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Encyclopedia > Serbian Campaign (World War I)
Serbian Campaign
Part of Balkans Theatre (World War I)
Date August 1914- November 1915
Location Serbia, Montenegro, Greece, Albania
Result Central Powers victory
Combatants
 Austria-Hungary
Bulgaria
Flag of German Empire German Empire
Flag of Serbia Serbia
Flag of Montenegro Montenegro
Commanders
Oskar Potiorek
Nikola Zhekov
Kliment Boyadzhiev
Georgi Todorov
Ivan Valkov
Flag of German Empire August von Mackensen
Flag of Serbia Radomir Putnik
Flag of Serbia Živojin Mišić
Flag of Serbia Stepa Stepanović
Flag of Serbia Petar Bojović
Flag of Montenegro Nicholas I

The Serbian Campaign was fought from August 1914, when Austria-Hungary invaded Serbia at the outset of First World War, until the end of the war in 1918. The front ranged from the Danube to southern Macedonia and back north again, involving forces from almost all combatants of the war. Combatants Central Powers Triple Entente, Serbia, Romania The Balkans Campaign of World War I was fought between Serbia and later Romania who sided with the Allied Powers against the Central Powers, mostly Austria-Hungary and Germany as well as Bulgaria. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... Image File history File links Austria-Hungary_flag_1869-1918. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria_(1878-1944). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Anthem: Bože Pravde [[Image:|250px|center|Location of the Kingdom of Serbia]] Capital Belgrade Largest city Belgrade Serbian Government Monarchy  - King Milan (1882-1889)  - King Aleksandar (1889-1903)  - King Peter I (1903-1918) Proclamation March 6, 1882 Area  - Total  km² ([[List of countries and outlying territories by area|]])  sq... Image File history File links Flag_of_Montenegro_(1941-1944). ... Flag Anthem: Ubavoj nam Crnoj Gori, Onamo, namo! The Kingdom of Montenegro in 1913 Capital Cetinje Language(s) Serbian Religion Eastern Orthodox Government Monarchy King Nicholas I Historical era World War I  - Established 28 August, 1910  - Disestablished 26 November, 1918 Currency Montenegrin perper The Kingdom of Montenegro (Serbian: Краљевина Црнe Горe... Image File history File links Austria-Hungary_flag_1869-1918. ... Oskar Potiorek Oskar Potiorek (1853 – 1933) was an Austrian general who served as the Austro-Hungarian governor of Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1911 and 1914. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria_(1878-1944). ... Nikola Zhekov (1864 - 1949) was a Minister of War of Bulgaria in 1915 and served as Commander-in-Chief from 1916-1918 during World War I. Zhekov served during two earlier conflicts: Serbo-Bulgarian War in 1885, and the Balkan Wars 1912-1913, where during the latter he served as... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria_(1878-1944). ... Kliment Boyadzhiev (Bulgarian: ) (born on 15 April 1861 in Ohrid, died on 15 July 1933 in Sofia) was a Bulgarian General during the Balkan Wars and First World War. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria_(1878-1944). ... Georgi Todorov (Bulgarian: ) (born on 10 August 1858 in Bolgrad (contemporary Ukraine); died on 16 November 1934 in Sofia) was a Bulgarian General who fought in the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878), Serbo-Bulgarian War (1885), Balkan Wars (1912-1913) and First World War (1914-1918). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria_(1878-1944). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... Field Marshal August von Mackensen August von Mackensen (December 6, 1849–November 8, 1945), was a German Field Marshal, born August Mackensen in Haus Leipnitz, in the Prussian province of Saxony, to Louis and Marie Louise Mackensen. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Marshal Radomir Putnik Radomir Putnik, also known as Vojvoda Putnik, (Радомир Путник - Војвода Путник) (born January 24, 1847 in Kragujevac, died May 17, 1917) was a Serbian Field Marshal and Chief of General Staff in the Balkan Wars and the First World War, and took part in all wars that Serbia waged from 1876... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Field Marshal Zivojin Misic (portrait by Uros Predic) Živojin MiÅ¡ić (Живојин Мишић) (1855-1921) was a Vojvoda (Field Marshal) and the most successful Serbian commander who participated in all Serbias wars from 1876 to 1918. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Stepa Stepanovic was a field-marshal (vojvoda) of the Serbian and Yugoslavian Armies who participated in Serbias wars from 1876 to 1918. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Petar Bojović (Serbian: Петар Бојовић) (born July 16, 1858 in MiÅ¡evica near Nova VaroÅ¡, died January 20, 1945 in Belgrade) was a Serbian army field-marshal, and one of four Serbian vojvodas (dukes) in Balkan Wars and World War I. He fought in Serbian-Ottoman Wars from 1876 to 1878 as... Image File history File links Flag_of_Montenegro_(1941-1944). ... Coat of arms of Petrović-NjegoÅ¡ King Nikola I Mirkov Petrović-NjegoÅ¡ (Serbian Cyrillic: Краљ Никола I Мирков Петровић-Његош) (October 7 [O.S. September 25] 1841 – March 1, 1921) was the only king of Montenegro, reigning as king from 1910 to 1918 and as prince from 1860 to 1910. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Anthem: Bože Pravde [[Image:|250px|center|Location of the Kingdom of Serbia]] Capital Belgrade Largest city Belgrade Serbian Government Monarchy  - King Milan (1882-1889)  - King Aleksandar (1889-1903)  - King Peter I (1903-1918) Proclamation March 6, 1882 Area  - Total  km² ([[List of countries and outlying territories by area|]])  sq... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... This article is about the Danube River. ...


The Serbian Army was decimated towards the end of the war, falling from about 420,000[1] at its peak to about 100,000 at the moment of liberation. The Kingdom of Serbia had lost 725,000 inhabitants during the war (both army and civilian losses), which represented over 17% of its overall population. (According to the Yugoslav government in 1924: Serbia lost 365,164 soldiers, or 26 percent, of all mobilized people [for ex. France 16.8; Germany 15.4; Russia 11.5; Italy 10.3 per cent]). Arms of Armed Forces of Serbia The Military of Serbia (Serbian: Војска Србије - Vojska Srbije) is the successor to the Military of Serbia and Montenegro, which ceased to exist after Montenegro voted to end the union of Serbia and Montenegro. ...

Contents

Setting the Stage

This article is part of the series on the
History of Serbia Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_Serbia_small. ... One of the first Serbian states, Raška, was founded in the first half of the 7th century on Byzantine territory by the Unknown Archont, the founder of the House of Vlastimirović; it evolved into the Serbian Empire under the House of Nemanjić. In the modern era Serbia has been...

Medieval Serbia
Raška, Zeta
Serbian Empire
Moravian Serbia
Battle of Kosovo
Serbian Despotate
Ottoman Serbia
Habsburg Serbia
First Serbian Uprising
Second Serbian Uprising
Modern Serbia
Principality of Serbia
Kingdom of Serbia
Serbian Campaign (World War I)
Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Serbia (1941-1944)
Republic of Užice
Socialist Republic of Serbia
(as part of SFR Yugoslavia)
FR Yugoslavia
Serbia and Montenegro
Republic of Serbia
This box: view  talk  edit

World War I was, in at least one sense, started when Chief of Serbian Military Intelligence Dragutin Dimitriević ordered the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary. Dimitriević's right hand man, Major Voja Tankosić armed and trained three assassins and arranged for their clandestine transport across the border and to Sarajevo. In Sarajevo, Danilo Ilić had been alerted by Belgrade to arrange additional local assassins and he recruited an additional three arming them with the weapons brought from Belgrade. The attack killed the archduke and his wife and wounded 20. The assassins were arrested and gave up the names of the many Serbian military officers who had helped them on their way. Austria-Hungary requested Serbia open an investigation parallel to their own on Serbian soil, but Serbia flatly rejected the request. On July 23, Austria-Hungary demanded Serbia come back into compliance with its March 1909 declaration to the Great Powers to live on a basis of good neighborly relations with Austria-Hungary and issued the July Ultimatum. Serbia responded by mobilizing its army and then responding to the Austro-Hungarian letter accepting point number 10, but cleverly rewording (providing itself with an out), rejecting, or responding disingenuously to the other nine demands. The Austro-Hungarian Ambassador rejected the response on the spot and returned to Vienna. Serbian reservists accidentally crossed onto the Austro-Hungarian half of the river at Temes-Kubin and Austro-Hungarian troops fired into the air to warn them off. Exaggerated reports of this incident were used to pursuade Kaiser Franz-Joseph to give the final go ahead to formally mobilize the southern Austro-Hungarian Army and declare war against Serbia. The Serbs entered their present territory early in the 7th century AD, settling in six distinct tribal delimitations: Rascia/RaÅ¡ka (present-day Western Serbia and Northern Montenegro), Bosnia [1] (indistinct from Rascia until the 12th century), Zachumlie/Zahumlje (western Herzegovina), Trebounia/Travunija (eastern Herzegovina), Pagania/Paganija (middle Dalmatia) and... RaÅ¡ka (Raschka, Rascia, Rassa) was the central and most successful medieval Serbian state (or župa, area ruled by a župan) that unified neighboring Serbian tribes into the main medieval Serbian state in Balkans. ... Zeta was one of the first Montenegrin states in the Middle Ages. ... The Serbian Empire (Serbian: Српско Царство, Srpsko Carstvo) was a medieval empire in the Balkans that emerged from the medieval Serbian kingdom in the 14th century. ... Lazar Hrebeljanović, prince of Moravian Serbia (1371-1389) Moravian Serbia (Serbian: Moravska Srbija, Моравска Србија) was the most important of the Serbian states that emerged from the collapse of the Serbian Empire in the 14th century. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Serbia Commanders Murad I †, Bayezid I, Yakub † Lazar Hrebeljanović †, Vuk Branković, Vlatko Vuković Strength ~ 27,000-40,000[4][5][6] ~ 12,000-30,000[4][5][6][7] Casualties Extremely high; Sultan Murad I killed Extremely high; most of Serbian nobility including Prince Lazar Hrebeljanovic killed... The Serbian Despotate (Serbian: Српска деспотовина or Srpska despotovina) was among the last Serbian states to be conquered by the Ottoman Empire. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Serbia (1718-1739) Serbia was a province of the Habsburg Monarchy from 1718 to 1739. ... // Flag of the First Serbian Uprising The First Serbian Uprising was a Serbian national revolution which lasted one decade (1804-1813), during which Serbia perceived itself as an independent state for the first time after 300 years of Ottoman and short-lasting Austrian occupations. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... KaraÄ‘orÄ‘e Petrović, leader of Serbian uprising in 1804 Serbia gained its autonomy from the Ottoman Empire in two revolutions in 1804 and 1815, though Turkish troops continued to garrison the capital, Belgrade until 1867. ... Principality of Serbia and Vojvodina of Serbia and TamiÅ¡ Banat in 1849 Serbian Principality was a state in the Balkans that came into existence as a result of First Serbian Uprising and Second Serbian Uprising between 1804 and 1816. ... Anthem: Bože Pravde [[Image:|250px|center|Location of the Kingdom of Serbia]] Capital Belgrade Largest city Belgrade Serbian Government Monarchy  - King Milan (1882-1889)  - King Aleksandar (1889-1903)  - King Peter I (1903-1918) Proclamation March 6, 1882 Area  - Total  km² ([[List of countries and outlying territories by area|]])  sq... Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbian, German (in Banat) Political structure Military administration Military Commander  - 1941 Franz Böhme  - 1941-1944 (?) (Unknown) Serbian government leader  - 1941 Milan Aćimović  - 1941-1944 Milan Nedić Historical era World War II  - Invasion of Yugoslavia April 1, 1941  - Military defeat May, 1944 Currency Serbian Dinar... The Republic of Užice (Serbo-Croatian: Užička Republika) was a short-lived military mini-state that existed in Autumn 1941 in the western part of Nazi-occupied Serbia. ... Anthem: Bože pravde (English: God of Justice) Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Serbian written with the Cyrillic alphabet1 Government Republic  - Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica  - President Boris Tadić Establishment    - Formation 814   - First Serbian Uprising 1804   - Internationally recognized July 13, 1878   - Kingdom of SCS created December 1, 1918   - SCG dissolved... Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbian Government Republic President  - 1992 - 1993 Dobrica Ćosić  - 1993 - 1997 Zoran Lilić  - 1997 – 2000 Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević  - 2000 - 2003 Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Prime Minister  - 1992 - 1993 Milan Panić  - 1993 - 1998 Radoje Kontić  - 1998 - 2000 Momir Bulatović  - 2000 - 2001 Zoran Žižić  - 2001 - 2003 DragiÅ¡a Pe... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... The Austro-Hungarian Ultimatum to Serbia or July Ultimatum was an ultimatum or final list of demands delivered to the government of Serbia on July 23, 1914, following the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria in Sarajevo. ...


For complex reasons, the dispute between Austria-Hungary and Serbia escalated into a war which involved Russia, Germany, France, and United Kingdom. Within a week, Austria-Hungary had to face a war with Russia, which had the largest army in the world at the time. The result was that Serbia became just another front to the massive fight that started to unfold along Austria-Hungary's border with Russia. Serbia had an experienced army, having fought two wars in the last two years, but it was also exhausted and poorly equipped and the Austrians thought that they would fall in less than a month. Serbia's strategy was to hold on as long as they could and hope the Russians could defeat the main Austro-Hungarian Army. Serbia constantly had to worry about its hostile neighbor to the east, Bulgaria, with which it had fought several wars, most recently in 1913. The Austro-Hungarian Army was the ground force of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. ... Combatants Bulgaria Greece Serbia Montenegro Romania Ottoman Empire Commanders Mihail Savov, Nikola Ivanov, Vasil Kutinchev, Radko Dimitriev King Constantine, Radomir Putnik, Crown Prince Ferdinand, Alexandru Averescu Strength 500,000 men Serbia 220,000 men, Romania 300,000 men, Greece 150,000 men, Montenegro 12,000 men The Second Balkan War...


The Serbians were helped by Austrian traitor and spy Alfred Redl, who gave the Russians detailed information about the Austrian invasion plan.[1] Alfred Redl was an Austro-Hungarian officer, who rose to head the counter-intelligence efforts of Austria-Hungary. ...


The Serbian army at the start of the war was some 180,000 strong, commanded by Marshal (Vojvoda) Radomir Putnik. However he was in poor health in a hospital in Austria. The Austrian government arrested him at the hospital but then released the Marshal after personal intervention of the Austrian Chief of General Staff Franz Graf Conrad von Hötzendorf, partly as an act of chivalry, and partly as a calculation that the ailing general would be an easy opponent; the latter proved to be a blunder. Putnik would brilliantly handle the Serbian Army, even though he almost never left his special hospital room in Serbia. Marshal Radomir Putnik Radomir Putnik, also known as Vojvoda Putnik, (Радомир Путник - Војвода Путник) (born January 24, 1847 in Kragujevac, died May 17, 1917) was a Serbian Field Marshal and Chief of General Staff in the Balkan Wars and the First World War, and took part in all wars that Serbia waged from 1876... Graf Conrad von Hötzendorf Franz Graf Conrad von Hötzendorf, or Count Francis Conrad von Hötzendorf. ... Bors Dilemma - he chooses to save a maiden rather than his brother Lionel Chivalry[1] is a term related to the medieval institution of knighthood. ...


1914

The war against Serbia started on August 12, when Austro-Hungarian armies crossed the border, the Drina River (see map). is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

First Attack on Serbia, August 1914

While the entire Austro-Hungarian Army was very large, due to the Russian declaration of war, the Austro-Hungarians could only attack with two small armies (the Fifth and the Sixth) over the Bosnian border. They had around 280,000 men, and were much better equipped than the Serbians. Overall, Austrian command was in the hands of the ineffective General Potiorek. However, the Austria-Hungarian Empire had the third largest population in Europe in 1914, almost twelve times the population of the Kingdom of Serbia. Image File history File links Serbia-WW1-1. ... Image File history File links Serbia-WW1-1. ... Oskar Potiorek Oskar Potiorek (1853 – 1933) was an Austrian general who served as the Austro-Hungarian governor of Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1911 and 1914. ...

Fighting on Ada Ciganlija
Fighting on Ada Ciganlija

Image File history File links Vojska_Ada_Ciganlija. ... Image File history File links Vojska_Ada_Ciganlija. ... Ada Ciganlija in the summer Ada Ciganlija (Serbian Ada Ciganlija, Cyrilic Ада Циганлија - pronounced in English rougly as /ada tsiganliya/) is an island in the Sava river flowing through central Belgrade the capital city of Serbia and Montenegro. ...

Battle of Cer

Main article: Battle of Cer

The Serbian Army threw back repeated attempts to cross the Drina and Sava rivers (this action is called the Battle of Cer or the Battle of Jadar). After very hard fighting, the Austro-Hungarian Army halted their attempts. In early September, the Serbs launched a small offensive into southern Bosnia, hoping to incite a revolt among their fellow Slavs. However, the offensive had no effect and was driven out within a few weeks. The Battle of Cer was one of the first battles of the First World War. ...

Later Operations in Serbia, 1914

Image File history File links Serbia-WW1-2. ... Image File history File links Serbia-WW1-2. ...

Battle of Drina

Under pressure of it's allies Serbia conducted a limited offensive acros the Sava river into the Austro-Hungarian Smyrna with it's Serbian Firs Army. Meanwhile the Timok division I of the Serbian Second army suffered a heavy defeat in a diversionary crossing suffering around 6.000 casualties while inflicting only 2.000. Smyrna (Greek: Σμύρνη) is an ancient city (today İzmir in Turkey) that was founded at a very early period at a central and strategic point on the Aegean coast of Anatolia. ... The military of a number of countries have a First Army: Australian First Army Austro-Hungarian First Army British First Army Bulgarian First Army Canadian First Army French First Army German First Army Greek First Army Hungarian First Army Italian First Army Polish First Army Romanian First Army Russian First...


With most of his forces in Bosnia Potiorek decided that the best way to stop the Serbian offensive was to launch another invasion of Serbia an hence force the Serbs to recall their troops to defend their much smaller homeland. Bosnia or Bosnian may refer to: Places: Bosnia and Herzegovina, a country in southeastern Europe The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, as defined by the Dayton Agreement Bosnia (region), a historical region in southeastern Europe Bosnia Province, Ottoman Empire, from the 15th to 20th centuries Bosna, Bulgaria, a village in...


September 7 brought a renewed Austro-Hungarian attack from the West, across the river Drina by the Austrian army, this time with both the 5th army in Mačva and the 6th further south. Initial attack by the 5.th army was repelled by the Serbian 2nd army with 4.000 Austro-Hungarian casualties, but the much stronger 6th army managed to surprise the Serbian 3rd army and gain a foothold. After some units from the Serbian 2nd army were sent to bolster the 3rd, the Austro-Hungarian 5th army in a renewed attack also managed to form a bridgehead. At that time, Marshal Putnik withdrew their 1st army from Smyrna (against much popular opposition) and used it to deliver a fierce counterattack against the 6th army that initially went well, but finally bogged down in a bloody four-day fight for a peak of the Jagodnja mountain called Mačkov Kamen in which both sides suffered horrendous losses in successive frontal attacks and counterattacks. Two Serbian divisions involved lost around 11.000 men, while the Austro-Hungarian losses were probably comparable. is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Macva District in Central Serbia Mačva (Serbian: Mačva or Мачва, Hungarian: Macsó) is a region in the northwest of Central Serbia. ... Marshal Radomir Putnik Radomir Putnik, also known as Vojvoda Putnik, (Радомир Путник - Војвода Путник) (born January 24, 1847 in Kragujevac, died May 17, 1917) was a Serbian Field Marshal and Chief of General Staff in the Balkan Wars and the First World War, and took part in all wars that Serbia waged from 1876...


Marshal Putnik ordered a retreat into the surrounding hills and the front setteled in a month and a half period of trench warfare which was highly unfavourable to Serbs who were inferior in heavy artillery, ammunition stocks, shell production (having only a single such factory producing around 100 shells a day) and also the footwear since the vast majority of infantry wore the traditional (though state-issued)opanaks, while the Austro-Hungarians had soakproof leather-boots. Most of the war material was supplied by the Allies who were short of it themselves. In such situation the Serbian artillery quickly went almost silent, while the Austro-Hungarian steadily increased fire. Serbian daily casualties reached 100 soldiers from all causes in some divisions (notably in Combined division). Marshal Radomir Putnik Radomir Putnik, also known as Vojvoda Putnik, (Радомир Путник - Војвода Путник) (born January 24, 1847 in Kragujevac, died May 17, 1917) was a Serbian Field Marshal and Chief of General Staff in the Balkan Wars and the First World War, and took part in all wars that Serbia waged from 1876... Opanak (plural opanci) is a traditional Serbian peasant shoe. ...


During the first weeks of the trench period the Serbian Užice Army (one strengthened division) and the Montenegrin Sanjak Army (roughly a division) conducted aa abortive offensive into Bosnia. In addition both sides conducted a few local attacks most of which were bloodily defeated. In one such attack the Serbian Army applied mine warfare for the first time: Combined division dug tunnels beneath the Austro-Hungarian trenches (that were only 20-30m away from the Serbian ones on this sector), planted mines there and set them off just before the infantry charge. Sapping, or undermining, was a siege method used in the Middle Ages against fortified castles. ...


Battle of Kolubara

Main article: Battle of Kolubara

Having thus weakened the Serbian Army, the Austro-Hungarian Army launched another massive attack on November 5. The Serbians withdrew under pressure and finally evacuated their capital city of Belgrade, which had become essentially indefensible, on November 30. The Austro-Hungarian Army entered the city on December 2. This move led Potiorek to move the whole 5th army to Belgrade area and use it to crush the Serbian right flank. This, however, left the 6th alone for a few days to face the whole Serbian army. Combatants Austria-Hungary Serbia Commanders Oskar Potiorek Zivojin Misic Radomir Putnik Strength 280,000 250,000 Casualties {{{notes}}} The Battle of Kolubara was one of the greatest battles in Balkans during World War I. It was fought between Austria-Hungary and Serbia, and the Serbian army was victorious. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


At this point, the artillery ammunition finally arrived to Srbia from France and Greece and Marshal Putnik correctly sensed that the Austrian forces were dangerously stretched so he ordered a full scale counter-attack with the entire Serbian Army on December 3 against the 6th army. The 5th hurried it's flanking manoeuver, but it was already too late - with the 6th army broken the 2nd and 3rd Serbian armies now turned towards the 5th and began overwhelming it. Finally Potiorek lost his nerve and ordered yet another retreat back to across the rivers into Austrian territory. See second map. The Serbian Army recaptured Belgrade on December 15. is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The first phase of the war against Serbia had ended with no change in the border but the casualties were incredible compared to earlier wars, though sadly, not out of keeping with other campaigns of this war. The Austrian army lost around 227,000 (total forces used in the campaign were 450,000 men). Serbian losses were approaching 170,000. Austrian General Potiorek was removed from command and replaced by Archduke Eugen of Austria (C. Falls p. 54). On the Serbian side, a deadly typhus epidemic killed hundreds of thousands of Serbian civilians during the winter months. Eugen, Archduke of Austria HI & RH Eugen Ferdinand Pius Bernhard Felix Maria, Archduke of Austria, Prince of Hungary and Bohemia (21 May 1863 - 30 December 1954) Born at Gross-Sellowitz, he was the son of Karl Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria (1818-1874) and his wife Elisabeth of Austria (1831-1903). ... For the unrelated disease caused by Salmonella typhi, see Typhoid fever. ...


1915

Serbian artillery
Serbian artillery

Early in 1915, with the Ottoman defeats at the Battle of Sarikamis and in the First Suez Offensive, the German Chief of the General Staff, Erich von Falkenhayn tried to convince the Austrian Chief of Staff, Conrad von Hotzendorf, of the importance of conquering Serbia. If Serbia was taken, then the Germans would have a rail link from Germany, through Austria-Hungary and down to Constantinople (and beyond). This would allow the Germans to send military supplies and even troops to help the Ottoman Empire. While helping the Ottoman Empire was hardly in Austria's interests, the Austrians did want to defeat Serbia. However, Russia was the more dangerous enemy, and furthermore, with the entry of Italy into the war on the Allied side, the Austrians had their hands full (see the Italian Campaign (World War I) for details). Image File history File links Serbian_Artillery_WW1. ... Image File history File links Serbian_Artillery_WW1. ... Combatants Russia Ottoman Empire Commanders General Vorontsov General Yudenich Enver Pasha Strength 100,000 90,000 (plus aprox. ... The first Suez Offence was an offence in 1915 in World War One. ... In the military systems of many countries, the Chief of the General Staff is the professional head of that countrys General Staff. ... Erich von Falkenhayn Chief of the General Staff Erich von Falkenhayn (11 November 1861 - 8 April 1922) was a German soldier and Chief of the General Staff during World War I. Falkenhayn was a career soldier. ... Graf Conrad von Hötzendorf Franz Graf Conrad von Hötzendorf, or Count Francis Conrad von Hötzendorf. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Combatants Italy United Kingdom France Austria-Hungary German Empire Commanders Armando Diaz Luigi Cadorna Lord Cavan Conrad von Hötzendorf Svetozar Boroević Otto von Below The Italian campaign refers to a series of battles fought between the armies of Austria-Hungary and Italy, along with their allies, in northern Italy...

Conquest of Serbia, 1915
Conquest of Serbia, 1915
Austrians execute Serb POWs
Austrians execute Serb POWs

Both the Allies and the Central Powers tried to get Bulgaria to pick a side in the Great War. Bulgaria and Serbia had fought two wars in the last 30 years, the first in 1885 (see Serbo-Bulgarian War for details), the second in 1913 (see the Second Balkan War for details). The result was that the Bulgarian government and people felt that Serbia was in possession of lands to which Bulgaria was entitled, and when the Central Powers offered to give them what they claimed, the Bulgarians entered the war on the side of the Central Powers. With the Allied loss in the Battle of Gallipoli and the Russian defeat at Gorlice, King Ferdinand signed a treaty with Germany and on September 23, 1915 began mobilizing for war. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (868x918, 220 KB) Summary Operations in Serbia from October through December, 1915. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (868x918, 220 KB) Summary Operations in Serbia from October through December, 1915. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 563 pixelsFull resolution (2601 × 1829 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 563 pixelsFull resolution (2601 × 1829 pixels, file size: 1. ... European military alliances in 1915. ... European military alliances in 1914. ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants Principality of Bulgaria Kingdom of Serbia Strength >35,000 facing the Serbs at the beggining of the battle of Slivnitsa: 60,000+ towards the end of the war 60,000 Casualties 5000 killed, wounded and missing 7000 killed, wounded and missing The Serbo-Bulgarian War (Bulgarian: , Srabsko-balgarska voyna... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants Bulgaria Greece Serbia Montenegro Romania Ottoman Empire Commanders Mihail Savov, Nikola Ivanov, Vasil Kutinchev, Radko Dimitriev King Constantine, Radomir Putnik, Crown Prince Ferdinand, Alexandru Averescu Strength 500,000 men Serbia 220,000 men, Romania 300,000 men, Greece 150,000 men, Montenegro 12,000 men The Second Balkan War... Combatants British Empire Australia British India Newfoundland New Zealand United Kingdom Egyptian labourers[1] France Senegal  Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir Ian Hamilton Lord Kitchener John de Robeck Otto von Sanders Mustafa Kemal Strength 5 divisions (initial) 16 divisions (final) 6 divisions (initial) 15 divisions (final) Casualties 252,000[2] 195... Categories: Poland-related stubs | Towns in Poland ... Ferdinand Maximilan Charles Leopold Marie, Ferdinand of Bulgaria (February 26, 1861 - September 10, 1948) was monarch of Bulgaria as well as an author, botanist and philatelist. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


During the preceding nine months, the Serbians had tried, and failed, to rebuild their battered armies and improve their supply situation. Despite their efforts, the Serbian army was only about 30,000 men stronger than at the start of the war (around 225,000) and was still not well-equipped. Although the Allies (Britain and France) had talked about sending serious military forces to Serbia, nothing was done until it was too late. When Bulgaria began mobilization, the French and British sent two divisions to help Serbia, but they arrived late in the Greek town of Salonika. Part of the reason for the delay was the Greek government's conflicted views about the war. The White Tower The Arch of Galerius Map showing the Thessaloníki prefecture Thessaloníki (Θεσσαλονίκη) is the second-largest city of Greece and is the principal city and the capital of the Greek region of Macedonia. ... For other uses, see Greece (disambiguation). ...


Against Serbia were marshalled the Bulgarian Army, a German Army, and an Austro-Hungarian Army, all under the command of Field Marshal Mackensen, totalling more than 420,000 soldiers. The Germans and Austro-Hungarians began their attack on October 7 with a massive artillery barrage, followed by attacks across the rivers. Then, on the 11th, the Bulgarian Army attacked from two directions, one from the north of Bulgaria towards Niš, the other from the south towards Skopje (see the map). The large Bulgarian Army broke through the superior Serbian forces that tried to block its advance. With the Bulgarian breakthrough (battle of Morava, battle of Ovche Pole, Battle of Kosovo (1915)), the Serbian position was hopeless; either their main army in the north could try to retreat, or would be surrounded and forced to surrender. In the battle of Kosovo the Serbs made a last and desperate attempt to join the 100,000 Anglo-French army which was advancing from the south but were decisively defeated by the Bulgarians under General Kliment Boyadzhiev and had to pull back. The German Army (German: [1], [IPA: heɐ]  ) is the land component of the Bundeswehr (Federal Defence Forces) of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... Field Marshal August von Mackensen August von Mackensen (December 6, 1849–November 8, 1945), was a German Field Marshal, born August Mackensen in Haus Leipnitz, in the Prussian province of Saxony, to Louis and Marie Louise Mackensen. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nis redirects here. ... Location of the city of Skopje (green) in the Republic of Macedonia Government  - Mayor Trifun Kostovski Area  - City 701. ... Combatants Bulgaria Serbia Strength 1st Army- 4 infantry divisions: 145,000 2nd Serbian army- 8 infantry divisions: c. ... Combatants Bulgaria Serbia Strength 2nd Army- 3 divisions: 70,000 3,5 divisions: c. ... Combatants Bulgaria Serbia Strength 1st Army, Northern Operations Group of 2nd Army Unknown Casualties Unknown 30,000 killed and woulded, 199 guns Final defeat of Serbia The battle of Kosovo occurred between 10 November 1915 and 4 December 1915. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... Kliment Boyadzhiev (Bulgarian: ) (born on 15 April 1861 in Ohrid, died on 15 July 1933 in Sofia) was a Bulgarian General during the Balkan Wars and First World War. ...

Serbian Army during its retreat towards Albania
Serbian Army during its retreat towards Albania

Marshal Putnik ordered a full retreat, south and west through Montenegro and into Albania. The weather was terrible, the roads poor, and the army had to help the tens of thousands of civilians who retreated with them with almost no supplies or food left. But the bad weather and poor roads worked for the refugees as well, as the Central Powers forces could not press them hard enough, and so they evaded capture. Most of the fleeing soldiers and civilians didn't make it to the coast, though - they were lost to hunger, disease, attacks by enemy forces and Albanian tribal bands. The circumstances of the retreat were disastrous, and all told, some 155,000 Serbs reached the coast of the Adriatic Sea, 30,000 of them soldiers, and embarked on French transport ships that carried the army to various Greek islands (many went to Corfu) before being sent to Salonika. The survivors were so weakened that thousands of them died from sheer exhaustion in the weeks after their rescue. Marshal Putnik had to be carried during the whole retreat and he died a bit more than a year later in a hospital in France. Image File history File links Serbian_retreat_WWI.jpg‎ File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Serbian Campaign (World War I) ... Image File history File links Serbian_retreat_WWI.jpg‎ File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Serbian Campaign (World War I) ... Flag Anthem: Ubavoj nam Crnoj Gori, Onamo, namo! The Kingdom of Montenegro in 1913 Capital Cetinje Language(s) Serbian Religion Eastern Orthodox Government Monarchy King Nicholas I Historical era World War I  - Established 28 August, 1910  - Disestablished 26 November, 1918 Currency Montenegrin perper The Kingdom of Montenegro (Serbian: Краљевина Црнe Горe... A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ... This article is about the Greek island Kerkyra known in English as Corfu or Corcyra. ...


The French and British divisions marched north from Salonika in late November under the command of French General Maurice Sarrail. However, the British divisions were ordered by the War Office in London not to cross the Greek frontier. So the French divisions advanced on their own up the Vardar River. This advance was of some limited help to the retreating Serbian Army as the Bulgarian Army had to concentrate larger forces on their southern flank to deal with the threat. By mid-December, General Sarrail concluded retreat was necessary in the face of determined Bulgarian assaults on his positions. Maurice-Paul-Emmanuel Sarrail (1856–1929) was a French general of the First World War. ... Vardar in Skopje Axios redirects here. ...


This was a nearly complete victory for the Central Powers. The railroad from Berlin to Constantinople was finally opened and as a result, Germany was able to prop up its weak partner, the Ottoman Empire. The only flaw in the victory was the remarkable retreat of the Serbians Army, which was almost completely disorganized though and had to be fully rebuilt from scratch. However, they took part in the fighting throughout the rest of the war on various fronts and performed well. This article is about the capital of Germany. ...


For the subsequent events see Macedonian front (World War I). Combatants Central Powers:  Austria-Hungary  German Empire Bulgaria Allied Powers: Serbia  France (1915-1918) United Kingdom (1915-1918) Greece (1916-1918) Italy (1916-1918) Commanders August von Mackensen Oskar Potiorek Nikola Zhekov Petar Bojović Živojin MiÅ¡ić Maurice Sarrail Adolphe Guillaumat Franchet dEsperey George Milne Panagiotis Danglis Conquest of...


Summary

Serbian Army on parade in Paris
Serbian Army on parade in Paris

Once Germany and Bulgaria attacked in coordination with Austria-Hungary, the smaller Serbian Army could not sustain the attack alone, so the order was given for the temporary withdrawal to Greek islands. Greece was not a major power, not friendly to the Allies, and the northern border of Greece offered superior defensive positions for a minor power like Bulgaria to defend. Image File history File links Armija_Parade_Paris. ... Image File history File links Armija_Parade_Paris. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...


The ramifications of the war were manifold. In the Treaty of Neuilly, Greece got Western Thrace, and Serbia received some minor territorial concessions from Bulgaria. Austria-Hungary was broken apart and Hungary lost much land to both Yugoslavia and Romania in the Treaty of Trianon. Serbia assumed the lead position in the new state of Yugoslavia, joined by their old ally, Montenegro, while Italy established a quasi-protectorate over Albania. The Treaty of Neuilly, dealing with Bulgaria for its role as one of the Central Powers in World War I, was signed on the November 27, 1919 at Neuilly-sur-Seine, France. ... Western or Greek Thrace (Greek Δυτική ή Ελληνική Θράκη,Turkish Batı Trakya) is the part of Thrace located between the rivers Nestos and Evros in northeastern Greece. ... The negotiations on June 4, 1920. ... Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander... This article is about the country in Europe. ...


Serbian losses

The Entente casualties
The Entente casualties

Serbia had suffered enormous casualties during the war. The Serbian Army had been decimated towards the end of the war, falling from about 420,000 [2] at its peak to about 100,000 at the moment of liberation.
The Kingdom of Serbia had lost 735,000 inhabitants during the war (both army and civilian losses: of 4.5 million people, 275,000 were military deaths, 450,000 civilians died - mostly due to food shortages, epidemics and the Spanish flu - and there were 133,148 wounded), which represented over 15% of its overall population - a demographic disaster that is still obvious today. (By Yugoslav government in 1924: Serbia lost 365,164 soldiers, or 26 percent, of all mobilized personnel (for ex. France 16.8; Germany 15.4; Russia 11.5; Italy 10.3 per cent).
In the end of the war there were 114,000 disabled soldiers and 500,000 orphaned children. cit. Serbian History : Dusko M.Kovacevic, Dejan Mikavica, Branko Beslin, Biljana Simunovic-Beslin) Image File history File links WorldWarI-MilitaryDeaths-EntentePowers-Piechart. ... Image File history File links WorldWarI-MilitaryDeaths-EntentePowers-Piechart. ... Entente, meaning a diplomatic understanding, may refer to a number of agreements: The Entente Cordiale, 1904 between France and the United Kingdom. ... Arms of Armed Forces of Serbia The Military of Serbia (Serbian: Војска Србије - Vojska Srbije) is the successor to the Military of Serbia and Montenegro, which ceased to exist after Montenegro voted to end the union of Serbia and Montenegro. ...


Sources

  • Falls, Cyril The Great War (1960).
  • Esposito, Vincent (ed.) (1959). The West Point Atlas of American Wars - Vol. 2; maps 46-50. Frederick Praeger Press.

See also

World War I Portal

 
 

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