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Encyclopedia > Sephardi Jews
Sephardi Jews
(יהדות ספרד Yahadut Sfarad)
Total population

1.2 - 1.5 million (estimate) Image File history File links Maimonides-2. ... Spinoza The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ... Baruch de Spinoza (‎, Portuguese: , Basque: , Latin: ) (November 24, 1632 – February 21, 1677) was a Dutch philosopher of Portuguese Jewish origin. ... Don Isaac ben Judah or Yitzchak ben Yehuda Abravanel (Hebrew: יצחק בן יהודה אברבנאל) was a Jewish statesman, philosopher, Bible commentator, and financier. ...

Regions with significant populations
Flag of Israel Israel 673,000-815,000
Flag of France France 310,000-350,000
Flag of the United States United States 50,000-80,000
Flag of Argentina Argentina 37,500-60,000
Flag of Canada Canada 30,000-60,000
Flag of Brazil Brazil 20,000-60,000
Flag of Turkey Turkey 25,000-30,000
Flag of Mexico Mexico 5,500
Flag of Morocco Morocco 5,500
Flag of Bulgaria Bulgaria 5,000
Flag of Colombia Colombia <5,000
Flag of Cuba Cuba 1,500
Flag of Tunisia Tunisia 1,500
Flag of the Netherlands Netherlands 1,000
Flag of Italy Italy unknown
Language(s)
Hebrew, Ladino, Judæo-Portuguese, Catalanic, Shuadit, local languages
Religion(s)
Judaism
Related ethnic groups
Ashkenazi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions, Arabs, Spaniards, Portuguese.

Sephardi Jews (Hebrew: ספרדי, Standard Səfardi Tiberian Səp̄arədî; plural ספרדים, Standard Səfaradim Tiberian Səp̄arədîm) are a subgroup of Jews originating in the Iberian Peninsula, usually defined in contrast to Ashkenazi Jews. Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mexico. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Morocco. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Colombia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cuba. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tunisia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Not to be confused with Ladin. ... Judeo-Portuguese is the extinct Jewish language of the Jews of Portugal. ... Catalanic, also called Qatalanit (קאטאלנית) or the more scholarly Judæo-Catalan, may have been a Jewish language, formerly spoken by the Jewish communities of northeastern Spain, especially in Catalonia and the Balearic Islands. ... Shuadit, also spelled Chouhadite, Chouhadit, Chouadite, Chouadit, and Shuhadit is the extinct Jewish language of southern France, also known as Judæo-Provençal, Judéo-Comtadin, Hébraïco-Comtadin. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Language(s) Yiddish, Hebrew, Russian, English Religion(s) Judaism Related ethnic groups Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, and other Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (Standard Hebrew: sing. ... Languages Hebrew, Dzhidi, Judæo-Arabic, Gruzinic, Bukhori, Judeo-Berber, Juhuri and Judæo-Aramaic Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Ashkenazi Jews, Sephardi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions and Arabs. ... Jewish ethnic divisions refers to a number of distinct Jewish communities within the worlds ethnically Jewish population. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Tanakh, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early Middle Ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Tanakh, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early Middle Ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Language(s) Yiddish, Hebrew, Russian, English Religion(s) Judaism Related ethnic groups Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, and other Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (Standard Hebrew: sing. ...

Contents

Definition

A Sephardi is a Jew originating in the Iberian Peninsula (modern Portugal and Spain), including the descendants of those subject to expulsion from Spain by order of the Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand and Isabella (as codified in the Alhambra decree of 1492), or from Portugal by order of King Manuel I in 1497. The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Ferdinand on the left with Isabella on the right Coffins of the Catholic Monarchs at the Granada Cathedral The Catholic Monarchs (Spanish: los Reyes Católicos) is the collective title used in history for Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon. ... Ferdinand V of Castile & II of Aragon the Catholic (Spanish: , Catalan: , Aragonese: ; March 10, 1452 – January 23, 1516) was king of Aragon (1479–1516), Castile, Sicily (1468–1516), Naples (1504–1516), Valencia, Sardinia and Navarre and Count of Barcelona. ... Isabella I of Castile (April 22, 1451 – November 26, 1504) was Queen regnant of Castile and Leon. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Manuel I of Portugal (pron. ...


The name comes from Sepharad (Hebrew: ספרד, Standard Səfárad Tiberian Səp̄áraḏ / Səp̄āraḏ ; Turkish: Sefarad), a Biblical location.[1] This was probably the "Saparda" mentioned in Persian inscriptions: the location of that is disputed, but may have been Sardis in Asia Minor. "Sepharad" was identified by later Jews as the Iberian Peninsula, and still means "Spain" in modern Hebrew. Sepharad is a Biblical placename of uncertain location. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Tanakh, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early Middle Ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... A recent view of the ceremonial court of the thermae–gymnasium complex in Sardis, dated to 211—212 AD Sardis, also Sardes (Lydian: Sfard, Greek: Σάρδεις, Persian: Sparda), modern Sart in the Manisa province of Turkey, was the capital of the ancient kingdom of Lydia, the seat of a proconsul under... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Hebrew redirects here. ...


In a broader sense, the term Sephardi has come to include Jews of Arabic and Persian backgrounds who have no historical connection to Iberia except their use of a Sephardic style of liturgy. For religious purposes, Jews of these communities are considered to be "Sephardim", meaning not "Spanish Jews" but "Jews of the Spanish rite". (In the same way, Ashkenazim means "Jews of the German rite", whether or not their families actually originate in Germany.) Accordingly, in the vernacular of modern-day Israel, "Sephardi" has come to be used as an umbrella term for any Jewish person who is not Ashkenazi. Ashkenazim, who are descendants of Jews from Germany, Poland, Austria and Eastern Europe, have for several generations constituted the bulk of the world's Jewish population. Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים Standard Hebrew, Aškanazi,Aškanazim, Tiberian Hebrew, ʾAškănāzî, ʾAškănāzîm, pronounced sing. ... Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים Standard Hebrew, Aškanazi,Aškanazim, Tiberian Hebrew, ʾAškănāzî, ʾAškănāzîm, pronounced sing. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ...


This article is mostly concerned with Sephardim in the narrower ethnic sense, rather than in this broader Modern Israeli Hebrew definition. See also: Jewish ethnic divisions Hebrew redirects here. ... Jewish ethnic divisions refers to a number of distinct Jewish communities within the worlds ethnically Jewish population. ...


The term Sephardi can also describe the nusach (Hebrew language, "liturgical tradition") used by Sephardi Jews in their Siddur (prayer book). A nusach is defined by a liturgical tradition's choice of prayers, order of prayers, text of prayers and melodies used in the singing of prayers. Sephardim traditionally pray using Minhag Sefarad, which is quite similar to Nusach Eidoth haMizrach (liturgy of the Eastern Congregations). For more details of the Sephardic liturgy see Sephardic Judaism. Nusach (Hebrew: נוסח, nûssāḥ) is a concept in Judaism that has 2 distinct meanings. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... A siddur (Hebrew: סידור; plural siddurim) is a Jewish prayer book over the world, containing a set order of daily prayers. ... Sephardic Judaism is used in this article to describe the religious practices of Sephardi and Mizrahi Jews, so far as these are peculiar to themselves and not shared with other Jewish groups such as the Ashkenazim. ...


Note that the term Nusach Sefard or Nusach Sfarad does not refer to the liturgy generally recited by Sephardim, but rather to an alternative Eastern European liturgy used by many Hasidim. Nusach Sefard is the name for various forms of the Jewish siddur, designed to reconcile Ashkenazi customs (Hebrew: מנהג Custom, pl. ... This article is about the Hasidic movement originating in Poland and Russia. ...


Divisions

Historically, Sephardim are those Jews associated with the Iberian peninsula. The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ...

  • The most prominent sub-group consists of the descendants of the Jews expelled from Spain in 1492, who settled in various parts of the Ottoman Empire, in particular Salonica and Istanbul, and whose traditional language is Ladino.
  • Another branch settled in Northern Morocco, and spoke a variant of Judaeo-Spanish known as Haketia.
  • A third sub-group, known as Spanish and Portuguese Jews, consists of Jews whose families remained in Spain and Portugal as ostensible Christians, and later reverted to Judaism in Italy, the Netherlands, England or the New World, particularly Mexico, the Caribbean, and South America.

A variety of non-Ashkenazi Jewish groups are regarded as "Sephardim" for religious purposes, and are so identified in modern Israel, including Jews of Arabic or Persian backgrounds. The justification for this is that most of these communities (with some exceptions such as the Yemenites) use the same religious ritual as the Sephardim proper and, like them, base their religious law on the Shulchan Aruch without the glosses of Moses Isserles. Ottoman redirects here. ... Thessaloniki or Salonica (Greek: ) is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of Macedonia, the largest Region of Greece. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... Not to be confused with Ladin. ... This article deals with the Judaeo-Spanish language. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Painting of the Amsterdam Esnoga — considered the mother synagogue by the Portuguese and Spanish Jews — by Emanuel de Witte (ab. ... Yemenite Jews (Hebrew: תֵּימָנִים, Standard Temanim Tiberian ; singular תֵּימָנִי, Standard Temani Tiberian ) are those Jews who live, or whose recent ancestors lived, in Yemen (תֵּימָן, Standard Teman Tiberian ; far south), on the southern tip of the Arabian peninsula. ... The Shulkhan Arukh (Hebrew: Prepared Table), by Rabbi Yosef Karo is considered the most authoritative compilation of Jewish law since the Talmud. ... Moses Isserles Moses Isserles (or Moshe Isserlis) (1520 - 1572), was a Rabbi and Talmudist, renowned for his fundamental work of Halakha (Jewish law), entitled HaMapah (lit. ...


This nomenclature is often perceived as unsatisfactory, and a variety of other terms have been coined. For example, Jews of Arabic-speaking backgrounds are sometimes referred to as Musta'arabim or "Arab Jews", though for political reasons this last description is disputed. A term in common use for all Jewish communities historically associated with Africa and Asia and not of Spanish descent is Mizrahi Jews, which in Hebrew means "Orientals". This is sometimes found confusing because it appears to include the Moroccans, whereas in Arabic the equivalent term (Mashriqiyyun) specifically denotes the inhabitants of the Near East as opposed to those of North Africa (Maghrabiyyun). In current use, Mizrahi Jews is a convenient way to refer collectively to a wide range of Jewish communities, most of which are as unrelated to each other as they are to either the Sephardi (in the narrower sense) or Ashkenazi communities. They include in particular the communities living in, or coming from, Southern Arabia (Yemen), North Africa, Mesopotamia (Iraq), Syria, Persia (Iran) and India. Arab Jews (Arabic: يهود العرب, Hebrew: יהודים ערבים) refers to Jews of Arab ancestry or those who speak Arabic. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Languages Hebrew, Dzhidi, Judæo-Arabic, Gruzinic, Bukhori, Judeo-Berber, Juhuri and Judæo-Aramaic Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Ashkenazi Jews, Sephardi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions and Arabs. ... Mashriq or Mashreq is the region of Arabic-speaking countries to the east of Egypt. ... The Near East is a term commonly used by archaeologists, geographers and historians, less commonly by journalists and commentators, to refer to the region encompassing Anatolia (the Asian portion of modern Turkey), the Levant (modern Israel/Palestine, the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon), Georgia, Armenia, and...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Languages Hebrew, Dzhidi, Judæo-Arabic, Gruzinic, Bukhori, Judeo-Berber, Juhuri and Judæo-Aramaic Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Ashkenazi Jews, Sephardi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions and Arabs. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ...


Distribution

Prior to 1492, substantial Jewish populations existed in most Spanish provinces. Among the more prominent were in Toledo, Córdoba, and Granada. Smaller towns such as Ocaña, Guadalajara, Bentrago, and Almazan were founded or inhabited principally by Jews. Castile, Aranda, Ávila, Calahorra, Cuellar, Herrera, Medina, Segovia, Soria, and Villalon were home to large Jewish communities. Aragon and Catalonia had substantial Jewish communities in the famous Calls of Girona, Barcelona, Tarragona, Valencia and Palma de Mallorca. For other uses, see Toledo (disambiguation). ... Location Coordinates : , , Time zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer : CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Córdoba (Spanish) Spanish name Córdoba Founded 8th century BC Postal code 140xx Website http://www. ... For other uses, see Granada (disambiguation). ... This article or section needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... Aranda has several meanings: An older spelling for the tribe and language in the Australian Central Desert now usually spelled as Arrente Aranda, a Canberra suburb named after that tribe. ... Complete name of this city: Ávila de los Caballeros Ávila is a town in the south of Old Castile, the capital of the province of the same name, now part of the autonomous community of Castile and León, Spain. ... Coat-of-arms of Calahorra, featuring the names of Saints Emeterius and Celedonius Calahorra, La Rioja, Spain is located in the comarca of La Rioja Baja, near the border with Navarre on the right bank of the Ebro. ... The name Herrera has several uses: For places, see Herrera de Pisuerga, a town in the province of Palencia, Spain the Herrera Province, Panama. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... The factual accuracy of part of this article is disputed. ... Soria is a city in north-central Spain, the capital of the province of Soria in the autonomous community of Castile-Leon. ... Capital Zaragoza Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ... This article is about the Spanish autonomous community. ... This article is about the Spanish city. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ... Tarragona (IPA: in Catalan) is a city located in the south of Catalonia, northeastern Spain, by the Mediterranean Sea. ... Location Coordinates : 39°29′ N 0°22′ W Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name València (Catalan) Spanish name Valencia Founded 137 BC Postal code 46000-46080 Website http://www. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Palma (Catalan) Spanish name Palma de Mallorca Postal code 070XX Area code 34 (Spain) + 971 (Balearic Islands) Website http://www. ...


Following the 1492 expulsion from Spain, and the subsequent expulsions in Portugal (1497), these Jews, the nascent Sephardim, settled mainly in Morocco, the Ottoman Empire (modern-day Turkey, Greece, Southwest Asia, North Africa and the Bosnia, Balkans), southern France, Italy, Spanish North America, (Southwest United States and Mexico), Spanish South America and the Philippines and Portuguese Brazil, as well as the Netherlands (whence a number of families continued on to the former Dutch possessions of Curaçao, Suriname and Aruba), England, Germany, Denmark, Austria and Hungary. ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Ottoman redirects here. ...  Southwest Asia in most contexts. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Bosnia or Bosnian may refer to: Places: Bosnia and Herzegovina, a country in southeastern Europe The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, as defined by the Dayton Agreement Bosnia (region), a historical region in southeastern Europe Bosnia Province, Ottoman Empire, from the 15th to 20th centuries Bosna, Bulgaria, a village in... Balkan redirects here. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... The Southwest region of the United States is drier than the adjoining Midwest in weather; the population is less dense and, with strong Spanish-American and Native American components, more ethnically varied than neighboring areas. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Curaçao (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


As a result of the Jewish exodus from Arab lands, many of the Sephardim from the Middle East relocated to either Israel or France, where they form a significant portion of the Jewish communities today. Other significant communities also exist in New York City and Montreal, Canada. The Jewish exodus from Arab lands refers to the 20th century expulsion and emigration of Jews, primarily of Sephardi and Mizrahi background, from majority Arab lands. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - Total 365. ...


Language

The traditional language of the majority of Sephardim is Judæo-Spanish, also called Ladino. It is a Romance language derived mainly from Old Castilian (Spanish), with many borrowings from Turkish, and to a lesser extent from Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, and French. Until recently, two different dialects of Judeo-Spanish were spoken in the Mediterranean region: Eastern Judeo-Spanish (in various distinctive regional variations) and Western or North African Judeo-Spanish (also known as akitía), once spoken, with little regional distinction, in six towns in Northern Morocco and, because of later emigration, also in Ceuta and Melilla (Spanish enclaves in Morocco), Gibraltar (Great Britain), Casablanca (Morocco), and Oran (Algeria). The Jewish languages are a set of languages that developed in various Jewish communities, in Europe, southern and south-western Asia, and northern Africa. ... Not to be confused with Ladin. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family, comprising all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


The Eastern dialect is typified by its greater conservatism, its retention of numerous Old Spanish features in phonology, morphology, and lexicon, and its numerous borrowings from Turkish and, to a lesser extent, also from Greek and South Slavic. Both dialects have (or had) numerous borrowings from Hebrew, especially in reference to religious matters, but the number of Hebraisms in everyday speech or writing is in no way comparable to that found in Yiddish.


The North African dialect was, until the early 20th century, also highly conservative; its abundant Colloquial Arabic loan words retained most of the Arabic phonemes as functional components of a new, enriched Hispano-Semitic phonological system. During the Spanish colonial occupation of Northern Morocco (1912-1956), akitía was subjected to pervasive, massive influence from Modern Standard Spanish and most Moroccan Jews now speak a colloquial, Andalusian form of Spanish, with only an occasional use of the old language as a sign of in-group solidarity, somewhat as American Jews may now use an occasional Yiddishism in colloquial speech. Except for certain younger individuals, who continue to practice akitía as a matter of cultural pride, this splendid dialect—the most Arabized of the Romance languages—has essentially ceased to exist.


Eastern Judeo-Spanish has fared somewhat better, especially in Israel, where newspapers, radio broadcasts, and elementary school and university programs strive to keep the language alive. But the old regional variations (Bosnia, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Rumania, Greece, Turkey, for instance) are already either extinct or doomed to extinction. The best we can perhaps hope for is that a Judeo-Spanish koiné, now evolving in Israel—similar to that which developed among Sephardic immigrants to the United States early in the 20th century—may somehow prevail and survive into the next generation.[2]


Judæo-Spanish has been conserved by the crypto-Jewish marranos of Portugal and Brazil and is still spoken by many of them.[citation needed] It is also spoken by Sephardim still remaining in Turkey and amongst the Sephardi immigrants of Israel. Crypto-Judaism is the secret adherence to Judaism while publicly professing to be of another faith; people who practice crypto-Judaism are referred to as crypto-Jews. The term crypto-Jew is also used to describe descendants of Jews who still (generally secretly) maintain some Jewish traditions, often while adhering... Marranos (Spanish and Portuguese, literally pigs in the Spanish language, originally a derogatory term from the Arabic محرّم muharram meaning ritually forbidden, stemming from the prohibition against eating the flesh of the animal among both Jews and Muslims), were Sephardic Jews (Jews from the Iberian peninsula) who were forced to adopt...


Judæo-Portuguese has also been used by Sephardim — especially among the Spanish and Portuguese Jews of Western Europe. The pidgin forms of Portuguese spoken among slaves and their Sephardic owners were an influence in the development of Papiamento and the Creole languages of Suriname. Judeo-Portuguese is the extinct Jewish language of the Jews of Portugal. ... Painting of the Amsterdam Esnoga — considered the mother synagogue by the Portuguese and Spanish Jews — by Emanuel de Witte (ab. ... This article is primarily about the language. ... Papiamento or Papiamentu is the primary language spoken on the Caribbean islands of Aruba, Bonaire, and Curaçao (the so-called ABC islands). ... Motto Justitia - Pietas - Fides(Latin) Justice - Piety - Loyalty Anthem God zij met ons Suriname Capital (and largest city) Paramaribo Official languages Dutch Demonym Surinamese Government Constitutional democracy  -  President Ronald Venetiaan Independence from the Netherlands   -  Date November 25, 1975  Area  -  Total 163,820 km² (91st) 63,251 sq mi   -  Water (%) 1. ...


Other Romance languages with Jewish forms, spoken historically by Sephardim, include Judæo-Aragonese, and Catalanic (Judæo-Catalan). Judeo-Aragonese was a Judeo-Romance language (Jewish language derived from Romance Aragonese language), spoken in north central Iberia from the around the mid-700s until about the time of the expulsion from Spain, when it either merged with the various Judeo-Spanish dialects, or fell out of use in... Catalanic, also called Qatalanit (קאטאלנית) or the more scholarly Judæo-Catalan, may have been a Jewish language, formerly spoken by the Jewish communities of northeastern Spain, especially in Catalonia and the Balearic Islands. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia, and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ...


Other languages associated with Sephardic Jews are mostly extinct, i.e., formerly spoken by some Sephardic communities in Italy. Low German, formerly used as the vernacular by Sephardim around Hamburg and Altona in Northern Germany, is also no longer in use as a specifically Jewish vernacular. Low German (also called Niederdeutsch, Plattdeutsch or Plattdüütsch) is a name for the regional language varieties of the West Germanic languages spoken mainly in Northern Germany where it is officially called Niederdeutsch (Low German), and in Eastern Netherlands where it is officially called Nedersaksisch (Low Saxon). Low refers to... This article is about the city in Germany. ... Altona may refer to various places: Altona, Victoria, a seaside suburb in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia Altona, Illinois, a village located in Knox County, Illinois Altona, Indiana, a town located in DeKalb County, Indiana Altona, Hamburg, the westmost district in the city of Hamburg, Germany Altona, Manitoba, a town located in... Look up Vernacular in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


History

Spanish Jews once constituted one of the largest and most prosperous Jewish communities under Muslim and Christian rule, before the Jews of Spain were expelled in 1492. ... The history of the Jews in Portugal is directly related to Sephardi history, a Jewish ethnic division that represents communities who have originated in the Iberian Peninsula (Spain, Portugal, Gibraltar, but also Morocco). ...

Early history

The precise origins of the Sephardim are unclear. There is fragmentary and inconclusive evidence of a Jewish presence on the Iberian Peninsula dating from pre-Roman times. More substantial references date from the period of Roman occupation.


Evidence which suggests Jewish connections with the Iberian Peninsula includes:

It is thought that substantial Jewish immigration probably occurred during the period of Roman occupation of Hispania. The province came under Roman control with the fall of Carthage after the Second Punic War (218-202 B.C.E.). Exactly how soon after this time Jews made their way onto the scene in this context is a matter of speculation. It is within the realm of possibility that they went there under the Romans as free men to take advantage of its rich resources. Isaiah (Hebrew &#1497;&#64298;&#1506;&#1497;&#1492;&#1493; Yeshayahu or Y&#601;&#353;a&#8216;&#259;y&#257;hû) is a book of the Hebrew Bible, Judaisms Tanakh, known to Christianity as the Old Testament. ... The Book of Jeremiah, or Jeremiah (יִרְמְיָהוּ YirmÉ™yāhÅ« in Hebrew), is part of the Hebrew Bible, Judaisms Tanakh, and later became a part of Christianitys Old Testament. ... Book Of Ezekiel is rapper Freekey Zekeys debut album and debut on Diplomat Records/Asylum. ... The Books of Kings (also known as [The Book of] Kings in Hebrew: Sefer Melachim מלכים) is a part of Judaisms Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible. ... In the Hebrew Bible, the Book of Jonah is the fifth book in a series of books called the Minor Prophets (itself a subsection of the Nevi’im or Prophets). ... Tarshish occurs in the Hebrew Bible with these meanings: One of the sons of Javan. ... This article is about the authentication means. ... This article is about the Spanish city. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) Ruins of the training grounds at Olympia, Greece. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 7th century BC started on January 1, 700 BC and ended on December 31, 601 BC. // Overview Events Ashurbanipal, king of Assyria who created the the first systematically collected library at Nineveh A 16th century depiction of the Hanging Gardens of... Phoenician was a language originally spoken in the coastal region then called PÅ«t in Ancient Egyptian, Canaan in Phoenician, Hebrew and Aramaic, and Phoenicia in Greek and Latin. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Amphoræ on display in Bodrum Castle, Turkey An amphora is a type of ceramic vase with two handles, used for the transportation and storage of perishable goods and more rarely as containers for the ashes of the dead or as prize awards. ... The 1st century was that century that lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ... “Ebusus” redirects here. ... This article or section should be merged with Don Isaac Abravanel. ... The Abravanel family (also Abarbanel or Abrabanel) is one of the oldest and most distinguished Jewish Iberian families; they trace their origin from the biblical King David. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... Roman Carthage with former military harbor Carthage (Greek: , Latin: , from the Phoenician meaning new town; Arabic: ) refers both to an ancient city in Tunisia and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ... Combatants Roman Republic Carthage Commanders Publius Cornelius Scipio†, Tiberius Sempronius Longus Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus, Gaius Flaminius†, Fabius Maximus, Claudius Marcellus†, Lucius Aemilius Paullus†, Gaius Terentius Varro, Marcus Livius Salinator, Gaius Claudius Nero, Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus†, Masinissa, Minucius†, Servilius Geminus† Hannibal Barca, Hasdrubal Barca†, Mago Barca†, Hasdrubal Gisco†, Syphax...


Although the spread of Jews into Europe is most commonly associated with the Diaspora which ensued from the Roman conquest of Judea, emigration from Judea into the greater Roman Mediterranean area antedated the destruction of Jerusalem at the hands of the Romans under Titus. Any Jews already in Hispania at this time would have been joined by those who had been enslaved by the Romans under Vespasian and Titus, and dispersed to the extreme west during the period of the Jewish Wars, and especially after the defeat of Judea in 70 C.E. One account placed the number carried off to Hispania at 80,000. Subsequent immigrations came into the area along both the northern African and southern European sides of the Mediterranean. For other uses, see Diaspora (disambiguation). ... Map of the southern Levant, c. ... Combatants Roman Empire Jews of Judea Commanders Titus Flavius Vespasianus Simon Bar-Giora Yohanan mi-Gush Halav (John of Gischala) Eleazar ben Simon Strength 70,000 men 13,000 men, split among three factions Casualties Unknown 60,000–1,100,000 (mass civilian casualties) The Siege of Jerusalem in the... For other uses, see Titus (disambiguation). ... Imperator Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (born November 17, 9, died June 23, 79), known originally as Titus Flavius Vespasianus and usually referred to in English as Vespasian, was emperor of Rome from 69 to 79. ... For other uses, see Titus (disambiguation). ... Combatants Roman Empire Jews of Iudaea Province Commanders Vespasian, Titus Simon Bar-Giora, Yohanan mi-Gush Halav (John of Gischala), Eleazar ben Simon Strength 70,000? 1,100,000? Casualties Unknown 1,100,000? (majority Jewish civilian casualties) Jewish-Roman wars First War – Kitos War – Bar Kokhba revolt The first... This article is about the year 70. ...


Among the earliest records which may refer specifically to Jews in the Iberian peninsula during the Roman period is Paul's Epistle to the Romans. Many[attribution needed] have taken Paul's intention to go to Hispania to preach the gospel (Romans 15:24, 28) to indicate the presence of Jewish communities there, as well as the fact that Herod Antipas's banishment by Caligula in 39 C.E. may have been to Hispania.[3] St. ... The Epistle to the Romans is one of the letters of the New Testament canon of the Christian Bible. ... Gospel, from the Old English good tidings is a calque of Greek () used in the New Testament (see Etymology below). ... Herod Antipas (short for Antipatros) was an ancient leader (tetrarch, meaning ruler of a quarter) of Galilee and Perea. ... This article is about the Roman emperor. ... Events Roman Empire Tigellinus, minister and favorite of the later Roman emperor Nero, is banished for adultery with Caligulas sisters. ...


From a slightly later period, Midrash Rabbah, Leviticus 29.2 makes reference to the return of the Diaspora from Hispania by 165 C.E. Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ... Events Roman operations under Avidius Cassius was successful against Parthia, capturing Artaxata, Seleucia, and Ctesiphon. ...


Perhaps the most direct and substantial of early references are the several decrees of the Council of Elvira, convened in the early fourth century, which address proper Christian behavior with regard to the Jews of Hispania. Decree is an order that has the force of law. ... Synod of Elvira, an ecclesiastical synod held in Spain, the date of which cannot be determined with exactness. ...


As citizens of the Roman Empire, the Jews of Hispania engaged in a variety of occupations, including agriculture. Until the adoption of Christianity, Jews had close relations with non-Jewish populations, and played an active role in the social and economic life of the province. The edicts of the Synod of Elvira, although early (and perhaps precedent-setting) examples of Christian Church-inspired anti-Semitism, provide evidence of Jews who were integrated enough into the greater community to cause alarm among some: of the Council's 80 canonic decisions, all which pertain to Jews served to maintain a separation between the two communities. It seems that by this time the presence of Jews was of greater concern to Catholic authorities than the presence of pagans; Canon 16, which prohibited marriage of Christians with Jews, was worded more strongly than canon 15, which prohibited marriage with pagans. Canon 78 threatens Christians who commit adultery with Jews with ostracism. Canon 48 forbade the blessing of Christian crops by Jews, and canon 50 forbade the sharing of meals by Christians and Jews. An edict is an announcement of a law, often associated with monarchism. ... Synod of Elvira, an ecclesiastical synod held in Spain, the date of which cannot be determined with exactness. ... Precedence is a simple ordering, based on either importance or sequence. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Canon law is the term used for... Pieces of broken pottery as voting tokens. ...


Yet in comparison to Jewish life in Byzantium and Italy, life for the early Jews in Hispania and the rest of western Europe was relatively tolerable. This is due in large measure to the difficulty which the Church had in establishing itself in its western frontier. In the west, Germanic tribes such as the Suevi, the Vandals, and especially the Visigoths had more or less disrupted the political and ecclesiastical systems of the Roman empire, and for several centuries western Jews enjoyed a degree of peace which their brethren to the east did not. Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek city, which, according to legend, was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ... The term Germanic tribes (or Teutonic tribes) applies to the ancient Germanic peoples of Europe. ... The Suebi or Suevi were a Germanic people whose origin was near the Baltic Sea . ... Vandal and Vandali redirect here. ... A votive crown belonging to Reccesuinth (653–672) The Visigoths (Latin: ) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe, the Ostrogoths being the other. ... This article should be transwikied to wiktionary Ecclesiastical means pertaining to the Church (especially Christianity) as an organized body of believers and clergy, with a stress on its juridical and institutional structure. ...


Barbarian invasions brought most of the Iberian Peninsula under Visigothic rule by the early fifth century. Other than in their contempt for Catholics, who reminded them of the Romans and also because they were Arians, the Visigoths did not generally take much of an interest in the religious creeds within their kingdom. It was not until 506, when Alaric II (484-507) published his Brevarium Alaricianum (Breviary of Alaric) (wherein he adopted the laws of the ousted Romans), that a Visigothic king concerned himself with the Jews. The Germanic Wars is a name given to a series of Wars between the Romans and various Germanic tribes between 113 BC and 439 AD1. ... The Visigoths, originally Tervingi, or Vesi (the noble ones), one of the two main branches of the Goths (of which the Ostrogothi were the other), were one of the loosely-termed Germanic peoples that disturbed the late Roman Empire. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Arminius · Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box... Alaric II, also known as Alarik, Alarich, and Alarico in Spanish or Alaricus in Latin (d. ... The Breviary of Alaric (Breviarium Alaricianum) is a collection of Roman law, compiled by order of Alaric II, king of the Visigoths, with the advice of his bishops and nobles, in the year 506, the twenty-second year of his reign. ...


The situation of the Jews changed after the conversion of the Visigothic royal family under Recared from Arianism to Catholicism in 587. In their desire to consolidate the realm under the new religion, the Visigoths adopted an aggressive policy towards Jews. As the king and the church acted in a single interest, the Jews' situation deteriorated. Under successive Visigothic kings and under ecclesiastical authority, many orders of expulsion, forced conversion, isolation, enslavement, execution, and other punitive measures were made. The Visigoth king Reccared (ruled 586 - 601) was the younger son of Leovigild by his first marriage. ... This article should be transwikied to wiktionary Ecclesiastical means pertaining to the Church (especially Christianity) as an organized body of believers and clergy, with a stress on its juridical and institutional structure. ...


The Jews of Hispania had been utterly embittered and alienated by Catholic rule by the time of the Muslim invasion. To them, the Moors were perceived as, and indeed were, a liberating force. Wherever they went, the Muslims were greeted by Jews eager to aid them in administering the country. In many conquered towns the garrison was left in the hands of the Jews before the Muslims proceeded further north. Thus were initiated the two centuries of Muslim rule in the Iberian peninsula which became known as the "Golden Age" of Sephardi Jewry. Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711&#8211;1492). ... For other uses, see moor. ...


Sephardim under Islam

See also Al-Andalus; Golden age of Jewish culture in the Iberian Peninsula; Timeline of the Muslim presence in the Iberian peninsula

With the victory of Tariq ibn Ziyad in 711, the lives of the Sephardim changed dramatically. In spite of the stigma attached to being dhimmis (non-Muslim members of monotheistic faiths), the coming of the Moors was by-and-large welcomed by the Jews of Iberia. Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711&#8211;1492). ... The Golden age of Jewish culture in the Iberian Peninsula, also known as the Golden Age of Arab or Moorish Rule in Iberia, refers to a period of history during the Muslim rule of the Iberian Peninsula (the Roman and Visigothic Hispania) in which Jews were generally accepted in society... Territory under Muslim control in the Iberian Peninsula in 790, 900, 1100 and 1300 AD // Conquest (710–756) 710 - The Berber General Tariq ibn Ziyad takes Tangier. ... Tariq ibn Ziyad (d. ... A Dhimmi, or Zimmi (Arabic &#1584;&#1605;&#1617;&#1610;), as defined in classical Islamic legal and political literature, is a person living in a Muslim state who is a member of an officially tolerated non-Muslim religion. ...


Both Muslim and Christian sources tell us that Jews provided valuable aid to the invaders. Once captured, the defense of Cordoba was left in the hands of Jews, and Granada, Malaga, Seville, and Toledo were left to a mixed army of Jews and Moors. Although in some towns Jews may have been helpful to Muslim success, they were of limited impact overall. Claims of the fall of Iberia as being due in large part to Jewish perfidy are exaggerated. For other uses, see Granada (disambiguation). ... Location of Málaga Municipality Government  - Mayor Francisco de la Torre Prados Area  - Total 385. ... For other uses, see Seville (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Toledo (disambiguation). ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ...


In spite of the restrictions placed upon the Jews as dhimmis, life under Muslim rule was one of great opportunity and Jews flourished as they did not under prior Christian Visigoths. Many Jews came to Iberia, seen as a land of tolerance and opportunity, from the Christian and Muslim worlds. Following initial Arab victories, and especially with the establishment of Umayyad rule by Abd al-Rahman I in 755, the native Jewish community was joined by Jews from the rest of Europe, as well as from Arab lands, from Morocco to Babylon. Thus the Sephardim found themselves enriched culturally, intellectually, and religiously by the commingling of diverse Jewish traditions. The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Abd ar-Rahman I (ruled 756-788) was the founder of a Muslim dynasty that ruled Spain for nearly three centuries. ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ...


Arabic culture, of course, also made a lasting impact on Sephardic cultural development. General re-evaluation of scripture was prompted by Muslim anti-Jewish polemics and the spread of rationalism, as well as the anti-Rabbanite polemics of Karaite sectarianism (which was inspired by various Muslim schismatic movements). The cultural and intellectual achievements of the Arabs, and much of the scientific and philosophical speculation of Ancient Greek culture, which had been best preserved by Arab scholars, was made available to the educated Jew. The meticulous regard which the Arabs had for grammar and style also had the effect of stimulating an interest in philological matters in general among Jews. Arabic came to be the main language of Sephardic science, philosophy, and everyday business, as had been the case with Babylonian geonim. This thorough adoption of the Arabic language also greatly facilitated the assimilation of Jews into Moorish culture, and Jewish activity in a variety of professions, including medicine, commerce, finance, and agriculture increased. Many religions and spiritual movements hold certain written texts (or series of spoken legends not traditionally written down) to be sacred. ... Polemic is the art or practice of disputation or controversy, as in religious, philosophical, or political matters. ... In epistemology and in its broadest sense, rationalism is any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification (Lacey 286). ... Rabbinic Judaism (or in Hebrew Yahadut Rabanit - &#1497;&#1492;&#1491;&#1493;&#1514; &#1512;&#1489;&#1504;&#1497;&#1514;) is a Jewish denomination characterized by reliance on the written Torah as well as the Oral Law (the Mishnah, Talmuds and subsequent rabbinic decisions) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ... Karaite Judaism is a Jewish denomination characterized by reliance on the Tanakh as the sole scripture, and rejection of the Oral Law (the Mishnah and the Talmuds) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ... Sectarianism refers (usually pejoratively) to a rigid adherence to a particular sect or party or religious denomination. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... Philology, etymologically, is the love of words. It is most accurately defined as an affinity toward the learning of the backgrounds as well as the current usages of spoken or written methods of human communication. The commonality of studied languages is more important than their origin or age (that is... Geonim (also Gaonim) (גאונים) (Singular: Gaon [גאון] meaning pride in Biblical Hebrew and genius in modern Hebrew) were the rabbis who were the Jewish Talmudic sages who were the generally accepted spiritual leaders of the Jewish community in the early medieval era, in contrast to the Resh Galuta/ Exilarch who wielded secular...


By the ninth century, some members of the Sephardic community felt confident enough to take part in proselytizing amongst Christians. Most famous were the heated correspondences sent between Bodo Eleazar, a former Christian deacon who had converted to Judaism in 838, and the Bishop of Córdoba Paulus Albarus, who had converted from Judaism to Christianity. Each man, using such epithets as "wretched compiler", tried to convince the other to return to his former faith, to no avail. Proselytism is the practice of attempting to convert people to another opinion, usually another religion. ... Bodo ([born c. ... For other uses, see Deacon (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... Location Coordinates : , , Time zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer : CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Córdoba (Spanish) Spanish name Córdoba Founded 8th century BC Postal code 140xx Website http://www. ... Pablo Alvaro (9th century) was a knight of Jewish ancestry from Córdoba, Spain who converted to Catholicism. ... Linguistics An epithet (Greek epitheton) is a descriptive word or phrase, often metaphoric, that is essentially a reduced or condensed appositive. ...


The Golden Age is most closely identified with the reign of Abd al-Rahman III (882-942), the first independent Caliph of Cordoba, and in particular with the career of his Jewish councilor, Hasdai ibn Shaprut (882-942). Within this context of cultural patronage, studies in Hebrew, literature, and linguistics flourished. Abd-ar-Rahman III, Emir and Caliph of Cordoba (912 - 961) was the greatest and the most successful of the princes of the Ummayad dynasty in Spain. ... The interior of the Great Mosque in Córdoba, now a Christian cathedral. ... Hasdai (Abu Yusuf ben Yitzhak ben Ezra) ibn Shaprut born about 915 at Jaen; died 970 or 990 at Cordova in Spain, was a Jewish physician, diplomat, and patron of science. ... ...


Hasdai benefitted world Jewry not only indirectly by creating a favorable environment for scholarly pursuits within Iberia, but also by using his influence to intervene on behalf of foreign Jews: in his letter to Byzantine Princess Helena, he requested protection for the Jews under Byzantine rule, attesting to the fair treatment of the Christians of al-Andalus, and perhaps indicating that such was contingent on the treatment of Jews abroad. Byzantine redirects here. ...


One notable contribution to Christian intellectualism is Ibn Gabirol's neo-Platonic Fons Vitae ("The Source of Life"). Thought by many to have been written by a Christian, this work was admired by Christians and studied in monasteries throughout the Middle Ages. Solomon Ibn Gabriol, also Solomon ben Judah, is a Spanish Jewish poet and philosopher. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is an ancient school of philosophy beginning in the 3rd century A.D. It was based on the teachings of Plato and Platonists; but it interpreted Plato in many new ways, such that Neoplatonism was quite different from what Plato taught, though not many Neoplatonists would...


In addition to contributions of original work, the Sephardim were active as translators. Texts were translated between Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, and Latin. In translating the great works of Arabic, Hebrew, and Greek into Latin, Iberian Jews were instrumental in bringing the fields of science and philosophy, which formed much of the basis of Renaissance learning, into the rest of Europe. This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ...


In the early 11th century centralized authority based at Cordoba broke down following the Berber invasion and the ousting of the Umayyads. In its stead arose the independent taifa principalities under the rule of local Arab, Berber, or Slavonic leaders. Rather than having a stifling effect, the disintegration of the caliphate expanded the opportunities to Jewish and other professionals. The services of Jewish scientists, doctors, traders, poets, and scholars were generally valued by Christian and Muslim rulers of regional centers, especially as order was restored in recently conquered towns. Rabbi Samuel ha-Nagid (ibn Naghrela) was the Vizier of Granada. He was succeeded by his son Joseph ibn Naghrela who was slain by an incited mob along with most of the Jewish community. The remnant fled to Lucena. As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. ... The Spanish and Portuguese term taifa (from Arabic: taifa, plural طوائف tawaif) in the history of Iberia refers to an independent Muslim-ruled principality, an emirate or petty kingdom, of which a number formed in the Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia) after the final collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate of... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Samuel Ha-Nagid was widely known as a virtuoso of the keyboard. ... For other uses, see Granada (disambiguation). ... Abu Husain Joseph ibn Naghrela (c. ... Lucena is a town in southern Spain, in the province of Córdoba, 70 km southeast of Córdoba, 95 km north of Málaga, 150 km east of Seville, 110 km west of Granada, and 100 km southwest of Jaén. ...


The decline of the Golden Age began before the completion of the Christian Reconquista, with the penetration and influence of the Almoravides, and then the Almohads, from North Africa. These fundamentalist sects abhorred the liberality of the Islamic culture of al-Andalus, including the position of authority which some dhimmis held over Muslims. When the Almohads gave the Jews a choice of either death or conversion to Islam, many Jews emigrated. Some, such the family of Maimonides, fled south and east to the more tolerant Muslim lands, while others went northward to settle in the growing Christian kingdoms. For other senses of this word, see Reconquista (disambiguation). ... Almoravides (In Arabic المرابطون al-Murabitun, sing. ... The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i. ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ...


Meanwhile the Reconquista continued in the north throughout the 12th century. As various Arab lands fell to the Christians, conditions for some Jews in the emerging Christian kingdoms became increasingly favorable. As had happened during the reconstruction of towns following the breakdown of authority under the Umayyads, the services of Jews were employed by the victorious Christian leaders. Sephardic knowledge of the language and culture of the enemy, their skills as diplomats and professionals, as well as their desire for relief from intolerable conditions - the very same reasons that they had proved useful to the Arabs in the early stages of the Muslim invasion - made their services very valuable.


However, the Jews from the Muslim south were not entirely secure in their northward migrations. Old prejudices were compounded by newer ones. Suspicions of complicity with the Muslims were alive and well as Jews immigrated, speaking Arabic. However, many of the newly-arrived Jews of the north prospered during the late eleventh and early twelfth centuries. The majority of Latin documentation regarding Jews during this period refers to their landed property, fields, and vineyards.


In many ways life had come full circle for the Sephardim of al-Andalus. As conditions became more oppressive during the 12th and 13th centuries, Jews again looked to an outside culture for relief. Christian leaders of reconquered cities granted them extensive autonomy, and Jewish scholarship recovered somewhat and developed as communities grew in size and importance. However, the Reconquista Jews never reached the same heights as had those of the Golden Age. (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ...


Later history and culture

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Jews and Judaism This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

         

Who is a Jew? · Etymology · Culture Image File history File links Star_of_David. ... Image File history File links Menora. ... Who is a Jew? (‎) is a commonly considered question that addresses the question of Jewish identity. ... Look up Jew in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Secular Jewish culture embraces several related phenomena; above all, it is the culture of secular communities of Jewish people, but it can also include the cultural contributions of individuals who identify as secular Jews, or even those of religious Jews working in cultural areas not generally considered to be connected...

Judaism · Core principles
God · Tanakh (Torah, Nevi'im, Ketuvim)
Mitzvot (613) · Talmud · Halakha
Holidays · Prayer · Tzedakah
Ethics · Kabbalah · Customs · Midrash This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... There are a number of basic Jewish principles of faith that were formulated by medieval rabbinic authorities. ... At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHVH), the name of God. ... For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... Neviim [נביאים] (Heb: Prophets) is the second of the three major sections in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), following the Torah and preceding Ketuvim (writings). ... Ketuvim is the third and final section of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible). ... This article is about commandments in Judaism. ... Main article: Mitzvah 613 Mitzvot or 613 Commandments (Hebrew: ‎ transliterated as Taryag mitzvot; TaRYaG is the acronym for the numeric value of 613) are a list of commandments from God in the Torah. ... The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה; also transliterated as Halakhah, Halacha, Halakhot and Halachah with pronunciation emphasis on the third syllable, kha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law as well as customs and traditions. ... A Jewish holiday or Jewish Festival is a day or series of days observed by Jews as holy or secular commemorations of important events in Jewish history. ... Jewish services (Hebrew: תפלה, tefillah ; plural תפלות, tefillot ; Yinglish: davening) are the prayer recitations which form part of the observance of Judaism. ... Tzedakah (Hebrew: צדקה) in Judaism, is the Hebrew term most commonly translated as charity, though it is based on a root meaning justice .(צדק). Judaism is very tied to the concept of tzedakah, or charity, and the nature of Jewish giving has created a North American Jewish community that is very philanthropic. ... // Jewish ethics stands at the intersection of Judaism and the Western philosophical tradition of ethics. ... This article is about traditional Jewish Kabbalah. ... Minhag (Hebrew: מנהג Custom, pl. ... Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ...

Jewish ethnic divisions
Ashkenazi · Sephardi · Mizrahi Jewish ethnic divisions refers to a number of distinct Jewish communities within the worlds ethnically Jewish population. ... Language(s) Yiddish, Hebrew, Russian, English Religion(s) Judaism Related ethnic groups Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, and other Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (Standard Hebrew: sing. ... Languages Hebrew, Dzhidi, Judæo-Arabic, Gruzinic, Bukhori, Judeo-Berber, Juhuri and Judæo-Aramaic Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Ashkenazi Jews, Sephardi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions and Arabs. ...

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v  d  e

Among the Sephardim were many who were the descendants, or heads, of wealthy families and who, as Marranos, had occupied prominent positions in the countries they had left. Some had been state officials, others had held positions of dignity within the Church; many had been the heads of large banking-houses and mercantile establishments, and some were physicians or scholars who had officiated as teachers in high schools. Their Spanish or Portuguese was a lingua franca that enabled Sephardim from different countries to engage in commerce and diplomacy. The term marrano refers to the Sephardim, Jews from the Iberian peninsula, who were forced to adopt the identity of Christians, either through coercion as consequence of the cruel persecution of Jews by the Spanish Inquisition, or for forms sake, and became Catholic converts. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ...


The Sephardim rarely engaged in finance (also called chaffering) occupations nor in usury, and they did not often mingle with lower social classes. With their social equals they associated freely, without regard to religion and more likely with regard to equivilent or comparative education, for they were generally well read[4] which became a tradition and expectation. They were received at the courts of sultans, kings, and princes, and often were employed as ambassadors, envoys, or agents. The number of Sephardim who have rendered important services to different countries is considerable, from Samuel Abravanel (or "Abrabanel" — financial councilor to the viceroy of Naples) to Benjamin Disraeli. Among other names mentioned are those of Belmonte, Nasi, Francisco Pacheco, Pedro de Herrera, Palache, Pimentel, Azevedo, Sasportas, Salvador, Costa, Curiel, Cansino, Schonenberg, Toledo, Toledano, Pereira and Teixeira. Finance studies and addresses the ways in which individuals, businesses, and organizations raise, allocate, and use monetary resources over time, taking into account the risks entailed in their projects. ... Look up usury in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield (December 21, 1804 - April 24, British Conservative Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and author. ... Principe di Belmonte or Prince Belmonte is the name and senior title of an Italian dynasty, tracing its roots back to the 11th Century. ... Joseph Nasi (also known as João Miquez) was influential in the Ottoman court of both Sultan Suleiman I and his son Selim II. He was appointed the Lord of Tiberias, with the expressed aim of resettling Jews and encouraging industry there. ... Francisco Pacheco (1564-1654) was a Spanish painter, best known as the teacher of Diego Velázquez and Alonso Cano, and for his textbook on painting that is an important source for the study of 17th-century practice in Spain. ... A Spanish politician known for his role in the reconquest of Gibraltar and for leading a community of Sefardic Jews who settled for three years in this town. ... Country Italy Region Sardinia Province Province of Cagliari (CA) Mayor Elevation m Area 15. ... Azevedo is also a common surname in the Portuguese language, namely in Portugal and Brazil. ... Salvador (meaning saviour in Spanish and Portuguese) can be: the Central American nation of El Salvador. ... Costa (meaning Coast) or da Costa (from the Coast) is a common surname in Portugal, Brazil and in other countries of Portuguese language. ... The Cansino family was a Spanish-Jewish family, famous in history for its wealth and influence, its scholars and poets. ... Schönenberg is a municipality in the district of Horgen in the canton of Zürich in Switzerland. ... For other uses, see Toledo (disambiguation). ... Medieval Pereira Coat of Arms Pereira is a common surname in the Portuguese and Galician languages, namely in Portugal, Brazil, and Galicia. ... Teixeira is a common surname in Portugal and Brazil. ...


The Sephardim have distinguished themselves as physicians and statesmen, and have won the favor of rulers and princes, in both the Christian and the Islamic world. That the Sephardim were selected for prominent positions in every country in which they settled was only in part due to the fact that Spanish had become a world-language through the expansion of Spain into the world spanning Spanish Empire—the cosmopolitan cultural background after long associations with Islamic scholars of the Sephardic families also made them extremely well educated for the times, even well into the European Enlightenment. This is a list of named time periods defined in various fields of study. ... The Enlightenment (French: ; German: ; Italian: ; Portuguese: ) was an eighteenth century movement in European and American philosophy — some classifications also include 17th century philosophy (usually called the Age of Reason). ...


For a long time the Sephardim took an active part in Spanish literature; they wrote in prose and in rhyme, and were the authors of theological, philosophical, belletristic (aesthetic rather than content based writing), pedagogic (teaching), and mathematical works. The rabbis, who, in common with all the Sephardim, emphasized a pure and euphonious pronunciation of Hebrew, delivered their sermons in Spanish or in Portuguese. Several of these sermons have appeared in print. Their thirst for knowledge, together with the fact that they associated freely with the outer world, led the Sephardim to establish new educational systems wherever they settled; they founded schools in which the Spanish language was the medium of instruction. Theatre in Istanbul was in Judæo-Spanish since it was forbidden to Muslims. The term Spanish literature refers to literature written in the Spanish language, including literature composed in Spanish by writers not necessarily from Spain. ... This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ...


In Portugal the Sephardim were given important roles in the sociopolitical sphere and enjoyed a certain amount of protection from the Crown (e.g. Yahia Ben Yahia, first "Rabino Maior" of Portugal and supervisor of the public revenue of the first King of Portugal, D. Afonso Henriques). Even with the increasing pressure from the Catholic Church this state of affairs remained more or less constant and the number of Jews in Portugal grew with those running from Spain. This changed with the marriage of D. Manuel I of Portugal with the daughter of the Catholic Monarchs of the newly born Spain. In 1497 the Decree ordering the expulsion or forced conversion of all the Jews was passed, and the Sephardim either fled or went into secrecy under the guise of "Cristãos Novos", i.e. New Christians (this Decree was symbolically revoked in 1996 by the Portuguese Parliament). Those who fled to Genoa were only allowed to land provided they received baptism. Those who were fortunate enough to reach the Ottoman Empire had a better fate: the Sultan Bayezid II sarcastically sent his thanks to Ferdinand for sending him some of his best subjects, thus "impoverising his own lands while enriching his (Bayezid's)". Jews arriving in the Ottoman Empire were mostly resettled in and around Selanik (Thessaloniki in Greek) and to some extent in Istanbul and İzmir. This was followed by a great massacre of Jews in the city of Lisbon in 1506 and the establishment of the Portuguese Inquisition in 1536. This caused the flight of the Portuguese Jewish community, which continued until the extinction of the Courts of Inquisition in 1821; by then there were very few Jews in Portugal. Don (usually preceded in English by the), derived from Latin Dominus, is a Spanish (pron. ... Alfonso I Henriques of Portugal (Guimarães, 1109, traditionally July 25, &#8211; 1185), also known as the Conqueror, was the first king of Portugal, declaring his independence from Leon_Castile, a deed often identifying the Condado Portucalense as the first nation_based state of Europe. ... Manuel I of Portugal (pron. ... Ferdinand on the left with Isabella on the right Coffins of the Catholic Monarchs at the Granada Cathedral The Catholic Monarchs (Spanish: los Reyes Católicos) is the collective title used in history for Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon. ... Jews were banished from Portugal in 1496. ... São Bento Palace, home of the Portuguese Parliament. ... For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Sultan Beyazid II Bayezid II (1447/48 – May 26, 1512) (Arabic: بايزيد الثاني) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1481 to 1512. ... The White Tower The Arch of Galerius Map showing the Thessaloníki prefecture Thessaloníki (&#920;&#949;&#963;&#963;&#945;&#955;&#959;&#957;&#943;&#954;&#951;) is the second-largest city of Greece and is the principal city and the capital of the Greek region of Macedonia. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... Ä°zmir, historically Smyrna, is the third most populous city of Turkey and the countrys largest port after Ä°stanbul. ... For other uses, see Lisbon (disambiguation). ... An Inquisition - Auto-da-fe. ...


In Amsterdam, where Jews were especially prominent in the seventeenth century on account of their number, wealth, education, and influence, they established poetical academies after Spanish models; two of these were the Academia de los Sitibundos and the Academia de los Floridos. In the same city they also organized the first Jewish educational institution, with graduate classes in which, in addition to Talmudic studies, instruction was given in the Hebrew language. The most important synagogue, or Esnoga, as it is usually called amongst Spanish and Portuguese Jews, is the Amsterdam Esnoga — usually considered the “mother synagogue”, and the historical centre of the Amsterdam minhag. For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... A synagogue (from , transliterated synagogÄ“, assembly; beit knesset, house of assembly; or beit tefila, house of prayer, shul; , esnoga) is a Jewish house of worship. ... Niteowlneils 10:02, 10 September 2005 (UTC) Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Minhag (Hebrew: מנהג Custom, pl. ...


A sizeable Sephardic community had settled in Morocco and other Northern African countries, which were colonized by France in the 19th century. Jews in Algeria were given French citizenship in 1870 by the décret Crémieux (previously Jews and Muslims could apply for French citizenship, but had to renounce the use of traditional religious courts and laws, which many did not want to do). When France withdrew from Algeria in 1962, the local Jewish communities largely relocated to France. There are some tensions between some of those communities and the earlier French Jewish population (who were mostly Ashkenazi Jews), and with Arabic-Muslim communities.  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Language(s) Yiddish, Hebrew, Russian, English Religion(s) Judaism Related ethnic groups Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, and other Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (Standard Hebrew: sing. ...


Today, the Sephardim have preserved the romances and the ancient melodies and songs of Spain and Portugal, as well as a large number of old Portuguese and Spanish proverbs.[5] A number of children's plays, like, for example, El Castillo, are still popular among them, and they still manifest a fondness for the dishes peculiar to Iberia, such as the pastel, or pastelico, a sort of meat-pie, and the pan de España, or pan de León. At their festivals they follow the Spanish custom of distributing dulces, or dolces, a confection wrapped in paper bearing a picture of the magen David (six pointed star). Amada. In Spanish language, the native, popular proverbs receive the name of refranes or dichos. ... The Star of David The Star of David (Magen David or Mogen David in Hebrew, Shield of David, Solomons Seal, or Seal of Solomon) is a generally recognized symbol of Judaism and Jewish identity. ...


In Mexico, the Sephardim community numbers approximately 5,500 and they originated mainly from Turkey, Greece and Bulgaria. In 1942 the Cologio Hebreo Tarbut was founded in collaboration with the Ashkenazi family and instruction was in Yiddish. In 1944 the Sephardim community established a separate "Colegio Hebreo Sefaradí Tarbut" with 90 students where instruction was in Hebrew and complemented with classes on Jewish customs. By 1950 there were 500 students. In 1968 a group of young Sephardims created the group Tnuat Noar Jinujit Dor Jadash in support for the creation of the state of Israel. In 1972 the Majazike Tora institute is created aiming to prepare young male Jews for their Bar Mitzva (History of the Sephardim Community in Mexico). Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים Standard Hebrew, AÅ¡kanazi,AÅ¡kanazim, Tiberian Hebrew, ʾAÅ¡kănāzî, ʾAÅ¡kănāzîm, pronounced sing. ... Yiddish (&#1497;&#1497;&#1460;&#1491;&#1497;&#1513;, Jiddisch) is a Germanic language spoken by about four million Jews throughout the world. ... According to Jewish law, when Jewish children reach the age of maturity (12 years for girls, 13 years for boys) they become responsible for their actions. ...


Names

The Sephardim usually followed the general rules for Spanish and Portuguese names. They generally bear Portuguese and Spanish names. Many of the names are associated with non-Jewish (Christian) families and individuals, and are by no means exclusive to Jews. After 1492, many marranos changed their names to hide their Jewish origins and avoid persecution. It was common to choose the name of the Parish Church where they have been baptised into the Christian faith, such as Santa Cruz or the common name of the word "Messiah" (Salvador), or adopted the name of their Christian godparents.[6] In Spanish, Portuguese, and Catalan speaking regions of the world, people have at least two surnames. ... Also film, 1492: Conquest of Paradise. ... The term marrano refers to the Sephardim, Jews from the Iberian peninsula, who were forced to adopt the identity of Christians, either through coercion as consequence of the cruel persecution of Jews by the Spanish Inquisition, or for forms sake, and became Catholic converts. ... Salvador (meaning saviour in Spanish and Portuguese) can be: the Central American nation of El Salvador. ... A godparent, in many denominations of Christianity, is someone who sponsors a childs baptism. ...


In contrast to Ashkenazic Jews, who do not name newborn children after living relatives, Sephardic Jews often name their children after the children's grandparents, even if they are still alive. The first son and daughter are traditionally named after the paternal grandparents, and then the maternal parent's names are next up in line for the remaining children. After that, additional children's names are "free", so to speak, meaning that one can choose whatever name, without any more "naming obligations." The only instance in which Sephardic Jews will not name after their own parents when one of the spouses shares a common first name with a mother/father-in-law (since Jews will not name their children after themselves.) There are times though when the "free" names are used to honor the memory of a deceased relative who died young or childless. These conflicting naming conventions can be troublesome when children are born into mixed Ashkenazic-Sephardic households.


A notable exception to the distinct Ashkenazi and Sephardi naming traditions is found among Dutch Jews, where Ashkenazim have for centuries followed the tradition otherwise attributed to Sephardim. See Chuts. The History of the Jews in the Netherlands was most relevant from the end of the 16th century until World War II, when approximately 75% of Dutch Jews were killed. ... Name applied to Jews who migrated to London from The Netherlands during the latter part of the 19th century. ...


Other Sephardic pedigrees

See also List of Jewish surnames, Spanish and Portuguese names, List of Sephardic People

The Abravanel family (also Abarbanel or Abrabanel) is one of the oldest and most distinguished Jewish Iberian families; they trace their origin from the biblical King David. ... Abraham ben Samuel Abulafia (born in Saragosa 1240- and d. ... Harari may refer to: The city of Harar in Ethiopia; Harari is an adjectival form of the noun (along with Hadere, Adere). ... Ortega addresses the UN General Assembly Daniel Ortega Saavedra (born 11 November 1945) was President of Nicaragua from 1985 to 1990, during the Sandinista government, and is currently the leader of the Sandinista party. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary using the Transwiki process. ... In Spanish, Portuguese, and Catalan speaking regions of the world, people have at least two surnames. ... List of Sephardic Jews - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...

Congregations

Great authority was given to the president of each congregation. He and the rabbinate of his congregation formed the "ma'amad," without whose approbation (often worded in Spanish, Portuguese, or Italian) no book of religious content might be published. The president not only had the power to make authoritative resolutions with regard to congregational affairs and to decide communal questions, but he had also the right to observe the religious conduct of the individual and to punish anyone suspected of heresy or of trespassing against the laws.


Sephardic Chief Rabbis in Israel

(also styled Rishon Le-Zion)

Benzion Meir Chai Uziel (1880 - 1953) (Hebrew:בן ציון מאיר חי עוזיאל), was a former Sephardic chief rabbi of Israel. ... Yitzhak Nissim (1896 - 1981) (Hebrew:יצחק נסים), was a former Sephardic chief rabbi of Israel. ... Mordechai Eliyahu (born: 1929, Jerusalem) was a former Sephardi Chief Rabbi of Israel. ... Eliyahu Bakshi-Doron (b. ... Rabbi Shlomo Amar Rabbi Shlomo Amar (1948 - ) is the current Sephardi Chief Rabbi of Israel, appointed in 2003. ...

Medicine

There is a higher incidence of certain hereditary diseases and inherited disorders in Sephardi Jews. The most important ones are: A genetic disorder, or genetic disease is a disease caused, at least in part, by the genes of the person with the disease. ... A genetic disorder, or genetic disease is a disease caused, at least in part, by the genes of the person with the disease. ...

See also Jewish Genetics Center about testing. Thalassemia (British spelling, thalassaemia) is an inherited autosomal recessive blood disease. ... Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a hereditary inflammatory disorder that affects groups of patients originating from around the Mediterranean Sea (hence its name). ... Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an X-linked recessive hereditary disease featuring nonimmune hemolytic anemia in response to a number of causes. ... Gilberts syndrome (pr. ... Glycogen storage disease type III is characterized by a deficiency in glycogen debranching enzymes. ...


See also

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Jewish ethnic divisions refers to a number of distinct Jewish communities within the worlds ethnically Jewish population. ... Sephardic Judaism is used in this article to describe the religious practices of Sephardi and Mizrahi Jews, so far as these are peculiar to themselves and not shared with other Jewish groups such as the Ashkenazim. ... The Sephardi Hebrew language is the pronunciation system for Biblical Hebrew favored for liturgical use by Sephardi Jewish practice. ... The Golden age of Jewish culture in the Iberian Peninsula, also known as the Golden Age of Arab or Moorish Rule in Iberia, refers to a period of history during the Muslim rule of the Iberian Peninsula (the Roman and Visigothic Hispania) in which Jews were generally accepted in society... Painting of the Amsterdam Esnoga — considered the mother synagogue by the Portuguese and Spanish Jews — by Emanuel de Witte (ab. ... The cuisine of the Sephardic Jews corresponds to the traditional cuisine of Sephardic Jews who lived in some parts of Europe (including the Iberian Peninsula where the ethnicity originates as well as the other countries Jews fleeing the Spanish Inquisition went to). ... Judeo-Portuguese is the extinct Jewish language of the Jews of Portugal. ... An Inquisition - Auto-da-fe. ... This article deals with the Judaeo-Spanish language. ... The Sephardic Jews are one of the three main ethnicities among Diaspora Jews, the others being the Ashkenazi and Mizrahi. ... Baruch de Spinoza (‎, Portuguese: , Basque: , Latin: ) (November 24, 1632 – February 21, 1677) was a Dutch philosopher of Portuguese Jewish origin. ... Isaac de Pinto (1717 - August 14, 1787 in the Hague) was a dutch jew of Portuguese origin. ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ... Jews have lived in the geographic area of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) for more than 2,400 years. ... Jews of the Bilad el-Sudan יהודים הבילד אל-סודן (Hebrew) describes West African Jewish communities who either had their connection with known Jewish communities from the Middle East, North Africa, Spain, and Portugal. ... Pizmonim (Hebrew פזמונים, singular pizmon) are traditional Jewish songs and melodies that praise God. ... This article is about a type of Jewish religious music, Baqashot. ... Elias Canetti, Nobel Laureate in Literature Canettis tomb-stone in Zürich, Switzerland Elias Canetti (Rousse, Bulgaria, 25 July 1905 – 14 August 1994, Zurich) was a Bulgaria-born novelist of Sephardi Jewish ancestry who wrote in German and won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1981. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Obadiah, 1-20: And the captivity of this host of the children of Israel shall possess that of the Canaanites, even unto Zarephath; and the captivity of Jerusalem, which is in Sepharad, shall possess the cities of the south. (KJV)
  2. ^ Samuel G. Armistead, "Oral Literature of the Sephardic Jews," [1]
  3. ^ Flavius Josephus, Wars of the Jews, 2.9.6. However, the place of banishment is identified in Josephus's Antiquities of the Jews as Gaul; for discussion, see Emil Schürer (1973). The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ: Volume I, revised and edited by Geza Vermes, Fergus Millar and Matthew Black, revised English edition, Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 352 n. 41. ISBN 0-567-02242-0. 
  4. ^ Flint, Eric [hc: 2000-02-01]. 1632, Larry Elmore (cover art) and Randy Apslund (Interior Maps), 1st, (hc), 1632 series (in English), Riverdale, NY 10471: Baen Books, various (of 504). ISBN ISBN 0-671-57849-9. 
  5. ^ For the largest online collection of Sephardic folk literature, visit Folk Literature of the Sephardic Jews.
  6. ^ Roth, Cecil. A History of the Marranos. Schocken Books. 

Obadiah (עֹבַדְיָה Servant of the LORD, Standard Hebrew ʿOvadya, Tiberian Hebrew ʿŌḇaḏyāh, Vulgate Abdias) is the name of many people mentioned in the Hebrew Bible, the Old Testament. ... // [[Image:]] Map of Canaan For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... Sarepta (modern Sarafand, Lebanon) was a Phoenician city on the Mediterranean coast between Sidon and Tyre. ... This page is about the version of the Bible; for the Harvey Danger album, see King James Version (album). ... A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 CE),[1] who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus,[2] was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... The Wars of the Jews (or the history of the destruction of Jerusalem) is a book written by the historian Josephus as a description of Jewish history up to the events of the Destruction of Jerusalem. ... Antiquities of the Jews was a work published by the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus in the year A.D. 93. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Emil Schürer (May 2, 1844 - April 30, 1910), German Protestant theologian, was born at Augsburg. ... Geza Vermes (born 22 June 1924) is a Jewish scholar and writer on religious history, particularly Jewish and Christian. ... Fergus Millar FBA is Camden Professor of Ancient History Emeritus Oxford University. ... Eric Flint (born California, USA, 1947) is an American science fiction and fantasy author and editor. ... Main articles: 1632 series and The Grantville Gazettes 1632 is the initial novel in the best selling alternate history genre 1632 book series set in the Holy Roman Empire by historian, writer and editor Eric Flint. ... Larry Elmore is a fantasy artist; he was hired by TSR to do much of its artwork during the 1980s. ... The 1632 series, also known as the 1632-verse or Ring of Fire series, is an alternate history book series, created, primarily co-written-by and coordinated by historian Eric Flint. ... Baen Books logo Baen Books is an American publishing company established in 1983 by SF publishing industry long-timer Jim Baen (1943–2006). ...

References

  • Assis, Yom Tov, The Jews of Spain: From Settlement to Expulsion, Jerusalem: The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (1988)
  • Bartlett, John R., Jews in the Hellenistic World: Josephus, Aristeas, The Sibylline Oracles, Eupolemus, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (1985)
  • Bowers, W. P. "Jewish Communities in Spain in the Time of Paul the Apostle" in Journal of Theological Studies Vol. 26 Part 2, October 1975, pp. 395-402
  • Dan, Joseph, "The Epic of a Millennium: Judeo-Spanish Culture's Confrontation" in Judaism Vol. 41, No. 2, Spring 1992
  • Gampel, Benjamin R., "Jews, Christians, and Muslims in Medieval Iberia: Convivencia through the Eyes of Sephardic Jews," in Convivencia: Jews, Muslims, and Christians in Medieval Spain, ed. Vivian B. Mann, Thomas F. Glick, and Jerrilynn D. Dodds, New York: George Braziller, Inc. (1992)
  • Halkin, Abraham, "The Medieval Jewish Attitude toward Hebrew," in Biblical and Other Studies, ed. Alexander Altman, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press (1963)
  • Kaplan, Yosef, An Alternative Path to Modernity: The Sephardi Diaspora in Western Europe. Brill Publishers (2000). ISBN 9004117423
  • Katz, Solomon, Monographs of the Mediaeval Academy of America No. 12: The Jews in the Visigothic and Frankish Kingdoms of Spain and Gaul, Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Mediaeval Society of America (1937)
  • Lacy, W. K. and Wilson, B. W. J. G., trans., Res Publica: Roman Politics and Society according to Cicero, Oxford: Oxford University Press (1970)
  • Laeuchli, Samuel Power and Sexuality: The Emergence of Canon Law at the Synod of Elvira, Philadelphia: Temple University Press (1972)
  • Mann, Jacob Texts and Studies in Jewish History and Literature I Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College Press (1931)
  • Raphael, Chaim, The Sephardi Story: A Celebration of Jewish History London: Valentine Mitchell & Co. Ltd. (1991)
  • Sarna, Nahum M., "Hebrew and Bible Studies in Medieval Spain" in Sephardi Heritage, Vol. 1 ed. R. D. Barnett, New York: Ktav Publishing House, Inc. (1971)
  • Sassoon, Solomon David, "The Spiritual Heritage of the Sephardim," in The Sephardi Heritage, Vol. 1 ed. R. D. Barnett, New York: Ktav Publishing House Inc. (1971)
  • Scherman, Rabbi Nosson and Zlotowitz, Rabbi Meir eds., History of the Jewish People: The Second Temple Era, Brooklyn: Mesorah Publications, Ltd. (see ArtScroll) (1982)
  • Swetschinski, Daniel. Reluctant Cosmopolitans: The Portuguese Jews of Seventeenth-Century Amsterdam. Litmann Library of Jewish Civilization, (2000)
  • Whiston, A. M., trans., The Life and Works of Flavius Josephus Philadelphia: The John C. Winston Company (19??)
  • Zolitor, Jeff, "The Jews of Sepharad" Philadelphia: Congress of Secular Jewish Organizations (CSJO) (1997) ("The Jews of Sepharad" reprinted with permission on CSJO website.)

The Jewish Publication Society of America was founded in Philadelphia in 1888 to provide the children of Jewish immigrants to America with books about their heritage in the language of the New World. ... The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (‎, Arabic: ) is one of Israels oldest, largest, and most important institutes of higher learning and research. ... The Jewish Publication Society of America was founded in Philadelphia in 1888 to provide the children of Jewish immigrants to America with books about their heritage in the language of the New World. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... The Encyclopaedia Judaica is a 26-volume English-language encyclopedia of the Jewish people and their faith, Judaism. ... Heinrich Graetz (October 31, 1817 - September 7, 1891) was the first historian to write a comprehensive history of the Jewish people from a Jewish perspective. ... The Jewish Publication Society of America was founded in Philadelphia in 1888 to provide the children of Jewish immigrants to America with books about their heritage in the language of the New World. ... The Harvard University Press is a publishing house, a division of Harvard University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ... Founded in 1683 in Leiden, the Netherlands, Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is an international academic publisher and is listed on Euronext, Amsterdam. ... Constantin Dobrogeanu-Gherea Constantin Dobrogeanu-Gherea (born Solomon Katz; 1855, near Dnipropetrovsk, then in Imperial Russia—1920, Bucharest) was a Jewish Romanian Marxist theorist, politician, sociologist, literary critic, and journalist, the father of Alexandru Dobrogeanu-Gherea. ... Elie Kedourie C.B.E., FBA (25 January 1926-29 June 1992) was a British historian of the Middle East. ... Thames & Hudson (also Thames and Hudson and sometimes T&H for brevity) are a publisher, especially of art and illustrated books, founded in 1949 by Walter and Eva Neurath. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... Temple University Press is a university press, was founded in 1969, and is part of Temple University. ... The Jewish Publication Society of America was founded in Philadelphia in 1888 to provide the children of Jewish immigrants to America with books about their heritage in the language of the New World. ... Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion (also known as HUC or HUC-JIR) is the oldest Jewish seminary in the New World and the main seminary for training rabbis, cantors, educators and communal workers in Reform Judaism. ... Nahum M. Sarna (1923–2005) Nahum Mattathias Sarna (March 27, 1923–June 23, 2005) (Hebrew: נחום סרנה) was a modern Biblical scholar who is best known for the study of Genesis and Exodus represented in his Understanding Genesis (1966) and his contributions to the first two volumes of the JPS Torah Commentary... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Rabbi Nosson Scherman is an American Orthodox Jewish Rabbi best known as the General editor for ArtScroll/Mesorah Publications. ... ArtScroll is an imprint of translations, books and commentaries from an Orthodox Jewish perspective published by Mesorah Publications, Ltd. ... ArtScroll is an imprint of translations, books and commentaries from an Orthodox Jewish perspective published by Mesorah Publications, Ltd. ... N. Stillman Norman Arthur Stillman is the Schusterman-Josey Professor and Chair of Judaic History at the University of Oklahoma. ... Not to be confused with University of the State of New York. ... N. Stillman Norman Arthur Stillman is the Schusterman-Josey Professor and Chair of Judaic History at the University of Oklahoma. ... The Jewish Publication Society of America was founded in Philadelphia in 1888 to provide the children of Jewish immigrants to America with books about their heritage in the language of the New World. ...

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