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Encyclopedia > Sequoia
Sequoia sempervirens

Sequoia sempervirens in Redwood National and State Parks
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pinophyta
Class: Pinopsida
Order: Pinales
Family: Cupressaceae
Genus: Sequoia
Species: S. sempervirens
Binomial name
Sequoia sempervirens
(D. Don) Endl.

Sequoia is a genus in the cypress family Cupressaceae (formerly treated in Taxodiaceae), containing the single living species Sequoia sempervirens. Common names include Coast Redwood and California Redwood (it is one of three species of trees known as redwoods). It is an evergreen, long-lived, monoecious tree living for up to 2,200 years, and is the tallest tree in the world, reaching up to 115.5 m (379.1 ft) in height and 7 m (23 ft) diameter at the base. It is thought to be named after the Cherokee Indian leader, Sequoyah, though this is uncertain. Binomial name (Lindl. ... Sequoia or Sequoyah is the name of: In biology Sequoia (Coast Redwood), Sequoiadendron (Giant Sequoia), and Metasequoia, three genera of tree comprising the subfamily Sequoioideae in the family Cupressaceae In geography Sequoyah, a small unincorporated community in northeastern Oklahoma Sequoia National Park, Sequoia National Forest, and Giant Sequoia National Monument... Download high resolution version (399x603, 71 KB)Italic textA Coast Redwood File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. ... Image File history File links Status_iucn3. ... This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † “Conifer” redirects here. ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † “Conifer” redirects here. ... Families Pinaceae, pine family Araucariaceae, araucaria family Podocarpaceae, yellow-wood family Phyllocladaceae Sciadopityaceae, umbrella-pine family Cupressaceae, cypress family Cephalotaxaceae, plum-yew family Taxaceae, yew family The Order Pinales in the Division Pinophyta, Class Pinopsida comprises all the extant conifers. ... Genera Actinostrobus Athrotaxis Austrocedrus Callitris - Cypress-pine Callitropsis - Cypress * (Cupressus) Calocedrus - Incense-cedar Chamaecyparis - Cypress Cryptomeria - Sugi Cunninghamia - Cunninghamia Cupressus - Cypress Diselma - Diselma Fitzroya - Alerce Fokienia - Fujian Cypress Glyptostrobus - Chinese Swamp Cypress Juniperus - Juniper Libocedrus Metasequoia - Dawn Redwood Microbiota - Microbiota Neocallitropsis Papuacedrus * (Libocedrus) Pilgerodendron * (Libocedrus) Platycladus - Chinese Arborvitae Sequoia - Coast... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... David Don (21 December 1799 - 15 December 1841) was an English botanist, Professor of Botany at Kings College, London from 1836–1841, and librarian at the Linnean Society of London from 1822–1841. ... Stephan Ladislaus Endlicher (24 June 1804 - 28 March 1849; botanical abbreviation Endl. ... Genera Actinostrobus Athrotaxis Austrocedrus Callitris - Cypress-pine Callitropsis - Cypress * (Cupressus) Calocedrus - Incense-cedar Chamaecyparis - Cypress Cryptomeria - Sugi Cunninghamia - Cunninghamia Cupressus - Cypress Diselma - Diselma Fitzroya - Alerce Fokienia - Fujian Cypress Glyptostrobus - Chinese Swamp Cypress Juniperus - Juniper Libocedrus Metasequoia - Dawn Redwood Microbiota - Microbiota Neocallitropsis Papuacedrus * (Libocedrus) Pilgerodendron * (Libocedrus) Platycladus - Chinese Arborvitae Sequoia - Coast... The Taxodiaceae was at one time regarded as a distinct plant family comprising the following ten genera of coniferous trees: Athrotaxis Cryptomeria Cunninghamia Glyptostrobus Metasequoia Sciadopitys Sequoia Sequoiadendron Taiwania Taxodium However, recent research has shown that the Taxodiaceae, with the single exception of Sciadopitys, should be merged into the Family... Genera Actinostrobus Athrotaxis Austrocedrus Callitris - Cypress-pine Callitropsis - Cypress * (Cupressus) Calocedrus - Incense-cedar Chamaecyparis - Cypress Cryptomeria - Sugi Cunninghamia - Cunninghamia Cupressus - Cypress Diselma - Diselma Fitzroya - Alerce Fokienia - Fujian Cypress Glyptostrobus - Chinese Swamp Cypress Juniperus - Juniper Libocedrus Metasequoia - Dawn Redwood Microbiota - Microbiota Neocallitropsis Papuacedrus * (Libocedrus) Pilgerodendron * (Libocedrus) Platycladus - Chinese Arborvitae Sequoia - Coast... This article is about plant types. ... Close-up of an Echinopsis spachiana flower, showing both carpels and stamen, making it a complete flower. ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... For other uses, see Cherokee (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


The name Sequoia is also used as a general term for the subfamily Sequoioideae in which this genus is classified together with Sequoiadendron (Giant Sequoia) and Metasequoia (Dawn Redwood). Genera Actinostrobus Athrotaxis Austrocedrus Callitris - Cypress-pine Callitropsis - Cypress * (Cupressus) Calocedrus - Incense-cedar Chamaecyparis - Cypress Cryptomeria - Sugi Cunninghamia - Cunninghamia Cupressus - Cypress Diselma - Diselma Fitzroya - Alerce Fokienia - Fujian Cypress Glyptostrobus - Chinese Swamp Cypress Juniperus - Juniper Libocedrus Metasequoia - Dawn Redwood Microbiota - Microbiota Neocallitropsis Papuacedrus * (Libocedrus) Pilgerodendron * (Libocedrus) Platycladus - Chinese Arborvitae Sequoia - Coast... Binomial name (Lindl. ... Binomial name Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu & Cheng Metasequoia glyptostroboides (Dawn Redwood) is a fast growing tree in the conifer family Cupressaceae (Taxaceae or Taxodiaceae by others)native to the Sichuan-Hubei region of China. ...

Detail: bark

The crown is conical, with horizontal to slightly drooping branches. The bark is very thick, up to 30 cm (12 in), and quite soft, fibrous with a bright red-brown when freshly exposed (hence the name 'redwood'), weathering darker. The root system is composed of shallow, wide-spreading lateral roots. The leaves are variable, being 15-25 mm long and flat on young trees and shaded shoots in the lower crown of old trees, and scale-like, 5-10 mm long on shoots in full sun in the upper crown of older trees; there is a full range of transition between the two extremes. They are dark green above, and with two blue-white stomatal bands below. Leaf arrangement is spiral, but the larger shade leaves are twisted at the base to lie in a flat plane for maximum light capture. The seed cones are ovoid, 15-32 mm long, with 15-25 spirally arranged scales; pollination is in late winter with maturation about 8-9 months after. Each cone scale bears 3-7 seeds, each seed 3-4 mm long and 0.5 mm broad, with two wings 1 mm wide. The seeds are released when the cone scales dry out and open at maturity. The pollen cones are oval, 4-6 mm long. The species is monoecious, with pollen and seed cones on the same plant. Its genetic makeup is unusual among conifers, being a hexaploid (6n) and likely autoallopolyploid (AAAABB). The mitochondrial genome is (unlike other conifers) paternally inherited (Neale et al. 1989). Coast redwood bark detail Taken by Nathan May 14, 2004 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Coast redwood bark detail Taken by Nathan May 14, 2004 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Bark (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Root (disambiguation). ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This is not about surgically created bowel openings; see stoma (medicine) In botany, a stoma (also stomate; plural stomata) is a tiny opening or pore, found mostly on the undersurface of a plant leaf, and used for gas exchange. ... Mature female European Black Pine cone Male cones of a pine A cone (in formal botanical usage: strobilus, plural strobili) is an organ on plants in the division Pinophyta (conifers) that contains the reproductive structures. ... Carpenter bee with pollen collected from Night-blooming cereus Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (male gametes) to the plant carpel, the structure that contains the ovule (female gamete). ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... Close-up of an Echinopsis spachiana flower, showing both carpels and stamen, making it a complete flower. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... Polyploid (in Greek: πολλαπλόν - multiple) cells or organisms contain more than one copy (ploidy) of their chromosomes. ... Polyploidy refers to cells or organisms that contain more than two copies of each of their chromosomes. ...

Contents

Range and ecology

Sunlight shining through sequoia trees in Muir Woods
Sunlight shining through sequoia trees in Muir Woods

Coast Redwoods occupy a narrow strip of land approximately 750 km (470 miles) in length and 8-75 km (5-47 miles) in width along the Pacific coast; the elevation range is mostly from 30-750 m, occasionally down to sea level and up to 920 m (about 3,000 feet) (Farjon 2005). They usually grow in the mountains where there is more precipitation from the incoming moisture off the ocean. The tallest and oldest trees are found in deep valleys and gullies, where year-round streams can flow, and fog drip is regular. The trees above the fog layer, above about 700 m, are shorter and smaller due to the drier, windier, and colder conditions. In addition, tanoak, pine and Douglas-fir often crowd out redwoods at these elevations. Few redwoods grow close to the ocean, due to intense salt spray, sand and wind. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Prism splitting light High Resolution Solar Spectrum Sunlight in the broad sense is the total spectrum of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun. ... Muir Woods National Monument is a unit of the National Park Service in Marin County, California, 12 miles (19 km) north of San Francisco. ... Pacific redirects here. ... Binomial name Lithocarpus densiflorus (Hook. ... Subgenera Subgenus Strobus Subgenus Ducampopinus Subgenus Pinus See Pinus classification for complete taxonomy to species level. ... Species See text. ...

Fog is of major importance in Coast Redwood ecology. Redwood National Park.
Fog is of major importance in Coast Redwood ecology. Redwood National Park.

The northern boundary of its range is marked by two groves on the Chetco River on the western fringe of the Klamath Mountains, 25 km (15 miles) north of the California-Oregon border. The largest (and tallest) populations are in Redwood National and State Parks (Del Norte and Humboldt Counties) and Humboldt Redwoods State Park (Humboldt County), located primarily near the ocean and within the coastal mountains of the far North Coast of California. The furthest inland are 75 km from the sea, in Napa County. The southern boundary of the range is marked by a grove in Salmon Creek Canyon in the Santa Lucia Mountains of southern Monterey County. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (426x640, 121 KB) Summary Spring fog in Redwood National Park. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (426x640, 121 KB) Summary Spring fog in Redwood National Park. ... For other uses, see Fog (disambiguation). ... The Coastal redwood is the tallest tree species on Earth. ... Chetco River The Chetco River is a river in southwestern Oregon in the United States, approximately 55 mi (88 km) long. ... The Trinity Alps near Granite Lake in July 2005 Rogue River Gorge, Oregon The Klamath Mountains, sometimes called the salmon mountains, are a rugged lightly populated mountain range in northwest California and southwest Oregon, the highest peaks being Mount Eddy (6 ft / 2 m) in Siskiyou County, California, Thompson peak... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The Coastal redwood is the tallest tree species on Earth. ... Del Norte County is the northwesternmost county in the U.S. state of California, located on the Pacific coast south of Oregon. ... Humboldt County is a county located on the northwest coast of the U.S. state of California, on the Pacific Ocean. ... Humboldt Redwoods State Park in Humboldt County, northern California, 30 miles (50 km) south of Eureka, California. ... Humboldt County is a county located on the northwest coast of the U.S. state of California, on the Pacific Ocean. ... Napa Valley redirects here. ... The Santa Lucia Mountains or Santa Lucia Range is a mountain range in coastal California, running from Monterey southeast for 170 km to San Luis Obispo. ... Monterey County is a county located on the Pacific coast of California, its northwestern section forming the southern half of Monterey Bay. ...


This native area provides a unique environment with heavy seasonal rains (of up to 2,500 mm or 100 in annually). Cool coastal air and fog keeping this forest consistently damp year round. Several factors, including the heavy rainfall, create a soil with less nutrients than are necessary, causing the trees to depend heavily on the entire biotic community of the forest, and complete recycling of the trees when dead. This forest community includes Douglas fir, Western Hemlock, Tanoak, Madrone, and other trees along with a wide variety of ferns, Redwood sorrel, mosses and mushrooms. Redwood forests provide habitat for a variety of mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. Old growth redwood stands provide habitat for the federally threatened Spotted Owl and the California-endangered Marbled Murrelet. Species See text Douglas-fir is the common name applied to coniferous trees of the genus Pseudotsuga in the family Pinaceae. ... Binomial name Tsuga heterophylla (Raf. ... Binomial name Lithocarpus densiflorus (Hook. ... Species See text Arbutus is a genus of trees in the family Ericaceae. ... This article is about the group of pteridophyte plants. ... Binomial name Oxalis oregana Redwood sorrel (Oxalis Oregana) is a ground cover underneath Coast Redwoods. ... For other uses, see Moss (disambiguation). ... For the fictional character, see Fungus the Bogeyman. ... Old growth forest, sometimes called late seral forest or ancient forest is an area of forest that has attained great age and exhibits unique biological features. ... Binomial name Xantus de Vesey, 1860 The Spotted Owl, Strix occidentalis, is a species of owl. ... Binomial name Brachyramphus marmoratus (Gmelin, 1789) The Marbled Murrelet, Brachyramphus marmoratus is a small seabird from the North Pacific. ...


The thick, tannin-rich bark, combined with foliage that starts high above the ground provides good protection from both fire and insect damage, contributing to the Coast Redwood's longevity. The oldest known Coast Redwood is about 2,200 years old (Gymnosperm Database); many others in the wild exceed 600 years. The numerous claims of older trees are incorrect (Gymnosperm Database). A bottle of tannic acid. ... For other uses, see Wildfire (disambiguation). ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera...


The prehistoric fossil range of the genus is considerably greater, with a subcosmopolitan distribution including Europe and Asia until about 5 million years ago. For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ...


Statistics

Dried sap of a sequoia tree
Dried sap of a sequoia tree
An example of a bonsai Redwood, from the Brooklyn Botanic Garden.
An example of a bonsai Redwood, from the Brooklyn Botanic Garden.

Trees over 60 m (200 feet) are common, and many are over 90 m (300 feet). Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 853 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 853 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 2. ... Maple Bonsai in Heidelberg, Germany Bonsai displayed at a garden show in Tatton Park in Cheshire, England Bonsai   (Japanese: , literally potted plant) is the art of aesthetic miniaturization of trees by growing them in containers. ... The Cranford Rose Garden in Brooklyn Botanic Garden, New York City The Brooklyn Botanic Garden (BCG) is a botanical garden located next to Prospect Park near Grand Army Plaza in Brooklyn, New York, USA. Founded in 1910, the 52 acre (210,000 m²) garden includes a cherry tree esplanade, a...

  • The current tallest tree is Hyperion, measuring at 115.55 m [1] (379.1 feet). The tree was discovered in Redwood National Park during Summer 2006 by Chris Atkins and Michael Taylor and has been measured as the world's tallest living thing. The previous record holder was the Stratosphere Giant in the Humboldt Redwoods State Park, at 112.83 m, last measured in 2004 (was 112.34 m in Aug 2000 and 112.56 m in 2002). Until it fell in March 1991, the "Dyerville Giant" was the record holder. It too stood in Humboldt Redwoods State Park; it was 113.4 metres high and estimated to be 1,600 years old.
  • There are 15 known living trees more than 110 m (361 feet) tall.
  • There are 47 trees that are more than 105 m (344.5 feet) tall.
  • A tree claimed to be 115.8 m (380 feet) was cut down in 1912.
  • The tallest non-redwood tree is a 100.3 m (329 foot) tall Douglas-fir.
An 'albino' Sequoia sempervirens exhibiting lack of chlorophyll
An 'albino' Sequoia sempervirens exhibiting lack of chlorophyll

In 2004, an article in Nature reported that the theoretical maximum potential height of Coast Redwoods (or any other tree) is limited to between 122 and 130 m (between 400 and 425 feet), due to gravity and the friction between water and the vessels through which it flows. Hyperion is the name of a redwood tree in Northern California that has been confirmed to measure 115. ... The Coastal redwood is the tallest tree species on Earth. ... Stratosphere Giant was considered the tallest tree in the world until September 2006. ... Humboldt Redwoods State Park in Humboldt County, northern California, 30 miles (50 km) south of Eureka, California. ... Species See text. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. ...


The largest Coast Redwood in volume is the "Del Norte Titan", with an estimated volume of 1,044.7 m³; it is 93.57 m tall with a diameter of 7.22 m. Among current living trees there are only 15 known Giant Sequoias that are larger; these are shorter, but have thicker trunks, giving the largest Giant Sequoia, General Sherman, a volume of 1,487 cubic metres (52,510 cubic feet), making it the world's largest known tree. A redwood cut down in 1926 had a claimed volume of 1,794 m³ (63,350 cubic feet), but this is not verified. Binomial name (Lindl. ... General Sherman tree from Sequoia National Park General Sherman is the name of a Giant Sequoia. ...


About fifty 'albino' redwoods (mutant individuals that cannot manufacture chlorophyll) are known to exist, reaching heights of up to 20 m.[1] These trees survive as parasites, obtaining food by grafting their root systems with those of normal trees. While similar mutations occur sporadically in other conifers, no cases are known of such individuals surviving to maturity in any other conifer species. Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in most plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. ... About 4,100 species in approximately 19 families of flowering plants are either partly or completely parasitic on other plants [1]. Parasitic plants have a modified root, the haustorium, that penetrates the host plant and connects to the xylem or phloem or both. ... Grafted apple tree Malus sp. ...


Reproduction

This is an example of a "fairy ring" sprouted from a stump. All the sprouts are identical clones with exactly the same genomic material.
This is an example of a "fairy ring" sprouted from a stump. All the sprouts are identical clones with exactly the same genomic material.

Coast Redwood reproduces both sexually and asexually. Seed production begins at 10-15 years of age, and large seed crops occur frequently, but viability of the seed is low, typically well below 15%.[2] The low viability may be an adaptation to discourage seed predators, which do not want to waste time sorting chaff (empty seeds) from edible seeds. The winged seeds are small and light, weighing 3.3-5 mg (200-300 seeds/g; 5,600-8,500/ounce). The wings are not effective for wide dispersal, and seeds are dispersed by wind an average of only 60-120 m (200-400 feet) from the parent tree. Download high resolution version (1944x2592, 2142 KB) This ring of redwoods (specifically, Sequoias), sprouted from the stump of an older tree. ... Download high resolution version (1944x2592, 2142 KB) This ring of redwoods (specifically, Sequoias), sprouted from the stump of an older tree. ...

Coast Redwood, Redwood National Park.
Coast Redwood, Redwood National Park.

Growth of seedlings is very fast, with young trees known to reach 20 m (65 feet) tall in 20 years. Coast Redwoods can also reproduce asexually by layering or sprouting from the root crown, stump, or even fallen branches; if a tree falls over, it will regenerate a row of new trees along the trunk. This is the reason for many trees naturally growing in a straight line. Sprouts originate from dormant or adventitious buds at or under the surface of the bark. The dormant sprouts are stimulated when the main adult stem gets damaged or starts to die. Many sprouts spontaneously erupt and develop around the circumference of the tree trunk. Within a short period after sprouting, each sprout will develop its own root system, with the dominant sprouts forming a ring of trees around the parent root crown or stump. This ring of trees is called a "fairy ring". Sprouts can achieve heights of 2.3 m (8 feet) in a single growing season. Download high resolution version (640x853, 99 KB)Coast Redwood I took this picture and release it Pud 17:44, 11 Jul 2004 (UTC) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (640x853, 99 KB)Coast Redwood I took this picture and release it Pud 17:44, 11 Jul 2004 (UTC) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Coastal redwood is the tallest tree species on Earth. ...


Redwoods may also reproduce using burls. A burl is a woody lignotuber that commonly appears on a redwood tree below the soil line, though when above, usually within 3 m of the soil. Burls are capable of sprouting into new trees when detached from the parent tree, though exactly how this happens is yet to be studied. Shoot clones commonly sprout from burls and are often turned into decorative hedges when found in suburbia.


The species is very tolerant of flooding and flood deposits, the roots rapidly growing into thick silt deposits after floods. Flooding in Amphoe Sena, Ayutthaya Province, Thailand. ...


Cultivation and uses

Coast Redwood plantation at Polipoli, Hawaii.
Coast Redwood plantation at Polipoli, Hawaii.

Coast Redwood is one of the most valuable timber species in California, with 364,000 ha of redwood forest, all second growth, managed for timber production [2]. Coast Redwood lumber is highly valued for its beauty, light weight, and resistance to decay. Its lack of resin makes it resistant to fire. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (480x640, 379 KB) Summary Car (02 Hyundai Sonata) driving through a Coastal Redwood, Leggett, CA. Photo taken by Bobak HaEri (I also obscured the license plate). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (480x640, 379 KB) Summary Car (02 Hyundai Sonata) driving through a Coastal Redwood, Leggett, CA. Photo taken by Bobak HaEri (I also obscured the license plate). ... 1941 2005 Chandelier Tree is a 315 foot tall coast redwood tree in Leggett, California with a 6 foot wide by 9 foot high hole cut through its base to allow a car to drive through. ... Image File history File links Starr_050831_7731_sequoia_sempervirens. ... Image File history File links Starr_050831_7731_sequoia_sempervirens. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction or wood...


P. H. Shaughnessy, Chief Engineer of the San Francisco Fire Department wrote: This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...

In the recent great fire of San Francisco, that began April 18th, 1906, we succeeded in finally stopping it in nearly all directions where the unburned buildings were almost entirely of frame construction and if the exterior finish of these buildings had not been of redwood lumber, I am satisfied that the area of the burned district would have been greatly extended.

Because of its impressive resistance to decay, redwood was extensively used for railroad ties and trestles throughout California. Many of the old ties have been recycled for use in gardens as borders, steps, etc. Redwood burls are used in the production of table tops, veneers, and turned goods. San Francisco Earthquake redirects here. ... Ferroconcrete sleepers A variant fastening of rails to wooden sleepers A railroad tie, cross tie, or sleeper is a rectangular object used as a base for railroad tracks. ... Steel trestle with plate girder spans A trestle is a bridge that consists of a large number of short spans, supported by splayed vertical elements and is usually for railroad use. ...


The Coast Redwood is locally naturalized in New Zealand, notably at Rotorua. Other areas of successful cultivation outside of the native range include western Europe from the British Isles south to Portugal, the Queen Charlotte Islands, middle elevations of Hawaii, a small area in central Mexico (Jilotepec) and the southeastern United States from eastern Texas to Maryland. In biology, naturalisation is the process when foreign or cultivated plants have spread into the wild, where they multiply by natural regeneration. ... The Rotorua Museum today. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article describes the archipelago in north-western Europe. ... Leaving Skidegate Inlet aboard BC Ferries M/V Queen of Prince Rupert The Queen Charlotte Islands or Haida Gwaii (Land of the Haida) are an archipelago off the northwest coast of British Columbia, Canada, consisting of two main islands, Graham Island in the North, and Moresby Island in the south... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Jilotepec is a small town located in the northeast part of Estado de Mexico Categories: | ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N...


See also

Binomial name (L.f. ... Categories: | ...

References and external links

  1. ^ Stienstra, T. (2007-10-11). It's no snow job - handful of redwoods are rare albinos. San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved on 2007-10-14.
  2. ^ [UC Berkeley – Biology 1B – Plants & Their Environments laboratory http://ib.berkeley.edu/courses/bio1b/labschedfall07/labexercises/PlantsEnvironments3_4_3.pdf], page 13

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Todays San Francisco Chronicle was founded in 1865 as The Daily Dramatic Chronicle by teenage brothers Charles de Young and Michael H. de Young. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... Dr. Stephen C. Sillett (born March 19, 1968) is a botanist specializing in old-growth forest canopies. ... For other uses, see New Yorker. ... The canopy is the habitat found at the uppermost level of a forest, especially rainforest. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The kinkajou is an arboreal mammal. ...

Further reading

  • Preston, Richard "The Wild Trees: A Story of Passion and Daring", Random House, 2007, ISBN 978-1-4000-6489-2.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Richard Preston (b. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Sequoia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1809 words)
Sequoia is a genus in the cypress family Cupressaceae, containing the single living species Sequoia sempervirens.
The name Sequoia is also used as a general term for the subfamily Sequoioideae in which this genus is classified together with Sequoiadendron (Giant Sequoia) and Metasequoia (Dawn Redwood).
Among current living trees only 15 Giant Sequoias are larger than this; these are shorter, but have thicker trunks, giving the largest Giant Sequoia, General Sherman, a volume of 1,487 cubic metres (52,510 cubic feet).
2006 Toyota - Ratings & Reviews - Dan Jedlicka - MSN Autos (967 words)
Sequoia prices range from $30,815 for the entry SR5 rear-drive model, which is fairly well equipped, to $42,275 for the top-line LTD 4-wheel-drive version.
The 8-passenger Sequoia was expressly designed for the U.S. market, where such things as its standard third-row seating are becoming expected items in big sport utes.
However, the Sequoia does pretty well during off-road driving because ground clearance is high and the effective 4-wheel-drive system has a low range.
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