and as such it is often cited[citation needed] by Chomsky and other generative syntacticians. In linguistic typology, agent-verb-object (AVO), commonly called subject-verb-object (SVO), is a sentence structure where the agent comes first, the verb second, and the object third. ... Inflection of the Spanish lexeme for cat, with blue representing the masculine gender, pink representing the feminine gender, grey representing the form used for mixed-gender, and green representing the plural number. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Word order. ... Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is Institute Professor Emeritus of linguistics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. ...


In Serbian, the sentence "Anna loves Philip" can therefore variously be expressed thus:

  • Ana voli Filipa
  • Ana Filipa voli
  • Voli Ana Filipa
  • Voli Filipa Ana
  • Filipa Ana voli
  • Filipa voli Ana

The most common form is the first one (SVO); the reordering shifts the focus of presentation, usually towards the first word—thus, the third and fourth sentence stress that Ana really loves Philip (rather than being indifferent), while fifth and sixth stress that it is Philip whom Ana loves (not somebody else). However, similar effects can be achieved by intonation on the word, as in English. Some deviations from the SVO order are considered archaic and/or poetic. In linguistics, the focus determines which part of the sentence contributes the most important information. ... Intonation, in linguistics, is the variation of pitch when speaking. ...


Vocabulary

  • Most of the words in Serbian are of Slavic origin. That means that their roots continue some words reconstructed for Proto-Slavic language. For instance, srce "heart", plav "blue".
  • There are many loanwords from different languages:
  1. There are plenty of loanwords from German. The great number of them are specific for vernaculars which were situated in Austrian monarchy (Vojvodina, Slavonija, Lika and partly Bosnia). Most cultural words attested before World War II, were borrowed from (or via) German, even when they are of French or English origin (šorc, boks). The accent is an excellent indicator for that, since German loanwords in Serbian have rising accents.
  2. Italian words in standard language were often borrowed via German (makarone), or, if they were taken directly from Italian, they show specific, not regular adaptations. For instance špagète for Italian spaghetti instead of "expected" špàgete.
    1. On the other side, as in Croatian, there are plenty of Italian loanwords in the coastal vernaculars (in Spič, Paštrovići, Boka Kotorska, Dubrovnik area and at Kvarner coast), as in the vernaculars near the coаst. In some Croatian vernaculars Italian Loanwords made up to 40-50% vernacular vocabulary in 1930s. Most present are words borrowed from Venetian (brancin, altroke, ardura, karonja "lazy man", pršut(a)). Some toponims as Budva and Boka Kotorska (meaning bay of Kotor actually) are borrowed from Venetian.
    2. In the coastal area, many words were borrowed from the by 1900 extinct Dalmatian language (murina, imbut), which was a Romance language, like Italian or French. Many toponyms were also borrowed from Dalmatian (Kakrc, Luštica, Lovćen, Sutomore< Sancta Maria).[9]
  3. The number of Turkish loanwords is very large. However, these words are quickly disappearing from the standard language, and at a faster rate than any other language's contributions. In Belgrade, for instance,čakšire (чакшире) was before World War II, the only word for trousers, today pantalone (панталоне); some 30-50 years ago avlija (авлија) was common word for courtyard or backyard in Belgrade, today it is dvorište (двориште); only 15 years ago čaršav (чаршав) was usual for tablecloth, today it is stoljnjak (стољњак). The greatest number of Turkish loanwords had and have vernaculars of south Serbia (including Kosovo), followed by those of Bosnia and Herzegovina and central Serbia. Many of Turkish loanwords are usual in vernaculars of Vojvodina, Slavonija, Montenegro and Lika as well.[10]
  4. Greek loanwords are very common in Old Serbian (Serbian-Slavonic). Some words are present and common in modern vernaculars in central Serbia (and also in other areas) and in the standard language: hiljada (хиљада), tiganj (тигањ), patos (патос). Many words of Orthodox ceremony are of Greek origin (parastos (парастос)).[11]
  5. The number of Hungarian loanwords in the standard language is small (bitanga (битанга), alas (алас), ašov (ашов)). However, they are present in some vernaculars of Vojvodina and Slavonia and also in historical documents, local literature. Some place names in northern central Serbia as Barajevo, are probably of Hungarian origin.[12]
  • Classical international words (words mainly with Latin or Greek roots) are adapted in Serbian like in most European languages, not translated as in Croatian.
  • Three Serbian words that are used in many of the world's languages are vampire,[13] paprika,[14] and slivovitz.[15] The ways of borrowing were not always same. Paprika and slivovitz are borrowed via German. Paprika itself is borrowed in German via Hungarian. Vampire spread in many languages via novel.

 Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... Proto-Slavic is the proto-language from which Old Church Slavonic and other Slavic languages later emerged. ... A loanword (or a borrowing) is a word taken in by one language from another. ... The Habsburg Monarchy, often called Austrian monarchy or simply Austria, is the name given to the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine, between 1526 and 1867/1918. ... Vojvodina (red) is one of Serbias two autonomous provinces Capital (and largest city) Novi Sad Official languages Ethnic groups  2. ... Slavonia is a region in eastern Croatia. ... Lika is a mountainous region in central Croatia, roughly bound by the Velebit mountain from the southwest and the PljeÅ¡evica mountain from the northeast. ... Motto None Anthem Intermeco Bosnia and Herzegovina() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Sarajevo Official languages Bosnian Croatian Serbian Government Parliamentary democracy  -  Presidency members Željko KomÅ¡ić1 NebojÅ¡a Radmanović2 Haris Silajdžić3  -  Chairman of the Council of Ministers Nikola Å pirić  -  High Representative 4 Independence... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The PaÅ¡trovići is a clan in Montenegro. ... Historic mpap of the Bay, 16th century Boka Kotorska (Bay of Kotor, Bocche di Cattaro) in western Montenegro is a winding bay on the Adriatic sea. ... Nickname: 1995 map of Dubrovnik The location of Dubrovnik within Croatia Coordinates: , Country Croatia County Dubrovnik-Neretva county Government  - Mayor Dubravka Å uica (HDZ) Area  - City 143. ... The Kvarner bay (Croatian kvarnerski zaljev, Italian Golfo del Quarnero/Quarnaro/Carnaro; sometimes also Kvarner gulf) is a bay in northern Adriatic Sea, located between the Istria peninsula and the northern Croatian seacoast. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Coordinates Mayor Rajko Kuljača Municipality area 122 km² Population  - city  - municipality 10,918 15,909 Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Founded 5th Century B.C. Area code +381 86 Car plates BD Official Website http://www. ... Historic mpap of the Bay, 16th century Boka Kotorska (Bay of Kotor, Bocche di Cattaro) in western Montenegro is a winding bay on the Adriatic sea. ... Dalmatian is an extinct Romance language formerly spoken along the eastern Adriatic in Dalmatian coast of Croatia and as far south as Kotor (Cattaro) in Montenegro. ... The Romance languages, also called Romanic languages, are a subfamily of the Italic languages, specifically the descendants of the Vulgar Latin dialects spoken by the common people evolving in different areas after the break-up of the Roman Empire. ... Lovćen is a mountain located in the southwest of Montenegro. ... Sutomore is a coastal town in a Serbia and Montenegro. ... Location of Belgrade within Serbia Coordinates: Country Serbia District City of Belgrade Municipalities 17 Government  - Mayor Nenad Bogdanović (DS) (since 2004)  - Ruling parties DS/DSS/G17+ Area  - City 3,222. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to... Kosovo (Albanian: Kosova or Kosovë, Serbian: , transliterated ; also , transliterated ) is a region in southern Serbia which has been under United Nations administration since 1999. ... Vojvodina (red) is one of Serbias two autonomous provinces Capital (and largest city) Novi Sad Official languages Ethnic groups  2. ... Slavonia is a region in eastern Croatia. ... Anthem Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, Bright Dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Demonym Montenegrin Government Republic  -  President Filip Vujanović  -  Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence due to the dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   -  Declared June 3, 2006... Lika is a mountainous region in central Croatia, roughly bound by the Velebit mountain from the southwest and the PljeÅ¡evica mountain from the northeast. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Eastern Orthodox Church (including Greek... Vojvodina (red) is one of Serbias two autonomous provinces Capital (and largest city) Novi Sad Official languages Ethnic groups  2. ... Coat of arms Slavonia (Croatian: Slavonija) is a geographical and historical region in eastern Croatia. ... Barajevo (&#1041;&#1072;&#1088;&#1072;&#1112;&#1077;&#1074;&#1086;) is one of Belgrades 17 municipalities. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Philip Burne-Jones, The Vampire, 1897 Vampires are mythological or folkloric beings that subsist on human and/or animal lifeforce. ... Capsicum fruit which comes in various shapes and colours can be used to make paprika. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...

Serbian literature

Main article: Serbian literature
Miroslavljevo jevanđelje (The Gospel of Miroslav), a manuscript, ca. 1180

Serbian literature emerged in the Middle Ages, and included such works as Miroslavljevo jevanđelje (Miroslav's Gospel) in 1192 and Dušanov zakonik (Dušan's Code) in 1349. Little secular medieval literature has been preserved, but what there is shows that it was in accord with its time; for example, Serbian Alexandride, a book about Alexander the Great, and a translation of Tristan and Iseult into Serbian. Although not belonging to the literature proper, the corpus of Serbian literacy in the 1300s and 1400s contains numerous legal, commercial and administrative texts with marked presence of Serbian vernacular juxtaposed on the matrix of Serbian Church Slavonic. Serbian literature is literature written in Serbian language and/or in Serbia. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Miroslavs Gospel Miroslavs Gospel (Serbian: Мирослављево Јевађеље or Miroslavljevo JevanÄ‘elje) is a 362-page liturgic book hand written on parchment, with very rich ornamentation. ... A manuscript (Latin manu scriptus, written by hand), strictly speaking, is any written document that is put down by hand, in contrast to being printed or reproduced some other way. ... Events April 13 - Frederick Barbarossa issues the Gelnhausen Charter November 18 - France Emperor Antoku succeds Emperor Takakura as emperor of Japan Afonso I of Portugal is taken prisoner by Ferdinand II of Leon Artois is annexed by France Prince Mochihito amasses a large army and instigates the Genpei War between... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Miroslavs Gospel Miroslavs Gospel (Serbian: Мирослављево Јевађеље or Miroslavljevo JevanÄ‘elje) is a 362-page liturgic book hand written on parchment, with very rich ornamentation. ... // Events The Third Crusade ends in disaster. ... DuÅ¡ans Code is a legal code, one of two the most significant cultural-historical monuments of medieval Serbia, accompanying St. ... // Events January 9 - The Jewish population of Basel, Switzerland is rounded up and incinerated, believed by the residents to be the cause of the ongoing bubonic plague. ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1][2] Megas Alexandros; July 20 356 BC – June 10 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, was an Ancient Greek king of Macedon (336–323 BC). ... Tristan and Iseult as depicted by Herbert Draper (1863–1920). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In the mid-15th century, Serbia was conquered by the Ottoman Empire and, for the next 400 years there was no opportunity for the creation of secular written literature. However, some of the greatest literary works in Serbian come from this time, in the form of oral literature, the most notable form being Serbian epic poetry. The epic poems were mainly written down in the 19th century, and preserved in oral tradition up to 1950s, that is few centuries or even a millennium longer then by most other "epic folks". Goethe and Jacob Grimm learned Serbian language in order to read Serbian epic poetry in original. By the end of the 18th century, the written literature had become estranged from the spoken language. In the second half of the 18th century, the new language appeared, called Slavonic-Serbian. This artificial idiom superseded works of poets and historians like Gavrilo Stefanović Venclović, who wrote in essentially modern Serbian in 1720s- just, these vernacular compositions have remained cloistered from the general public and received due attention only with the advent of modern literary historians and writers like Milorad Pavić. In the early 19th century, Vuk Stefanović Karadžić, promoted the spoken language of the people as a literary norm. (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... Songs of Serbian epic poetry rarely, if ever, rhyme, but they are easy to remember as each line has exactly ten syllables and caesura after fourth syllable. ...  , IPA: , (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German polymath. ... The Brothers Grimm on a 1000DM banknote. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Slavonic-Serbian language (славеносерпски, славјаносербски, словенски) is a form of the Serbian language which was dominately using by the end of the 18th century and the begining of the 19th century by the educated Serbian citizens in Vojvodina and Serbian diaspora in other parts of the Habsburg Monarchy. ... Milorad Pavić (Serbian: Милорад Павић) (born October 15, 1929 in Belgrade) is a noted Serbian poet, prose writer, translator, and literary historian. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century &#8212; 19th century &#8212; 20th century &#8212; more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Vuk Stefanović Karadžić (Serbian Cyrillic: Вук Стефановић Караџић) (November 7, 1787 - February 7, 1864) was a Serbian linguist and major reformer of the Serbian language. ... Spoken language is a language that people utter words of the language. ...


The first printed book in Serbian, Oktoih was printed in Cetinje in 1494, 40 years after Gutenberg's invention of movable type. Coordinates Mayor Milovan Janković (DPS - SDP) Municipality area 910 km² Population (2003 census)  - city  - municipality  - density 15,137 18,482 20. ... 1494 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Movable metal type, and composing stick, descended from Gutenbergs invention Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg (c. ... A case of cast metal type pieces and typeset matter in a composing stick Movable type is the system of printing and typography using movable pieces of metal type, made by casting from matrices struck by letterpunches. ...


Dictionaries

Serious Serbian and Croatian dictionaries regularly include Croatian only, and Serbian only words. Three Serbian words that are used in many of the world's languages are vampire, paprika (borrowed via Hungarian), and slivovitz. Philip Burne-Jones, The Vampire, 1897 Vampires are mythological or folkloric beings that subsist on human and/or animal lifeforce. ... Capsicum fruit which comes in various shapes and colours can be used to make paprika. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


Standard dictionaries

  • Rečnik sprkohrvatskog književnog i narodnog jezika (Dictionary of Serbian standard language and vernaculars) is the biggest dictionary of Serbian language and still unfinished. Starting with 1959, 16 volumes were published, about 40 are expected. Works of Croatian authors are excerpted, if published before 1991.
  • Rečnik srpskohrvatskoga književnog jezika in 6 volumes, started as a common project of Matica srpska and Matica hrvatska, but only the first three volumes were also published in Croato-Serbian (hrvatskosrpski).
  • There are no high-standard volume dictionaries whether of Serbian nor of Croatian language. Matica srpska is preparing one. Several volume dictionaries were published in Croatia (for Croatian language) during the 90s and till today (Anić, Enciklopedijski rječnik, Hrvatski rječnik). .

Matica srpska The Matica srpska or Матица српска is the oldest cultural-scientific institution of Serbia. ... The Matica hrvatska is one of the oldest Croatian cultural insitutions, dating back to 1842. ... Matica srpska The Matica srpska or Матица српска is the oldest cultural-scientific institution of Serbia. ...

Bilingual (English-Serbian & Serbian-English) dictionaries

  • Standard dictionaries
  • Specialized dictionaries
  • Phraseological dictionaries

Historical dictionaries

The Rječnik hrvatskoga ili srpskoga jezika (I-XXIII), published by Yugoslav academy of sciencies and arts (JAZU) from 1880 to 1976 is the only general historical dictionary of Serbian language. His first editor was Đuro Daničić, followed by Pero Budmani and famous "vukovac" Toma Maretić. The sources are, especially in first volumes, mainly shtokavian. The Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts (Latin Academia Scientiarum et Artium Croatica, Croatian Hrvatska akademija znanosti i umjetnosti) is the national academy of Croatia. ... Đuro Daničić (born April 4, 1825 in Novi Sad, died November 17, 1882 in Zagreb), was Serbian philologist, translator, linguistic historian and lexicographer. ... Pero Budmani Pero Budmani (1835 – 1914) born in Ragusa (Dubrovnik) was a linguist who first used the name Serbo-Croatian in his book of grammar (Grammatica della lingua serbo-croata; Vienna, 1867). ... Shtokavian (&#352;tokavian, &#353;tokavski) is the primary dialect of the Central South Slavic languages system, Serbian, Bosnian and Croatian. ...


Etymological dictionaries

The standard and the only completed etymological dictionary of Serbian language is so-called "Skok": Petar Skok. Etimologijski rječnik hrvatskoga ili srpskoga jezika. I-IV. Zagreb 1971-1974. Image File history File links Etimoloski_recnik. ...


There is also a new monumental Etimološki rečnik srpskog jezika (Etymological dictionary of Serbian language). Up to now, two volumes were published: I (with words on A-), and II (Ba-Bd).


There are specialized etymological dictionaries for German, Italian, Dalmatian, Turkish, Greek, Hungarian, Russian, English and other loanwords (cf. chapter word origin).

Dialect dictionaries

  • Kosovsko-resavski dialect dictionaries:
Gliša Elezović, Rečnik kosovsko-metohiskog dijalekta I-II. 1932/1935.
  • Prizren-Timok (Torlakian) dialect dictionaries:
Brana Mitrović, Rečnik leskovačkog govora. Leskovac 1984.
Nikola Živković, Rečnik pirotskog govora. Pirot, 1987.
Miodrag Marković, Rečnik crnorečkog govora I-II. 1986/1993.
Jakša Dinić, Rečnik timočkog govora I-III.1988-1992.
Momčilo Zlatanović, Rečnik govora južne Srbije. Vranje, 1998, 1–491.
  • East-Herzegowinian dialect dictionaries:
Milija Stanić, Uskočki rečnik I–II. Beograd 1990/1991.
Miloš Vujičić, Rečnik govora Prošćenja kod Mojkovca. Podgorica, 1995.
Srđan Musić, Romanizmi u severozapadnoj Boki Kotorskoj. 1972.
Mihailo Bojanić/ Rastislava Trivunac, Rječnik dubrovačkog govora. Beograd 2003.
Svetozar Gagović, Iz leksike Pive. Beograd 2004.
  • Zeta-Pester dialect:
Rada Stijović, Iz leksike Vasojevića. 1990.
Drago Ćupić — Željko Ćupić, Rečnik govora Zagarača. 1997.
Vesna Lipovac-Radulović, Romanizmi u Crnoj Gori — jugoistočni dio Boke Kotorske. Cetinje — Titograd, 1981.
Vesna Lipovac-Radulović, Romanizmi u Budvi i Paštrovićima. Novi Sad 1997.
  • Others:
Rečnik sprskih govora Vojvodine. Novi Sad.
M. Peić — G. Bačlija, Rečnik bačkih Bunjevaca. Novi Sad 1990.
Mile Tomić, Rečnik radimskog govora — dijaspora, Rumunija. 1989.

Geographic distribution

Figures of speakers according to countries:

Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to... Vojvodina (red) is one of Serbias two autonomous provinces Capital (and largest city) Novi Sad Official languages Ethnic groups  2. ... 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The term Serbia proper is often used in English to refer to the part of Serbia that lies outside the northern and southern autonomous provinces of Kosovo and Vojvodina. ... Kosovo (Albanian: Kosova or Kosovë, Serbian: , transliterated ; also , transliterated ) is a region in southern Serbia which has been under United Nations administration since 1999. ... Anthem Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, Bright Dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Demonym Montenegrin Government Republic  -  President Filip Vujanović  -  Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence due to the dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   -  Declared June 3, 2006... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of Freshwater The European Disability Year Events January events January 1 Luíz Inácio Lula Da Silva becomes the 37th President of Brazil. ... Bosnia and Herzegovina (also variously written Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Bosnia-Hercegovina) is a mountainous country in the western Balkans. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area [1] Ranked... 2001 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of the Volunteer The United Nations Year of Dialogue Among Civilizations Events January January 1 - A black monolith measuring approximately nine feet tall appears in Seattles Magnuson Park, placed by an anonymous... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ...

Differences to similar languages

Main article: Differences in official languages in Serbia, Croatia and Bosnia The official languages in Bosnia, Croatia and Serbia and Montenegro differ in various aspects as outlined below. ...


See also

Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... A list of Serbian proverbs is provided at Wikiquote:Serbian proverbs. ... This is a list of prominent ethnic Serbs and people from Serbia. ... Šatrovački is a feature of permuting syllables of words used in Serbo-Croat (Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian) and Macedonian. ... The Romano-Serbian language is a language in the Western group of South Slavic languages. ... All Slavic languages arose from Proto-Slavic, which developed during the early first millennium and split off into differing dialects around the fifth or sixth century. ...

References

  1. ^ Cf. The "Službeni list SFRJ" (Federal Gazette), was published from 1974 to 1991 in Serbo-Croat, Croato-Serbian, Macedonian, Slovenian and in the languages of national minorities
  2. ^ Serbian Cafe.com: Ankete.
  3. ^ Dragoljub Petrović (2002-2-11). Ćirilički računarski programi kao uslov opstanka srpske pismenosti i kulture (Serbian). Project Rastko.
  4. ^ a b Consonant-Vowel Interactions in Serbian: Features, Representations and Constraint Interactions, Bruce Morén, Center for Advanced Study of Theoretical Linguistics, Tromsø, 2005
  5. ^ A Handbook of Bosnian, Serbian and Croatian, Wayles Brown and Theresa Alt, SEELRC 2004
  6. ^ P. Ivic, Dva glavna pravca razvoja konsonantizma u srpskohrvatskom jeziku, Iz istorije srpskohrvatskog jezika, Niš 1991, p. 82ff.
  7. ^ Cf. preface by P. Ivić in reprint editon (1968)
  8. ^ Word and sentence prosody in Serbocroatian, by Ilse Lehiste and Pavle Ivić. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1986.
  9. ^ Cf. Vinja, Vojmir. Jadranske etimologije I-III. Zagreb 1998-.
  10. ^ Škaljić, Abdulah. Turcizmi u srpskohrvatskom jeziku. 1988 (1958).
  11. ^ Vasmer, Max. Griechische Lehnwörter im Serbokroatischen. 1943.
  12. ^ Hadrovics, László. Ungarische Elemente im Serbokroatischen. Köln / Wien. 1985
  13. ^ cf.: Deutsches Wörterbuch von Jacob Grimm und Wilhelm Grimm. 16 Bde. [in 32 Teilbänden. Leipzig: S. Hirzel 1854-1960.], s.v. Vampir; Trésor de la Langue Française informatisé; Dauzat, Albert, 1938. Dictionnaire étymologique. Librairie Larousse; Wolfgang Pfeifer, Етymologisches Woerterbuch, 2006, p. 1494; Petar Skok, Etimologijski rjecnk hrvatskoga ili srpskoga jezika, 1971-1974, s.v. Vampir; Tokarev, S.A. et al. 1982. Mify narodov mira. ("Myths of the peoples of the world". A Russian encyclopedia of mythology); Stachowski, Kamil. 2005. Wampir na rozdrożach. Etymologia wyrazu upiór - wampir w językach słowiańskich. W: Rocznik Slawistyczny, t. LV, str. 73-92; Russian Etymological Dictionary by Max Vasmer. Retrieved on 2006-06-13
  14. ^ Wolfgang Pfeifer, Etymologisches Woerterbuch, 2003, p. 968-969; Petar Skok, Etimologijski rjecnika hrvatskoga ili srpskog ajezika, 1971-1974, s.v. papar
  15. ^ for instance cf. DUDEN- Universalwoerterbuch, s.v. Schliwowitz

Project Rastko - Internet Library of Serb Culture (&#1055;&#1088;&#1086;&#1112;&#1077;&#1082;&#1072;&#1090; &#1056;&#1072;&#1089;&#1090;&#1082;&#1086; - &#1045;&#1083;&#1077;&#1082;&#1090;&#1088;&#1086;&#1085;&#1089;&#1082;&#1072; &#1073;&#1080;&#1073;&#1083;&#1080;&#1086;&#1090;&#1077;&#1082;&#1072; &#1089;&#1088;&#1087;&#1089;&#1082;&#1077; &#1082;&#1091...

External links

Wikipedia
Serbian language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wikibooks
Wikibooks has more about this subject:
Wikisource has original text related to this article:

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1058x1058, 477 KB) aa Wikipedia logo, version 1058px square, no text Wikipedia logo by Nohat (concept by Paullusmagnus); compare Wikipedia File links The following pages link to this file: Arabic language Talk:Anarcho-capitalism Talk:Algorithm Talk:Anno Domini Talk:The... Wikipedia (IPA: , or ( ) is a multilingual, web-based, free content encyclopedia project, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Professor Pavle Ivić (December 1, 1924 - September 19, 1999) was a leading South Slavic and general dialectologist and phonologist. ... Project Rastko - Internet Library of Serb Culture (&#1055;&#1088;&#1086;&#1112;&#1077;&#1082;&#1072;&#1090; &#1056;&#1072;&#1089;&#1090;&#1082;&#1086; - &#1045;&#1083;&#1077;&#1082;&#1090;&#1088;&#1086;&#1085;&#1089;&#1082;&#1072; &#1073;&#1080;&#1073;&#1083;&#1080;&#1086;&#1090;&#1077;&#1082;&#1072; &#1089;&#1088;&#1087;&#1089;&#1082;&#1077; &#1082;&#1091...

Online dictionaries


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The Language (141 words)
The Serbian language is a result of the work of the great Serbian philologist and language reformer, Vuk Stefanovich Karadzich.
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