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Encyclopedia > Sephardi
Sephardi
Total population: nn
Significant populations in:

United States: 150,000. [1]
Israel: nn
Europe: nn
South Africa: nn
Australia and New Zealand: nn
World map showing Europe (geographically) When considered a continent, Europe is the worlds second-smallest continent in terms of area, with an area of 10,600,000 km² (4,140,625 square miles), making it larger than Australia only. ...

Languages Sephardic Hebrew as a liturgical language. Also, traditionally, Ladino, Judæo-Portuguese, Catalanic, Judæo-Aragonese, Shuadit; now typically the language of whatever country they live in (including Modern Hebrew in Israel).
Religion Judaism
Related ethnic groups

• Jews
  • Sephardic Jews
  • Ashkenazim
  • Mizraḥim
  • Other Jewish groups The Sephardi Hebrew language is an offshoot of Biblical Hebrew favored for liturgical use by Sephardi Jewish practice. ... Ladino is a Romance language, derived mainly from Old Castilian (Spanish) and Hebrew. ... Judeo-Portuguese is the extinct Jewish language of the Jews of Portugal. ... Catalanic, also called Judæo-Catalan, is the Jewish language spoken by the Jewish communities of northeastern Spain, especially in Catalonia and the Balearic Islands. ... Shuadit, also spelled Chouhadite, Chouhadit, Chouadite, Chouadit, and Shuhadit is the extinct Jewish language of southern France, also known as Judæo-Provençal, Judéo-Comtadin, Hébraïco-Comtadin. ... The Modern Hebrew language is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family. ... Judaism is the religious culture of the Jewish people. ... Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים Standard Hebrew, AÅ¡kanazi,AÅ¡kanazim, Tiberian Hebrew, ʾAÅ¡kănāzî, ʾAÅ¡kănāzîm, pronounced sing. ... Mizrachi is also an organisation of the Religious Zionist Movement Mizrahi Jews or Oriental Jews (מזרחי eastern, Standard Hebrew Mizraḥi, Tiberian Hebrew Mizrāḥî; plural מזרחים easterners, Standard Hebrew Mizraḥim, Tiberian Hebrew Mizrāḥîm) are Jews of Middle Eastern origin; that is to say, their ancestors never left the Middle East. ...

Sephardim (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew Səfardi, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Sfaradim, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardîm) are a subgroup of Jews, generally defined in contrast to Ashkenazim and/or Mizraḥim. The Modern Hebrew language is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Bible, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early middle ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... The Modern Hebrew language is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Bible, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early middle ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... Ashkenazi (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי, Standard Hebrew Aškanazi, Tiberian Hebrew ʾAškănāzî) Jews or Ashkenazic Jews, also called Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים, Standard Hebrew Aškanazim, Tiberian Hebrew ʾAškănāzîm), are Jews who are descendants of Jews from Germany, Poland, Austria and Eastern Europe. ... Mizrahi Jew - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...

Contents


Definition

In the strictest sense, a Sephardi is a Jew original to the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal: ספרד, Standard Hebrew Səfárad, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄áraḏ / Səp̄āraḏ), or one whose ancestors were either among the Jews expelled from Spain by order of the Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand and Isabel (as codified in the Alhambra decree of 1492), or among the Jews expelled from Portugal by order of King Manuel I in 1497. topographic map of the Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe. ... The Modern Hebrew language is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Bible, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early middle ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... The Catholic monarchs (Spanish: Reyes Católicos) is the collective title used in history for Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon. ... Ferdinand and his wife Isabel of Castile Ferdinand II (Fernando de Aragón in Spanish and Ferran dAragó in Catalan), nicknamed the Catholic (March 10, 1452 – June 23, 1516) was king of Aragon, Castile, Sicily, Naples, Valencia, Sardinia and Navarre and Count of Barcelona. ... Isabella of Castile Isabella of Castile (Spanish: Isabel, Ysabel or Isabela — only Isabel is used in modern Spanish; the equivalent English name is Elizabeth, but she has always been known as Isabella in English) (April 22, 1451 – November 26, 1504) was Queen of Castile and Leon. ... Alhambra Decree was issued in 1492 by the Catholic monarchs, (Isabella of Castile married to Ferdinand II of Aragon in 1469), of Spain, following the final triumph over the Moors after the fall of Granada. ... Events January 2 - Boabdil, the last Moorish King of Granada, surrenders his city to the army of Ferdinand and Isabella after a lengthy siege. ... Manuel I of Portugal (Archaic Portuguese: Manoel I, English: Emanuel I), the Fortunate (Port. ... Events May 10 - Amerigo Vespucci allegedly leaves Cádiz for his first voyage to the New World. ...


The name comes from Sepharad, a Biblical location [2] that may have been Sardes but identified by later Jews as the Iberian Peninsula (and southern France). In the strictest sense, a Sephardi (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew Səfardi, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Səfardim, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardîm) is a Jew original to the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal: ספרד, Standard Hebrew Səfárad, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄áraḏ / Səp̄āraḏ), or whose ancestors were among the Jews expelled from... Sardis, (also Sardes) the capital of the ancient kingdom of Lydia, the seat of a conventus under the Roman Empire, and the metropolis of the province Lydia in later Roman and Byzantine times, was situated in the middle Hermus valley, at the foot of Mt. ...


In the vernacular of modern-day Israel, the word Sephardi has also come to include the immigrant Jewish communities that were indigenous to the various countries of the Near East, most notably those of the Yemen, Iraq and Iran who are now resident in Israel, and have no ancestral ties to Spain or Portugal. Jews from these Near Eastern communities are also sometimes called "Oriental Jews" or the Hebrew equivalent Mizrāħîm, some of whom were once also referred to as "Arab Jews", a phrase that is rarely used today. This article treats only Sephardim in the traditional sense, not this expanded Modern Israeli Hebrew definition. The Near East is a term commonly used by archaeologists and historians, less commonly by journalists and commentators, to refer to the region encompassing the Levant (modern Israel, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon), Anatolia (modern Turkey), Mesopotamia (Iraq and eastern Syria), and the Iranian Plateau (Iran). ... Hebrew is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by 6 million people mainly in Israel, parts of the Palestinian territories, the United States and by Jewish communities around the world. ... Mizrachi is also an organisation of the Religious Zionist Movement Mizrahi Jews or Oriental Jews (מזרחי eastern, Standard Hebrew Mizraḥi, Tiberian Hebrew Mizrāḥî; plural מזרחים easterners, Standard Hebrew Mizraḥim, Tiberian Hebrew Mizrāḥîm) are Jews of Middle Eastern origin; that is to say, their ancestors never left the Middle East. ... The Modern Hebrew language is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family. ...


Note that the term Nusach Sefard or Nusach Sfarad does not refer to the liturgy generally recited by Sephardim, but rather to an alternative European liturgy used by many Chassidim. Sephardim traditionally pray using Minhag Sefarad, which is quite similar to Nusach Eidoth haMizrach (liturgy of the Eastern Congregations). Hasidic Judaism (Hebrew: Chasidut חסידות) is a Haredi Jewish religious movement. ...


Distribution

Following the 1492 expulsion from Spain and the subsequent forced conversions and expulsions in Portugal (1497), Sephardim settled mainly in Morocco, the Ottoman Empire (modern-day Turkey, Greece, Southwest Asia, North Africa and south-eastern Europe), southern France, Italy, Spanish North America, (Southwest United States and Mexico), Spanish South America and Portuguese Brazil, as well as the Netherlands (from where a number of families continued onto the former Dutch possessions of Curaçao, Suriname and Aruba), England, Germany, Denmark, Austria and Hungary. Events January 2 - Boabdil, the last Moorish King of Granada, surrenders his city to the army of Ferdinand and Isabella after a lengthy siege. ... Alhambra Decree was issued in 1492 by the Catholic monarchs, (Isabella of Castile married to Ferdinand II of Aragon in 1469), of Spain, following the final triumph over the Moors after the fall of Granada. ... Spanish for converted one, converso (feminine conversa) referred to Jews or Muslims or the descendants of Jews or Muslims who had converted, sometimes unwillingly, to Catholicism in Spain, particularly during the 1300s and 1400s. ... Events May 10 - Amerigo Vespucci allegedly leaves Cádiz for his first voyage to the New World. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (the Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Bursa (1335 - 1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Ä°stanbul (Constantinople) (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40... Southwest Asia (PDF) Southwest Asia (often called the Middle East) is the southwestern part of Asia. ... North Africa is a region generally considered to include: Algeria Egypt Libya Mauritania Morocco Sudan Tunisia Western Sahara The Azores, Canary Islands, Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Madeira are sometimes considered to be a part of North Africa. ... World map showing Europe (geographically) When considered a continent, Europe is the worlds second-smallest continent in terms of area, with an area of 10,600,000 km² (4,140,625 square miles), making it larger than Australia only. ... World map showing location of North America A satellite composite image of North America North America is a continent in the northern hemisphere, bounded on the north by the Arctic Ocean, on the east by the North Atlantic Ocean, on the south by the Caribbean Sea, and on the west... The Southwest region of the United States is drier than the adjoining Midwest in weather; the population is less dense and, with strong Spanish-American and Native American components, more ethnically varied than neighboring areas. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Curaçao and Bonaire are two Caribbean islands This article is about an island in the Caribbean Sea. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population - Total (mid-2004) - Density Ranked 1st UK 50. ...


As a result of the Jewish exodus from Arab lands, many of the Sephardim from the Middle East have relocated to either Israel or France, where they form a significant portion of the Jewish communities today. The Jewish exodus from Arab lands is the 20th century emigration, and sometimes expulsion, of Jews, primarily Sephardi and Mizrahi, from Arab lands. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


Language

The traditional language of the Sephardim is Judæo-Spanish, also called Ladino (a term considered pejorative in some circles). Ladino is a Romance language, derived mainly from Old Castilian (Spanish) and Hebrew. ...


It is a Romance Language derived mainly from Old Castilian (Spanish) and Sephardi Hebrew, and is often considered a dialect adjacent to modern Castilian — the official language of Spain — because of their intelligibility. The Romance languages, also called Romanic languages or New Latin languages, are a subset of the Italic languages, specifically the descendants of the Latin dialects spoken by the common people in what is known as Latin Europe (Italian/Portuguese/Spanish/Catalan Europa latina, French Europe latine, Romanian Europa latină) as... This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ... The Sephardi Hebrew language is an offshoot of Biblical Hebrew favored for liturgical use by Sephardi Jewish practice. ...


Judæo-Spanish has been conserved by the crypto-Jewish marranos of Portugal and Brazil and is still spoken by many of them. It is also spoken by many of the few Sephardim still remaining in Turkey and amongst the Sephardi immigrants of Israel. Crypto-Judaism is the secret adherence to Judaism while publicly professing to be of another faith; people who practice crypto-Judaism are referred to as crypto-Jews. The many Marranos who publicly professed Catholicism but privately adhered to Judaism during the Spanish Inquisition, and particularly after the Alhambra decree of... WARNING: Much of the material in this article is inconsistent with the source material from which it purports to derive. ...


Judæo-Portuguese has also been used by Sephardim — especially amongst the Spanish and Portuguese Jews of Western Europe. Judeo-Portuguese is the extinct Jewish language of the Jews of Portugal. ... Spanish and Portuguese Jews, also known as Portuguese Jews and Jews of the Portuguese nation, is that distinctive sub-group of Sephardim who have their main ethnic origins within the crypto-Jewish communities of the Iberian peninsula and who shaped communities mainly in Western Europe and the Americas from the...


The pidgin forms of Portuguese spoken among slaves and their Sephardic owners have been an influence in Papiamento and Creole languages of Suriname. This article is primarily about the language. ... Papiamento or Papiamentu is a Creole language and it is the primary language spoken on the Caribbean islands of Aruba, Curaçao, and Bonaire. ... Motto: Justitia - Pietas - Fides (Latin: Justice - Piety - Loyalty) Anthem: God zij met ons Suriname Capital Paramaribo 4°00′ N 56°00′ W Largest city Paramaribo Official languages Dutch Government President Constitutional democracy Ronald Venetiaan Independence  - Date From the Netherlands November 25, 1975 Area  â€¢ Total  â€¢ Water (%)   163,270 km² (90th) 1. ...


Several other Romance languages with Jewish forms, spoken historically by Sephardim, include Shuadit (Judæo-Provençal), Judæo-Aragonese, and Catalanic (Judæo-Catalán). Shuadit, also spelled Chouhadite, Chouhadit, Chouadite, Chouadit, and Shuhadit is the extinct Jewish language of southern France, also known as Judæo-Provençal, Judéo-Comtadin, Hébraïco-Comtadin. ... Provençal (Prouvençau in Provençal language) is one of several dialects of the Romance language Occitan, which is spoken by a minority of people in southern France and other areas of France. ... Catalanic, also called Judæo-Catalan, is the Jewish language spoken by the Jewish communities of northeastern Spain, especially in Catalonia and the Balearic Islands. ... Catalan (Català, Valencià) is a Romance language understood by as many as 12 million people in portions of Spain, France, Andorra and Italy, although the majority of active Catalan speakers are in Spain. ...


Other languages associated with Sephardic Jews are mostly extinct, i.e., formerly spoken by some Jewish communities in Italy. Low German, formerly used as the vernacular amongst Sephardim of the Hamburg and Altona area of Northern Germany is also no longer in use as a specifically Jewish vernacular. Subdivisions East Low German Low Franconian Low Saxon Low German (in Low German, Platt(düütsch) or Nedderdüütsch) is any of a variety of West Germanic languages spoken in northern Germany and the Netherlands. ... Hamburg is Germanys second largest city (after Berlin) and, with the Hamburg Harbour, its principal port. ... Altona may refer to various places: Altona, Victoria, a seaside suburb in Melbourne, Australia Altona, Illinois, a village located in Knox County, Illinois Altona, Indiana, a town located in DeKalb County, Indiana Altona, Hamburg, the westmost district in the city of Hamburg This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid...


Early History

The precise origins of the Sephardim are unclear. There is fragmentary and unconclusory evidence of a Jewish presence on the Iberian Peninsula dating from pre-Roman times. More substantial references date from the period of Roman occupation.


Evidence which suggests Jewish connections with the Iberian Peninsula inlcudes:

It is thought that substantial Jewish immigration probably occurred during the period of Roman occupation of Hispania. The province came under Roman control with the fall of Carthage after the Second Punic War (218-202 B.C.E.). Exactly how soon after this time Jews made their way onto the scene in this context is a matter of speculation. It is within the realm of possibility that they went there under the Romans as free men to take advantage of its rich resources. Isaiah (Hebrew ישׁעיהו Yeshayahu or Yəša‘ăyāhû) is a book of the Hebrew Bible, Judaisms Tanakh, known to Christianity as the Old Testament. ... The Book of Jeremiah, or Jeremiah (יִרְמְיָהוּ Yirmiyahu in Hebrew), is a book that is part of the Hebrew Bible, Judaisms Tanakh, and later became a part of Christianitys Old Testament. ... This article is about the Book of Ezekiel. ... The Books of Kings (also known as [The Book of] Kings in Hebrew: Sefer Melachim מלכים) is a part of Judaisms Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible. ... // Overview of Contents The Book of Jonah is a book in the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh. ... Tarshish - a Sanscrit or Aryan word, meaning the sea coast. ... Seal on envelope A seal is an impression printed on, embossed upon, or affixed to a document (or any other object) in order to authenticate it, in lieu of or in addition to a signature. ... This article is about the Spanish city. ... (9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC - other centuries) (800s BC - 790s BC - 780s BC - 770s BC - 760s BC - 750s BC - 740s BC - 730s BC - 720s BC - 710s BC - 700s BC - other decades) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Assyria conquers Damascus and Samaria... (8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC - other centuries) (700s BC - 690s BC - 680s BC - 670s BC - 660s BC - 650s BC - 640s BC - 630s BC - 620s BC - 610s BC - 600s BC - other decades) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Scythians arrived in Asia Collapse... Phoenician can mean: The Phoenician ancient civilization The Phoenician alphabet The Phoenician languages This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Hebrew is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by 6 million people mainly in Israel, parts of the Palestinian territories, the United States and by Jewish communities around the world. ... Amphoræ on display in Bodrum Castle, Turkey Pottery An amphora is a type of ceramic vase with two handles, used for the transportation and storage of perishable goods and more rarely as containers for the ashes of the dead or as prize awards. ... (1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century - other centuries) The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 100. ... Flag of Eivissa Eivissa or Ibiza is one of the Balearic Islands located in the Mediterranean Sea, and belonging to Spain. ... Hispania was the name given by the Romans to the whole of the Iberian Peninsula (modern Portugal, Spain, Andorra and Gibraltar) and to two provinces created there in the period of the Roman Republic: Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior. ... A map of the central Mediterranean Sea, showing the location of Carthage (near modern Tunis). ... The Second Punic War was fought between Carthage and Rome from 218 to 202 BC. It was the second of three major wars fought between the Phoenician colony of Carthage, and the Roman Republic, then still confined to the Italian Peninsula. ... Events May 16 - Heliogabalus is acclaimed as Roman Emperor. ... Events Roman law bans female gladiators Deaths Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyon (martyred) Perpetua (martyred) Felicitas (martyred) Yuan Shao, Chinese warlord Categories: 202 ...


However, the spread of Jews into Europe is most commonly associated with the Diaspora which ensued from the Roman conquest of Judea, emigration from Palestine into the greater Roman Mediterranean area antedated the destruction of Jerusalem at the hands of the Romans under Titus. Any Jews already in Hispania at this time would have been joined by those who had been enslaved by the Romans under Vespasian and Titus, and dispersed to the extreme west during the period of the Jewish Wars, and especially after the defeat of Judea in 70 C.E. One account placed the number carried off to Hispania at 80,000. Subsequent immigrations came into the area along both the northern African and southern European sides of the Mediterranean. Look up Diaspora on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The term diaspora (Ancient Greek διασπορά, a scattering or sowing of seeds) is used (without capitalization) to refer to any people or ethnic population forced or induced to leave their traditional ethnic homelands, being dispersed throughout other parts of the world, and the... A conquest is the act of conquering a foreign land, usually for its assimilation into a larger federation or empire. ... Desert hills in southern Judea, looking east from the town of Arad Judea or Judaea (יהודה Praise, Standard Hebrew Yəhuda, Tiberian Hebrew Yəhûḏāh) is a term used for the mountainous southern part of historic Palestine, an area now divided between Israel, Jordan and the West Bank. ... Map of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... The 70 AD siege of Jerusalem was a Roman response to the Great Jewish Revolt, in which Jewish Zealots rose up against their Roman occupiers, attacking patrols, and eventually occupying the Temple, as well as the abandoned Roman forts of Masada and Herodion. ... This is about the emperor of ancient Rome. ... Emperor Vespasian Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (November 18, 9 – June 23, 79), originally known as Titus Flavius Vespasianus and best known as Vespasian, was the emperor of Rome from 69 to 79. ... This is about the emperor of ancient Rome. ... The first Jewish-Roman War (66–73 CE), sometimes called the Great Jewish Revolt, was the first of three major rebellions by the Jews of Iudaea Province against the Roman Empire (the second was the Kitos War in 115-117, the third was Bar Kokhbas revolt in 132-135). ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 20s 30s 40s 50s 60s - 70s - 80s 90s 100s 110s 120s Years: 65 66 67 68 69 - 70 - 71 72 73 74 75 Events The building of the Colosseum starts (approximate date). ...


Among the earliest records which may refer specifically to Jews in the Iberian peninsula during the Roman period is Paul's Letter to the Romans. Many have taken Paul's intention to go to Hispania to minister the gospel (15.24, 28) to indicate the presence of Jewish communities there, as has Herod's banishment to Hispania by Caesar in 39 C.E. (Flavius Josephus, Wars of the Jews, 2.9.6). (Although the place of banishment is identified in Josephus's Antiquities of the Jews as Gaul – specifically Lyons (18.7.2) – this discrepancy has been "resolved" by "postulating Lugdunum Convenarium, a town in Gaul on the Hispanic frontier" as the actual site. For the genre of Christian-themed music, see gospel music. ... For alternate uses, see Number 39. ... Josephus (ca. ... The Wars of the Jews (or the history of the destruction of Jerusalem) is a book written by the historian Josephus as a description of Jewish history up to the events of the Destruction of Jerusalem. ... Antiquities of the Jews was a work published by the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus in the year A.D. 93. ... Map of Gaul circa 58 BC Gaul (from Latin Gallia, c. ... Lyons), see Lyons (disambiguation). ...


From a slightly later period, Midrash Rabbah, Leviticus 29.2 makes reference to the return of the Diaspora from Hispania by 165 C.E. Perhaps the most substantial of early references are the several decrees of the Council of Elvira, convened in the early fourth century, which address proper Christian behavior with regard to the Jews of Hispania. Midrash (pl. ... Events A pandemic breaks out in Rome after the Roman army returns from Parthia. ... Decree is an order that has the force of law. ... Synod of Elvira, an ecclesiastical synod held in Spain, the date of which cannot be determined with exactness. ...


As citizens of the Roman Empire, the Jews of Hispania engaged in a variety of occupations, including agriculture. Until the adoption of Christianity, Jews had close relations with non-Jewish populations, and played an active role in the social and economic life of the province. The edicts of the Council of Elvira, although early (and perhaps precedence-setting) examples of Church-inspired anti-Semitism, provide evidence of Jews who were integrated enough into the greater community to cause alarm among some: of the Council's 80 canonic decisions, all which pertain to Jews served to maintain a separation between the two communities. It seems that by this time the presence of Jews was of greater concern to Catholic authorities than the presence of pagans; Canon 16, which prohibited marriage with Jews, was worded more strongly than canon 15, which prohibited marriage with pagans. Canon 78 threatens those who commit adultery with Jews with ostracism. Canons 48 and 50 forbade the blessing of Christian crops by Jews and the sharing of meals with Jews, respectively. An edict is an announcement of a law, often associated with monarchism. ... Precedence is a simple ordering, based on either importance or sequence. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... In Western culture, canon law is the law of the Roman Catholic and Anglican churches. ... Ostracism was a procedure under the Athenian democracy where a prominent citizen could be expelled from the city for ten years. ...


Yet in comparison to Jewish life in in Byzantium and Italy, life for the early Jews in Hispania and the rest of western Europe was relatively tolerable. This is due in large measure to the difficulty which the Church had in establishing itself in its western frontier. In the west, Germanic hordes such as the Suevi, the Vandals, and especially the Visigoths had more or less ravaged the political and ecclesiastical systems of the Roman empire, and for a number of centuries the Jews enjoyed a degree of peace which their brethren to the east did not. Byzantium was an ancient Greek city-state, founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas. ... The term Germanic tribes applies to the ancient Germanic peoples of Europe. ... The Suebi or Suevi were a Germanic people whose origin was near the Baltic Sea . ... The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe that entered the late Roman Empire, and created a state in North Africa, centered on the city of Carthage. ... The Visigoths, originally Tervingi, or Vesi (the noble ones), one of the two main branches of the Goths (of which the Ostrogothi were the other), were one of the loosely-termed Germanic peoples that disturbed the late Roman Empire. ... This article should be transwikied to wiktionary Ecclesiastical means pertaining to the Church (especially Christianity) as an organized body of believers and clergy, with a stress on its juridical and institutional structure. ...


Barbaric invasions brought most of the Iberian Peninsula under Visigothic rule by the early fifth century. Other than in their contempt for Catholics, who reminded them of the Romans, the Visigoths did not generally take much of an interest in the religious creeds within their kingdom. It wasn't until 506, when Alaric II (484-507) published his Brevarium Alaricianum (wherein he adopted the laws of the ousted Romans), that a Visigothic king concerned himself with the Jews. The Germanic Wars is a name given to a series of Wars between the Romans and various Germanic tribes between 113 BC and 439 AD1. ... The Visigoths, originally Tervingi, or Vesi (the noble ones), one of the two main branches of the Goths (of which the Ostrogothi were the other), were one of the loosely-termed Germanic peoples that disturbed the late Roman Empire. ... Alaric II, also known as Alarik, Alarich, and Alarico in Spanish or Alaricus in Latin (d. ... Events December 28 - Alaric II succeeds Euric as king of the Visigoths. ... Events Battle of Vouillé: Clovis I defeats the Visigoths near Poitiers, ends Visigothic power in Gaul. ...


The tides began to turn following the conversion of the Visigothic royal family under Recared from Arianism to Catholicism in 587. In their desire to consolidate the realm under the new religion, the Visigoths adopted an aggressive policy concerning the Jews. As the king and the church acted in a single interest, the situation for the Jews deteriorated. Under successive Visigothic kings, as well as under ecclesiastical authority, numerous orders of expulsion, forced conversion, isolation, enslavement, execution, and other punitive proclamations were made. The Visigoth king Reccared (ruled 586 - 601) was the younger son of Leovigild by his first marriage. ... Arianism was a Christological view held by followers of Arius in the early Christian Church, claiming that Jesus Christ and God the Father were not always contemporary, seeing the Son as a divine being, created by the Father (and consequently inferior to Him) at some point in time, before which... Events End of the Nan Liang Dynasty in China. ... This article should be transwikied to wiktionary Ecclesiastical means pertaining to the Church (especially Christianity) as an organized body of believers and clergy, with a stress on its juridical and institutional structure. ...


The Jews of Hispania had been utterly embittered and alienated by Catholic rule by the time of the Muslim invasion. To them, the Moors were perceived as, and indeed were, a liberating force. Wherever they went, the Muslims were greeted by Jews eager to aid them in administering the country. In many conquered towns the garrison was left in the hands of the Jews before the Muslims proceeded further north. Thus were initiated the two centuries of Muslim rule in the Iberian peninsula which became known as the "Golden Age" of Sephardi Jewry. Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... The Moors were the medieval Muslim inhabitants of al-Andalus (the Iberian Peninsula including the present day Spain and Portugal) and the Maghreb, whose culture is often called Moorish. Juba II king of Mauretania // Origins of the name The name derives from the old Berber tribe of the Mauri and...


Sephardim under Islam

See also Al-andalus; Golden_age_of_Jewish_culture_in_Spain; Timeline_of_the_Muslim_Occupation_of_Spain

With the victory of Tariq ibn Ziyad in 711, the lives of the Sephardim changed dramatically. In spite of the stigma attached to being dhimmis (non-Moslem members of monotheistic faiths) under Moslem rule, the coming of the Moors was by-and-large welcomed by the Jews of Iberia. Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... The Golden age of Jewish culture in Spain, also known as the Golden Age of Arab Rule in Spain refers to a period of history during the Muslim occupation of Spain in which Jews were generally accepted in Spanish society and Jewish religious, cultural, and economic life blossomed. ... Iberian territory under Muslim occupation in the years 1000, 1085, 1157 and 1248 // Invasion (710-756) 710 - The Berber General Tariq ibn Ziyad takes Tangier. ... Tariq ibn Ziyad (d. ... See also: phone number 711. ... A Dhimmi, or Zimmi (Arabic ذمّي), as defined in classical Islamic legal and political literature, is a person living in a Muslim state who is a member of an officially tolerated non-Muslim religion. ...


Both Moslem and Christian sources tell us that Jews provided valuable aid to the invaders. Once captured, the defense of Cordoba was left in the hands of Jews, and Granada, Malaga, Seville, and Toledo were left to a mixed army of Jews and Moors. Although in some towns Jews may have been helpful to Moslem success, they were of limited impact overall. The claims of the fall of Iberia as being due in large part to Jewish perfidy are no doubt exaggerated. Granada is a city and the capital of the province of Granada, in the community of Andalusia, Spain. ... Málaga, a port town in the province of Málaga in Andalusia, Southern Spain Malaga, a fortified wine originating in Málaga. ... Location of Seville in Spain. ... This article is about the city in Spain named Toledo. ...


In spite of the restrictions placed upon the Jews as dhimmis, life under Moslem rule was one of great opportunity in comparison to that under prior Christian Visigoths, as testified by the influx of Jews from abroad. To Jews throughout the Christian and Moslem worlds, Iberia was seen as a land of relative tolerance and opportunity. Following initial Arab victories, and especially with the establishment of Umayyad rule by Abd al-Rahman I in 755, the native Jewish community was joined by Jews from the rest of Europe, as well as from Arab territories, from Morocco to Babylon. Thus the Sephardim found themselves enriched culturally, intellectually, and religiously by the commingling of diverse Jewish traditions. The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Abd ar-Rahman I (ruled 756-788) was the founder of a Muslim dynasty that ruled Spain for nearly three centuries. ... Events Abd-ar-rahman I lands in Spain, where the next year he will establish a new Umayyad dynasty. ... Babylon is the Greek variant of Akkadian Babilu, an ancient city in Mesopotamia (Location: 32°32′11″ N 44°25′15″ E, modern Al Hillah, Iraq). ...


Arabic culture, of course, also made a lasting impact on Sephardic cultural development. General re-evaluation of scripture was prompted by Moslem anti-Jewish polemics and the spread of rationalism, as well as the anti-Rabbanite polemics of Karaite sectarianism (which was inspired by various Moslem schismatic movements). Not only were the cultural and intellectual achievements of the Arabs made available to the educated Jew, but much of the scientific and philosophical speculation of Ancient Greek culture, which had been best preserved by Arab scholars, were as well. The meticulous regard which the Arabs had for grammar and style also had the effect of stimulating an interest among Jews in philological matters in general. Arabic came to be the main language of Sephardic science, philosophy, and everyday business, as had been the case with Babylonian geonim. This thorough adoption of the Arabic language also greatly facilitated the assimilation of Jews into Moorish culture, and Jewish activity in a variety of professions, including medicine, commerce, finance, and agriculture increased. Many religions and spiritual movements hold certain written texts (or series of spoken legends not traditionally written down) to be sacred. ... Polemic is the art or practice of disputation or controversy, as in religious, philosophical, or political matters. ... Rationalism, also known as the rationalist movement, is a philosophical doctrine that asserts that the truth can best be discovered by reason and factual analysis, rather than faith, dogma or religious teaching. ... Orthodox Judaism is one of the three major branches of Judaism. ... Karaite Judaism is a Jewish denomination characterized by reliance on the Tanakh as the sole scripture, and rejection of the Oral Law (the Mishnah and the Talmuds) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ... Sectarianism (or sectism) is an adherence to a particular sect or party or denomination. ... Ancient Greece is the term used to describe the Greek-speaking world in ancient times. ... Philology is the study of ancient texts and languages. ... Geonim (also Gaonim) (גאונים) (Singular: Gaon [גאון] meaning Genius in Hebrew) were the rabbis who were the Jewish Talmudic sages who were the generally accepted leaders of the Jewish community in the early medieval era. ...


By the ninth century, some members of the Sephardic community felt confident enough to take part in proselytizing amongst Christians. Most famous were the heated correspondences sent between Bodo Eleazar, a former deacon who had converted to Judaism in 838, and the converso Bishop of Cordoba Paulus Albarus. Each man, using such epithets as "wretched compiler," tried to convince the other to return to his former faith, to no avail. The English language word proselytism is derived ultimately from the Greek language prefix pros (towards) and the verb erchomai (to come). ... Deacon is a role in the Christian Church which is generally associated with service of some kind, but which varies among theological and denominational traditions. ... Events At Hingston Down, Egbert of Wessex beats the Danish and the West Welsh. ... Linguistics An epithet (Greek epitheton) is a descriptive word or phrase, often metaphoric, that is essentially a reduced or condensed appositive. ...


The Golden Age is most closely identified with the reign of Abd al-Rahman III (882-942), the first independent Caliph of Cordoba, and in particular with the career of his Jewish councilor, Hasdai ibn Shaprut (882-942). Within this context of cultural patronage, studies in Hebrew, literature, and linguistics flourished. Abd-ar-Rahman III, Emir and Caliph of Cordoba (912 - 961) was the greatest and the most successful of the princes of the Ummayad dynasty in Spain. ... Events Carloman, King of the West Franks becomes sole king upon the death of his brother. ... Events Kaminarimon, the eight-pillared gate to Japans Kinryuzan Sensouji Temple is erected. ... The Caliph of Cordoba ruled Islamic Spain (Al-Andalus) and North Africa from the city of Cordoba, from 929 to 1031. ... Hasdai (Abu Yusuf ben Yitzhak ben Ezra) ibn Shaprut born about 915 at Jaen; died 970 or 990 at Cordova in Spain, was a Jewish physician, diplomat, and patron of science. ... Events Carloman, King of the West Franks becomes sole king upon the death of his brother. ... Events Kaminarimon, the eight-pillared gate to Japans Kinryuzan Sensouji Temple is erected. ... Generally, patronage is the act of supporting or favoring some person, group, or institution. ...


Hasdai benefitted world Jewry not only indirectly by creating a favorable environment for scholarly pursuits within Iberia, but also by using his influence to intervene on behalf of foreign Jews: in his letter to Byzantine Princess Helena, he requested protection for the Jews under Byzantine rule, attesting to the fair treatment of the Christians of al-Andalus, and perhaps indicating that such was contingent on the treatment of Jews abroad. The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ...


One notable contribution to Christian intellectualism is Ibn Gabriol's neo-Platonic Fons Vitae ("The Source of Life"). Thought by many to have been written by a Christian, this work was admired by Christians and studied in monasteries throughout the middle ages. Solomon Ibn Gabriol, also Solomon ben Judah, is a Spanish Jewish poet and philosopher. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is an ancient school of philosophy beginning in the 3rd century A.D. It was based on the teachings of Plato and Platonists; but it interpreted Plato in many new ways, such that Neoplatonism was quite different from what Plato taught, though not many Neoplatonists would...


In addition to contributions of original work, the Sephardim were active as translators. Greek texts were rendered into Arabic, Arabic into Hebrew, Hebrew and Arabic into Latin, and all combinations of vice-versa. In translating the great works of Arabic, Hebrew, and Greek into Latin, Iberian Jews were instrumental in bringing the fields of science and philosophy, which formed much of the basis of Renaissance learning, into the rest of Europe. By Region: Italian Renaissance Northern Renaissance *French Renaissance *German Renaissance *English Renaissance The Renaissance, also known as Il Rinascimento (in Italian), was an influential cultural movement which brought about a period of scientific revolution and artistic transformation, at the dawn of modern European history. ...


In the early 11th century, centralized authority based at Cordoba broke down following the Berber invasion and the ousting of the Umayyads. In its stead arose the independent taifa principalities under the rule of local Arab, Berber, or Slavonic leaders. Rather than having a stifling effect, the disintegration of the caliphate expanded the opportunities to Jewish and other professionals. The services of Jewish scientists, doctors, traders, poets, and scholars were generally valued by the Christian as well as Muslim rulers of regional centers, especially as recently conquered towns were put back in order. As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... The Berbers (also called Imazighen, free men, singular Amazigh) are an ethnic group indigenous to Northwest Africa, speaking the Berber languages of the Afroasiatic family. ... The term taifa in the history of Iberia refers to an independent Muslim-ruled principality, an emirate or petty kingdom, of which a number formed in Spain (Arabic: Al-Andalus) after the final collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in 1031. ... Slav, Slavic or Slavonic can refer to: Slavic peoples Slavic languages Slavic mythology Church Slavonic language Old Church Slavonic language Slavonian can also refer to Slavonia, a region in eastern Croatia. ...


The decline of the Golden Age began before the completion of the Christian Reconquista, with the penetration and influence of the Almoravides, and then the Almohads, from North Africa. These fundamentalist sects abhorred the liberality of the Islamic culture of al-Andalus, including the position of authority which some dhimmis held over Muslims. When the Almohads gave the Jews a choice of either death or conversion, many Jews emigrated. Some, such the family of Maimonides, fled south and east to the more tolerant Moslem lands, while others went northward to settle in the growing Christian kingdoms. For other uses, see Reconquista (Disambiguation). ... Almoravides (In Arabic المرابطون sing. ... The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i. ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon (Hebrew: רבי משה בן מיימון; Arabic: Mussa bin Maimun ibn Abdallah al-Kurtubi al-Israili; March 30, 1135—December 13, 1204), commonly known by his Greek name (Moses) Maimonides, was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher. ...


Meanwhile the Reconquista continued in the north throughout the 12th century. As various Arab lands fell, conditions for some Jews in the emerging Christian kingdoms became increasingly favorable. As had happened during the reconstruction of towns following the breakdown of authority under the Umayyads, the services of Jews were employed by the victorious Christian leaders. Sephardic knowledge of the language and culture of the enemy, their skills as diplomats and professionals, as well as their desire for relief from intolerable conditions - the very same reasons that they had proved useful to the Arabs in the early stages of the Moslem invasion - rendered their services of great value. (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ...


However, the Jews from the Moslem south were not entirely secure in their northward migrations. Old prejudices were compounded by newer ones. Suspicions of complicity with the Moslems were alive and well as Jews immigrated, speaking the Moslem tongue. However, many of the newly-arrived Jews of the north prospered during the late eleventh and early twelfth centuries. The majority of Latin documentation regarding Jews during this period refers to their landed property, fields, and vineyards.


In many ways life had come full circle for the Sephardim of al-Andalus. As conditions became more oppressive during the 12th and 13th centuries, Jews again looked to an outside culture for relief. Christian leaders of reconquered cities granted them extensive autonomy, and Jewish scholarship recovered somewhat and developed as communities grew in size and importance. However, the Reconquista Jews never reached the same heights as had those of the Golden Age. (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ...


Later History and Culture

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Among the Sephardim were many who were the descendants, or heads, of wealthy families and who, as Marranos, had occupied prominent positions in the countries they had left. Some had been state officials, others had held positions of dignity within the Church; many had been the heads of large banking-houses and mercantile establishments, and some were physicians or scholars who had officiated as teachers in high schools. Their Spanish or Portuguese was a lingua franca that enabled Sephardim from different countries to engage in commerce and diplomacy. Download high resolution version (1024x1180, 21 KB)Created from Image:Wikipedia blue star of david. ... Judaism is the religious culture of the Jewish people. ... Judaism is the religious culture of the Jewish people. ... Judaism is the religious culture of the Jewish people. ... Judaism affirms a number of basic principles of faith that one is expected to uphold in order to be said to be in consonance with the Jewish faith. ... Etymology of the word Jew: The name for the Jewish people in Hebrew is Yehudim (יהודים). ... Who is a Jew? (Hebrew: מיהו יהודי?; transliterated as mihu yehudi) can be a complicated question because Judaism shares some of the characteristics of a nation, an ethnicity, a religion, and a culture, making the definition of who is a Jew vary depending on whether a religious, sociological, or national approach to... Jewish leadership: Since 70 AD and the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem there has been no single body that has a leadership position over the entire Jewish community. ... Secular Jewish culture embraces several related phenomena; above all, it is the culture of secular communities of Jewish people, but it can also include the cultural contributions of individuals who identify as secular Jews, or even those of religious Jews working in cultural areas not generally considered to be connected... Jewish ethnic divisions: The most commonly used terms to describe ethnic divisions among Jews presently are: Ashkenazi (meaning German in Hebrew, denoting the Central European base of Jewry); and Sephardi (meaning Spanish in Hebrew, denoting their Spanish and North African location). ... Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים Standard Hebrew, AÅ¡kanazi,AÅ¡kanazim, Tiberian Hebrew, ʾAÅ¡kănāzî, ʾAÅ¡kănāzîm, pronounced sing. ... This article deals with those Jewish communities indigenous to the Middle East and North Africa. ... Yemenite Jews (תֵּימָנִי, Standard Hebrew Temani, Tiberian Hebrew Têmānî; plural תֵּימָנִים, Standard Hebrew Temanim, Tiberian Hebrew Têmānîm) are those Jews who live, or whose recent ancestors lived, in Yemen (תֵּימָן far south, Standard Hebrew Teman, Tiberian Hebrew Têmān), on the southern tip of the Arabian peninsula. ... The Bene Israel (Sons of Israel) are a group of Jews who, in the mid-twentieth century, lived primarily in Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi and parts of Pakistan. ... The Beta Israel (or House of Israel), known by outsiders by the term Falasha or Falash Mura (exiles or strangers), a term that they consider to be pejorative, are Jews of Ethiopian origin. ... The number of Jews in the world is difficult to calculate, especially given the constant debates of the definition of Jew. ... // Early History Tradition places Jews in southern Russia, Armenia, and Georgia since before the days of the First Temple, and records exist from the fourth century showing that there were Armenian cities possessing Jewish populations ranging from 10,000 to 30,000 along with substantial Jewish settlements in the Crimea. ... This article is about the history of the Jewish people in England. ... History of the Jews in Latin America. ... Main article: List of Jews. ... Jewish languages are a set of languages that developed in various Jewish communities, in Europe, southern and south-western Asia, and northern Africa. ... Hebrew is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by 6 million people mainly in Israel, parts of the Palestinian territories, the United States and by Jewish communities around the world. ... Yiddish (Yid. ... Ladino is a Romance language, derived mainly from Old Castilian (Spanish) and Hebrew. ... Dzhidi, or Judæo-Persian, is the Jewish language spoken by the Jews living in Persia. ... Judæo-Aramaic is a collective term used to describe several Hebrew-influenced Aramaic and Neo-Aramaic languages. ... The Judeo-Arabic languages are a collection of Arabic dialects spoken by Jews living or formerly living in Arabic-speaking countries; the term also refers to more or less classical Arabic written in the Hebrew script, particularly in the Middle Ages. ... Jewish denominations: Over time, the Jewish community has become divided into a number of religious denominations, also called branches or movements. Each denomination has a different understanding of what principles of belief a Jew should hold, and how one should live as a Jew. ... Orthodox Judaism is that stream of Judaism which adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonized in the Talmud (The Oral Law) and later codified in the Shulkhan Arukh (Code of Jewish Law). It is governed by these works and all the Rabbinical... Conservative Judaism (or Masorti Judaism) is a denomination of Judaism characterized by: A positive attitude toward modern culture The belief that traditional rabbinic modes of study, and modern scholarship and critical text study, are both valid ways to learn about and from Jewish religious texts. ... Reform Judaism is the first modern branch of Judaism; it developed in Germany and is now international, and the largest in North America. ... Reconstructionist Judaism is a denomination of Judaism with a relatively liberal set of beliefs: an individuals personal autonomy should generally override traditional Jewish law and custom, yet also take into account communal consensus, modern culture is accepted, traditional rabbinic modes of study, as well as modern scholarship and critical... Karaite Judaism is a Jewish denomination characterized by reliance on the Tanakh as the sole scripture, and rejection of the Oral Law (the Mishnah and the Talmuds) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ... Alternative Judaism refers to several varieties of modern Judaism which fall outside the common Orthodox/Non-Orthodox (Reform/Conservative/Reconstructionist) classification of the four major streams of todays Judaism. ... Jewish political movements refer to the organized efforts of Jews to build their own political parties or otherwise represent their interest in politics outside of the Jewish community. ... For other meanings, please see Zionism (disambiguation) Zionism is a political movement and an ideology that supports a Jewish homeland in the Land of Israel, where the Jewish nation originated and where Jewish kingdoms and self governing states existed at various times in ancient history. ... General Zionists were centrists within the Zionist movement. ... Revisionist Zionism is a right wing tendency within the Zionist movement. ... A Bundist demonstration, 1917 The General Jewish Labour Union of Lithuania, Poland and Russia, in Yiddish the Algemeyner Yidisher Arbeter Bund in Lite, Poyln un Rusland (אַלגמײַנער ײדישער אַרבײטערסבונד אין ליטאַ, פוילין און רוסלאַנד), generally called The Bund (בונד) or the Jewish Labor Bund, was a Jewish political party operating in several European countries between the 1890s and the... Kibbutz Dan, near Qiryat Shemona, in the Upper Galilee, 1990s A kibbutz (Hebrew: קיבוץ; plural: kibbutzim: קיבוצים, gathering or together) is an Israeli collective community. ... Jewish history is the history of the Jewish people, faith (Judaism) and culture. ... This entry contains a timeline of the development of Judaism and the Jewish people. ... Schisms among the Jews: // First Temple era Based on the historical narrative in the Bible and archeology, Levantine civilization at the time of Solomons Temple was prone to idol worship, astrology, worship of reigning kings, and paganism. ... In compiling the history of ancient Israel and Judah, there are many available sources, including the Jewish Tanakh (the Old Testament) and other Jewish texts such as the Talmud, the Ethiopian book of history known as the Kebra Nagast, the writings of historians such as Nicolaus of Damascus, Artapanas, Philo... The Temple in Jerusalem or the Holy Temple (Beit HaMikdash בית המקדש in Hebrew) was built in ancient Jerusalem and was the center of Israelite and Jewish worship, primarily for the offering of sacrifices known as the korbanot. ... Babylonian captivity, or Babylonian exile, is the name generally given to the deportation and exile of the Jews of the ancient Kingdom of Judah to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar. ... The Hasmonean Kingdom (pronunciation) in ancient Judea and its ruling dynasty from 140 BC to 37 BC was established under the leadership of Simon Maccabaeus, two decades after Judah the Maccabee defeated the Seleucid army in 165 BC. Origin of the Hasmonean dynasty The origin of the Hasmonean dynasty is... Jewish-Roman War can refer to several revolts by the Jews of Judea against the Roman Empire: The First Jewish-Roman War (66–73 CE), sometimes called the First Jewish Revolt. ... The Pharisees (from the Hebrew perushim, from parash, meaning to separate) were, depending on the time, a political party, a social movement, and a school of thought among Jews that flourished during the Second Temple Era (536 BCE–70 CE). ... Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tefutzah, or Galut, exile) refers to the dispersion of the Jewish people throughout the world. ... The Talmud (תלמוד) is considered an authoritative record of rabbinic discussions on Jewish law, Jewish ethics, customs, legends and stories. ... This article incorporates text from the public domain 1901-1906 Jewish Encyclopedia Jews in the Middle Ages : The history of Jews in the Middle Ages (approximately 500 CE to 1750 CE) can be divided into two categories. ... Islam and Judaism: This article is part of a series on Jewish history and discusses the history of Islam and Judaism, as they have interacted with each other for 1200 years, from the seventh century up until the end of the 19th century. ... Haskalah (Hebrew: השכלה; enlightenment, intellect, from sekhel, common sense) was a religious movement among European Jews in the late 18th century that advocated adopting enlightenment values, pressing for better integration into European society, and increasing education in secular studies, Hebrew, and Jewish history. ... Hasidic Judaism (Hebrew: Chasidut חסידות, meaning pious from the Hebrew root word chesed חסד meaning loving kindness) is a Haredi Jewish religious movement. ... Children survivors of the Holocaust before their liberation The Holocaust is the name applied to the systematic state-sponsored persecution and genocide of various ethnic, religious and political groups during World War II by Nazi Germany and its collaborators. ... Main article: Israel. ... Related articles: anti-Semitism; history of anti-Semitism; modern anti-Semitism This article deals with various persecutions that the Jewish people have experienced throughout history. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... This is a partial chronology of hostilities towards or discrimination against the Jews as a religious or ethnic group. ... The new anti-Semitism refers to the contemporary international resurgence of anti-Jewish incidents and attacks on Jewish symbols, as well as the acceptance of anti-Semitic beliefs and their expression in public discourse. ... The term marrano refers to the Sephardim, Jews from the Iberian peninsula, who were forced to adopt the identity of Christians, either through coercion as consequence of the cruel persecution of Jews by the Spanish Inquisition, or for forms sake, and became Catholic converts. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ...


The Sephardim rarely engaged in finance (also called chaffering) occupations nor in usury, and they did not often mingle with lower social classes. With their social equals they associated freely, without regard to religion. They were received at the courts of sultans, kings, and princes, and often were employed as ambassadors, envoys, or agents. The number of Sephardim who have rendered important services to different countries is considerable, from Samuel Abravanel (financial councilor to the viceroy of Naples) to Benjamin Disraeli. Among other names mentioned are those of Belmonte, Nasi, Pacheco, Palache, Azevedo, Sasportas, Costa, Curiel, Cansino, Schonenberg, Toledo, Toledano, and Teixeira. Finance studies and addresses the ways in which individuals, businesses and organizations raise, allocate and use monetary resources over time, taking into account the risks entailed in their projects. ... Usury (from the Latin usus, used) (usus was the minor Hindu deity of marriage; the Roman form of marriage called usus was equivalent to present-day common-law marriage; see Indo-European) was defined originally as charging a fee for the use of money. ... Social class describes the relationships between people in hierarchical societies or cultures. ... Location within Italy Naples (Italian Napoli, Neapolitan Napule, from Greek Νέα Πόλις - Néa Pólis - meaning New City; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is the largest city in southern Italy and capital of Campania Region. ... Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield (December 21, 1804 - April 24, British Conservative Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and author. ... ‹The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... Joseph Nasi (also known as João Miquez) was influential in the Ottoman court of both Sultan Suleiman I and his son Selim II. He was appointed the Lord of Tiberias, with the expressed aim of resettling Jews and encouraging industry there. ... Pacheco may mean: Abel Pacheco (b. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Toledo is the name of a city in Spain. ...


The Sephardim have distinguished themselves as physicians and statesmen, and have won the favor of rulers and princes, in both the Christian and the Islamic world. That the Sephardim were selected for prominent positions in every country in which they settled was due to the fact that Spanish had become a world-language through the expansion of Spain.


For a long time the Sephardim took an active part in Spanish literature; they wrote in prose and in rhyme, and were the authors of theological, philosophical, belletristic (aesthetic rather than content based writing), pedagogic (teaching), and mathematical works. The rabbis, who, in common with all the Sephardim, emphasized a pure and euphonious pronunciation of Hebrew, delivered their sermons in Spanish or in Portuguese. Several of these sermons have appeared in print. Their thirst for knowledge, together with the fact that they associated freely with the outer world, led the Sephardim to establish new educational systems wherever they settled; they founded schools in which the Spanish language was the medium of instruction. Theatre in Istanbul was in Judæo-Spanish since it was forbidden to Muslims. Spanish literature may refer to: literature composed in the Spanish language literature of Spain in any of the languages of Spain It may include Spanish poetry, prose and novels. ... This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ...


In Portugal the Sephardim were given important roles in the sociopolitical sphere and enjoyed a certain amount of protection from the Crown (e.g. Yahia Ben Yahia, first "Rabino Maior" of Portugal and supervisor of the public revenue of the first King of Portugal, D. Afonso Henriques). Even with the increasing pressure from the Catholic Church this state of affairs remained more or less constant and the number of Jews in Portugal grew with those running from Spain. This changed with the marriage of D. Manuel I of Portugal with the daughter of the Catholic Kings of the newly born Spain. In 1497 the Decree ordering the expulsion or forced conversion of all the Jews was passed, and the Sephardim either fled or went into secrecy under the guise of "Cristãos Novos", i.e. New Christians (this Decree was symbolically revoked in 1996 by the Portuguese Parliament). All this was followed by the big massacre of Jews in the city of Lisbon in 1506 and the even more relevant establishment of the Portuguese Inquisition in 1536. This produced the flight of the Portuguese Jewish community during the centuries that followed until the extinction of the Courts of Inquisition in 1821 - by then the number of Jews in Portugal was residual. D. (usually preceded in English by the) is the abbreviation for the Spanish and the Portuguese honorific Don, a mark of high esteem for a distinguished Christian hidalgo or nobleman. ... Alfonso I Henriques of Portugal (Guimarães, 1109, traditionally July 25, – 1185), also known as the Conqueror, was the first king of Portugal, declaring his independence from Leon_Castile, a deed often identifying the Condado Portucalense as the first nation_based state of Europe. ... Manuel I of Portugal (Archaic Portuguese: Manoel I, English: Emanuel I), the Fortunate (Port. ... The Catholic monarchs (Spanish: Reyes Católicos) is the collective title used in history for Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon. ... Events May 10 - Amerigo Vespucci allegedly leaves Cádiz for his first voyage to the New World. ... The term New Christian (cristianos nuevos in Spanish, cristãos novos in Portuguese) was used to refer to the Jews and Moors who were converted to Christianity during the Spanish and Portuguese Inquisitions. ... 1996 is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... The Assembly of the Republic is the Portuguese parliament; its building in Lisbon is referred to as Palácio de São Bento (Saint Benedicts Palace). ... District Lisbon Mayor   - Party Pedro Santana Lopes PSD Area 84. ... // Events January 21 - Pope Julius II founds the Swiss Guard Second outbreak of the sweating sickness in England Leonardo da Vinci completes the Mona Lisa. ... The Portuguese Inquisition was established in Portugal in 1536 by the King of Portugal, Joao III, as a Portuguese analogue of the more famous Spanish Inquisition. ... Events February 2 - Spaniard Pedro de Mendoza founds Buenos Aires, Argentina. ... 1821 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


In Amsterdam, where they were especially prominent in the seventeenth century on account of their number, wealth, education, and influence, they established poetical academies after Spanish models; two of these were the Academia de los Sitibundos and the Academia de los Floridos. In the same city they also organized the first Jewish educational institution, with graduate classes in which, in addition to Talmudic studies, instruction was given in the Hebrew language. The most important synagogue, or Esnoga, as it is usually called amongst Spanish and Portuguese Jews, is the Amsterdam Esnoga — usually considered the “mother synagogue”, and the historical centre of the Amsterdam minhag. Amsterdam Location Country The Netherlands Province North Holland Population 739,295 (1 January 2005) Coordinates 4°54E - 52°22N Website www. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... The Talmud (תלמוד) is considered an authoritative record of rabbinic discussions on Jewish law, Jewish ethics, customs, legends and stories. ... Hebrew is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by 6 million people mainly in Israel, parts of the Palestinian territories, the United States and by Jewish communities around the world. ... oka is so smart oka is so smart oka is so smart oka is so smart oka is so smart oka is so smart oka is so smart oka is so smart oka is so smart oka is so smart oka is so smart oka is so smart oka is... Minhag is a word for custom. ...


A sizeable Sephardic community had settled in Morocco and other Northern African countries, which were colonized by France in the 19th century. The Jewish inhabitants were given French citizenship in 1870 by the décret Crémieux (previously, any Jewish or Muslim local could apply for French citizenship; but this meant renouncing the use of traditional religious courts and laws, a move that many did not want to take). When France withdrew in 1956 (Morocco) and 1962 (Algeria), the local Jewish communities largely relocated to France. There are some tensions between some of those communities, and the earlier French Jewish population (ashkenazi), as well as with the Arabic-Muslim communities. North Africa is a region generally considered to include: Algeria Egypt Libya Mauritania Morocco Sudan Tunisia Western Sahara The Azores, Canary Islands, Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Madeira are sometimes considered to be a part of North Africa. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1870 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1956 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1962 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים Standard Hebrew, AÅ¡kanazi,AÅ¡kanazim, Tiberian Hebrew, ʾAÅ¡kănāzî, ʾAÅ¡kănāzîm, pronounced sing. ...


Today, the Sephardim have preserved the romances and the ancient melodies and songs of Spain and Portugal, as well as a large number of old Portuguese and Spanish proverbs. A number of children's plays, like, for example, El Castillo, are still popular among them, and they still manifest a fondness for the dishes peculiar to Iberia, such as the pastel, or pastelico, a sort of meat-pie, and the pan de España, or pan de León. At their festivals they follow the Spanish custom of distributing dulces, or dolces, a confection wrapped in paper bearing a picture of the magen David (six pointed star). In Spanish language, the native, popular proverbs receive the name of refranes or dichos. ... The Star of David The Star of David (Magen David or Mogen David in Hebrew, Shield of David, Solomons Seal, or Seal of Solomon) is a generally recognized symbol of Judaism and Jewish identity. ...


Names

The Sephardim usually followed the general rules for Spanish and Portuguese names. They generally bear Portuguese and Spanish first names, as Aleqria, Angel, Angela, Amado, Amada, Bienvenida, Blanco, Cara, Cimfa, Comprado, Consuela, Dolza, Edery, Esperanza, Estimada, Estrella, Fermosa, Gracia, Luna, Niña, Palomba, Preciosa, Sol, Ventura, and Zafiro; and such Spanish or Portuguese surnames as Afanador, Belmonte, Benveniste, Bueno, Calderón, Campos, Cardoso, Cardoze, Cardozo, Castro, Clemente, Cordova, Curiel, Delgado, Delvalle, Fidanque, Fonseca, Guerreiro, Henríquez, Josué, Leon, Levy Maduro, Lima, Maduro, Mercado, Monzon, Nunes, Osorio, Pacheco, Pardo, Penedo, Pereira, Pinto, Prado, Rocamora, Salvador, Sarabia, Sasso, Sousa, Suasso, Toledano, Tarragona, Valencia, Zapatero, Zaporta, and Zebede. Note that many of these names are by no means exclusive to Jews. In Spanish, Portuguese, and Catalan speaking regions of the world, people have at least two surnames. ... The Annunciation - the Angel Gabriel announces to Mary that she will bear Jesus (El Greco, 1575) An angel is an ethereal creature (meaning it is of the air), found in many mythologies, whose duties are to assist and serve God or the gods of many religious traditions. ... Angela is a female given name. ... Blanco Webb was a character in the BBC sitcom Porridge played by David Jason. ... Cara may refer to any of several things: Cara Operations Limited, a franchise which owns restaurant chains Marchetto Cara (1470 – 1525), Italian composer of the Renaissance Cara, Argyll, an island off the west coast of Scotland. ... In the fictional Robotech universe, Dolza is Supreme Commander of all Zentraedi forces. ... Esperanza (Spanish hope) may refer to: Esperanza Base, an Argentine settlement in Antarctica Esperanza, Valverde, a district of the Dominican Republic Esperanza, Santa Fe a city in the Santa Fe Province of Argentina Esperanza, Agusan del Sur, a municipality in the Philippines Esperanza, Masbate, a municipality in the Philippines Esperanza... Gracia Baur, mostly known as Gracia, is a German singer. ... The term Luna can refer to the Earths Moon. ... The Niña, Portuguese (and Spanish) word for little girl, was one of the three ships used by Christopher Columbus in his first voyage across the Atlantic Ocean in 1492. ... The word sol can refer to any of the following: Look up sol in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ventura is the name of several places in the United States of America: Ventura, California Ventura, Iowa Ventura County, California Ventura can also refer to several other people or things: Jesse Ventura (real name James George Janos) was a wrestler who was elected Governor of Minnesota in 1998 as a... ‹The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... Benveniste - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Calderón may refer to Alberto Calderón Ivan Calderón boxer Ivan Calderón (baseball player) Pedro Calderón de la Barca Rafael Ángel Calderón Sila María Calderón Tego Calderón The Spanish name for the Pilot whale. ... There are parishes that have the name Campos in Portugal: Campos, a parish in the municipality of Póvoa de Lanhoso Campos, a parish in the municipality of Vieira do Minho Campos, a parish in the municipality of Vila Nova de Cerveira There are other things that have the name... Cardoso is a municipality in the state of São Paulo in Brazil. ... Cardozo is a Sephardic pedigree: Albert Cardozo Benjamin N(athan). ... Castro can refer to: Aureo Castro, Macanese/Portuguese Composer, Musician and educator Castro, an Italian city. ... Cordova can refer to: Philippines Cordova, Cebu Spain Córdoba, Spain United States Cordova, Alaska Cordova, South Carolina Cordova, Tennessee Cordova, Alabama Cordova, Illinois Cordova Street is a major thoroughfare in central Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. ... There are several people named Delgado: Frank Delgado Alex Delgado César Delgado Alberto Delgado Roger Delgado Junior Delgado Carlos Delgado Camilo Delgado Pedro Delgado Chiquinquirá Delgado Álvaro Delgado Cabo Delgado José Miguel Arroyo Delgado There is also The Delgados Delgado Community College Elizabeth Z Delgado (fictional character) This is... The name Leon or Léon or León may refer to: Places France Léon, a commune of the Landes département Léon (viscounty), Brittany, France Léon (diocese), Brittany, France Mexico León, Guanajuato Nicaragua León, Nicaragua León Department Philippines Leon, Iloilo Spain León... Lima is the capital and largest city in Peru. ... Mexican cuisine is a style of food that originated in Mexico. ... Mansong Diarra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Pacheco may mean: Abel Pacheco (b. ... Pardo is a term for a mixed-race Brazilian. ... Penedo is a municipality/county in the state of Alagoas in Brazil. ... Latitude: 4°4955 North; Longitude: 75°4316West The city of Pereira is the capital city of the Colombian department of Risaralda. ... Pinto can refer to: Automobile: The Ford Pinto. ... PRADO is a component-based and event-driven Web programming framework for PHP 5. ... Salvador and Baía de Todos os Santos from space, April 1997 Morning Street Scene, Bahia, Brazil, about 1900 Salvador (in full, São Salvador da Baía de Todos os Santos, meaning Holy Savior of the Bay of All Saints) is a city on the northeast coast of Brazil... John Philip Sousa - composer of many marching band songs. ... This article is about the city in Spain named Toledo. ... A picture from the air Tarragona Ampitheatre Tarragona is a city located in the south of Catalonia, Spain, by the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Hemispheric at the Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències by Santiago Calatrava, Valencia, Spain. ... José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero (born August 4, 1960) is the Prime Minister of Spain. ...


In contrast to Ashkenazic Jews, who do not name newborn children after living relatives, Sephardic Jews often name their children after the children's grandparents, even if they are still alive. The first son and daughter are traditionally named after the paternal grandparents, and then the maternal parent's names are next up in line for the remaining children. After that, additional children's names are "free", so-to-speak, meaning that one can choose whatever name, without anymore "naming obligations." The only instance in which Sephardic Jews will not name after their own parents when one of the spouses shares a common first name with a mother/father-in-law (since Jews will not name their children after themselves.) There are times though when the "free" names are used to honor the memory of a deceased relative who died young or childless. These conflicting naming conventions can be troublesome when children are born into mixed Ashkenazic-Sephardic households.


Other Sephardic Pedigrees

See also List of Jewish surnames, Spanish and Portuguese names, List of Sephardic People

The Abravanel family (also Abarbanel or Abrabanel) is one of the oldest and most distinguished Jewish Iberian families; they trace their origin from the biblical King David. ... Edward Bernays, the most famous Bernays. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... There have been many people named Epstein: Baruch Epstein, Lithuanian rabbi and the son of Yechiel Michel Epstein. ... Horowitz a surname can refer to one of several prominent people. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... In Spanish, Portuguese, and Catalan speaking regions of the world, people have at least two surnames. ... List of Sephardic Jews - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...

Congregations

Great authority was given to the president of each congregation. He and the rabbinate of his congregation formed the "ma'amad," without whose approbation (often worded in Spanish, Portuguese, or Italian) no book of religious content might be published. The president not only had the power to make authoritative resolutions with regard to congregational affairs and to decide communal questions, but he had also the right to observe the religious conduct of the individual and to punish anyone suspected of heresy or of trespassing against the laws.


Relationship to other Jews

Although the Sephardim lived on peaceful terms with other Jews, they rarely intermarried with them; neither did they unite with them in forming congregations, but adhered to their own ritual, which differed widely from the Ashkenazic. Ashkenazi (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי, Standard Hebrew Aškanazi, Tiberian Hebrew ʾAškănāzî) Jews or Ashkenazic Jews, also called Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים, Standard Hebrew Aškanazim, Tiberian Hebrew ʾAškănāzîm), are Jews who are descendants of Jews from Germany, Poland, Austria and Eastern Europe. ...


Wherever the Sephardic Jews settled they grouped themselves according to the country or district from which they had come, and organized separate communities with legally enacted statutes. In Constantinople and Thessaloniki, for example, there were not only Castilian, Aragonian, Catalonian, and Portuguese congregations, but also Toledo, Cordoba, Evora, and Lisbon congregations, and differenced themselves from Romaniotes. In Rome there were Castilian, Mallorcan, Portuguese, Sicilian, Sevillian and Catalan congregations, prior to the merger of all these congregations (and Rome's Ashkenazic and Roman congregations) in 1910. In Morocco, Sephardim considered themselves superior to Berber Jews. Under the common pressure of the Islamic society, the Berbers tried to merge with the Sephardim by naming their children with Sephardic names. Map of Constantinople. ... Thessaloníki (Greek: Θεσσαλονίκη; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is the second-largest city of Greece and is the principal, the largest city and the capital of Macedonia. ... A former kingdom of Spain, Castile comprises the two regions of Old Castile in north-western Spain, and New Castile in the centre of the country. ... Capital Zaragoza Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47 719 km²  9,4% Population  â€“ Total (2003)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 11th  1 217 514  2,9%  25,51/km² Demonym  â€“ English  â€“ Spanish  Aragonese  aragonés Statute of Autonomy August 16, 1982 ISO 3166-2 AR Parliamentary representation  â€“ Congress seats  â€“ Senate... Capital Barcelona Official languages Spanish and Catalan In Val dAran, also Aranese. ... This article is about the city in Spain named Toledo. ... Córdoba most commonly means Córdoba, Spain, a famous city in Spain inhabited since the time of ancient Rome, and the seat of the Emir of Córdoba and the Caliph of Córdoba. ... Évora is both a town and a district in eastern Portugal. ... District Lisbon Mayor   - Party Pedro Santana Lopes PSD Area 84. ... Categories: Judaism-related stubs | Ethnic groups | Jews ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC mythical, 1st millennium BC Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni (Left-Wing Democrats) Area  - City Proper  1290 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2,546,807 almost 4,000,000 1... 1910 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


One interesting example is the "Belmonte Jews" in Portugal. A whole community survived in secrecy for hundreds of years by maintaining a tradition of intermarriage and by hiding all the external signs of their faith. The Jewish community in Belmonte goes back to the 12th Century and they were only discovered in the 20th Century. Their rich Sephardic tradition of Crypto-Judaism is unique. Only recently did they contact other Jews and part of them now profess Orthodox Judaism, although many still retain their centuries-old traditions. The Belmonte Jews are a community that survived in secrecy for hundreds of years by maintaining a tradition of intermarriage and by hiding all the external signs of their faith. ... ‹The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... Crypto-Judaism is the secret adherence to Judaism while publicly professing to be of another faith; people who practice crypto-Judaism are referred to as crypto-Jews. The many Marranos who publicly professed Catholicism but privately adhered to Judaism during the Spanish Inquisition, and particularly after the Alhambra decree of... Orthodox Judaism is that stream of Judaism which adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonized in the Talmud (The Oral Law) and later codified in the Shulkhan Arukh (Code of Jewish Law). It is governed by these works and all the Rabbinical...


The term Sephardi can also describe the nusach (Hebrew language, "liturgical tradition") used by Sephardi Jews in their Siddur (prayer book). A nusach is defined by a liturgical tradition's choice of prayers, order of prayers, text of prayers and melodies used in the singing of prayers. This is to be distinguished by the "Nusach Sepharad" used by Chassidic Jews. Minhag (Hebrew: מנהג Custom, pl. ... Hebrew is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by 6 million people mainly in Israel, parts of the Palestinian territories, the United States and by Jewish communities around the world. ... The siddur is the prayerbook used by Jews the world over, containing a set order of daily prayers. ... Hasidic Judaism (Hebrew: Chasidut חסידות, meaning pious from the Hebrew root word chesed חסד meaning loving kindness) is a Haredi Jewish religious movement. ...


This phrase is frequently used in contrast with Ashkenazi Jews, also called Ashkenazim, who are descendants of Jews from Germany, Poland, Austria and Eastern Europe. Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים Standard Hebrew, Aškanazi,Aškanazim, Tiberian Hebrew, ʾAškănāzî, ʾAškănāzîm, pronounced sing. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange) and other former communist regimes (light orange). ...


Medicine

Although less than in Ashkenazi Jews, there is a higher incidence of certain hereditary diseases in Sephardi Jews. The most important ones are: Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים Standard Hebrew, Aškanazi,Aškanazim, Tiberian Hebrew, ʾAškănāzî, ʾAškănāzîm, pronounced sing. ... A genetic disorder, or genetic disease is a disease caused, at least in part, by the genes of the person with the disease. ...

See also Jewish Genetics Center about testing. Thalassemia (American English) (or Thalassaemia in British English) is an inherited disease of the red blood cells, classified as a hemoglobinopathy. ... Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a hereditary inflammatory disorder that affects groups of patients originating from around the Mediterranean Sea (hence its name). ... Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an X-linked recessive hereditary disease featuring nonimmune hemolytic anemia in response to a number of causes. ...


See also

Spanish and Portuguese Jews, also known as Portuguese Jews and Jews of the Portuguese nation, is that distinctive sub-group of Sephardim who have their main ethnic origins within the crypto-Jewish communities of the Iberian peninsula and who shaped communities mainly in Western Europe and the Americas from the... The Sephardic Jews are one of the three main ethnicities among Diaspora Jews, the others being the Ashkenazi and Mizrahi. ... Judaism is the religious culture of the Jewish people. ... Benedictus de Spinoza (November 24, 1632 – February 21, 1677), was named Baruch Spinoza by his synagogue elders and known as Bento de Spinoza or Bento dEspiñoza in his native Amsterdam. ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon (Hebrew: רבי משה בן מיימון; Arabic: Mussa bin Maimun ibn Abdallah al-Kurtubi al-Israili; March 30, 1135—December 13, 1204), commonly known by his Greek name (Moses) Maimonides, was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher. ...

Notes

  • ^  Obadiah, 1-20: And the captivity of this host of the children of Israel shall possess that of the Canaanites, even unto Zarephath; and the captivity of Jerusalem, which is in Sepharad, shall possess the cities of the south. (KJV)

See also Book of Obadiah Obadiah (עֹבַדְיָה Servant of the LORD, Standard Hebrew ʿOvadya, Tiberian Hebrew ʿŌḇaḏyāh, Vulgate Abdias) is the name of many people mentioned in the Hebrew Bible, the Old Testament. ... Canaanite can describe anything pertaining to Canaan: in particular, its languages and inhabitants. ... Sarepta (modern Sarafand, Lebanon) was a Phoenician city on the Mediterranean coast between Sidon and Tyre. ... This page is about the version of the Bible; for the Harvey Danger album, see King James Version (album). ...

References

  • Ashtor, Eliyahu, The Jews of Moslem Spain, Vol. 2, Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society of America (1979)
  • Assis, Yom Tov, The Jews of Spain: From Settlement to Expulsion, Jerusalem: The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (1988)
  • Bartlett, John R., Jews in the Hellenistic World: Josephus, Aristeas, The Sibylline Oracles, Eupolemus, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (1985)
  • Bowers, W. P. "Jewish Communities in Spain in the Time of Paul the Apostle" Journal of Theological Studies Vol. 26 Part 2, October 1975, pp. 395-402
  • Dan, Joseph, "The Epic of a Millennium: Judeo-Spanish Culture's Confrontation" in Judaism Vol. 41, No. 2, Spring 1992
  • [Encyclopaedia_Judaica|Encyclopaedia Judaica] Jerusalem: Keter Publishing House, Ltd. (1971)
  • Gampel, Benjamin R., "Jews, Christians, and Muslims in Medieval Iberia: Convivencia through the Eyes of Sephardic Jews," in Convivencia: Jews, Muslims, and Christians in Medieval Spain, ed. Vivian B. Mann, Thomas F. Glick, and Jerrilynn D. Dodds, New York: George Braziller, Inc. (1992)
  • Graetz, Professor H. History of the Jews, Vol. III Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society of America (1894)
  • Halkin, Abraham, "The Medieval Jewish Attitude toward Hebrew," in Biblical and Other Studies, ed. Alexander Altman, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press (1963)
  • Katz, Solomon, Monographs of the Mediaeval Academy of America No. 12: The Jews in the Visigothic and Frankish Kingdoms of Spain and Gaul, Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Mediaeval Society of America (1937)
  • Lacy, W. K. and Wilson, B. W. J. G., trans., Res Publica: Roman Politics and Society according to Cicero, Oxford: Oxford University Press (1970)
  • Laeuchli, Samuel Power and Sexuality: The Emergence of Canon Law at the Synod of Elvira, Philadelphia: Temple University Press (1972)
  • Mann, Jacob Texts and Studies in Jewish History and Literature I Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College Press (1931)
  • Raphael, Chaim, The Sephardi Story: A Celebration of Jewish History London: Valentine Mitchell & Co. Ltd. (1991)
  • Sarna, Nahum M., "Hebrew and Bible Studies in Medieval Spain" in Sephardi Heritage, Vol. 1 ed. R. D. Barnett, New York: Ktav Publishing House, Inc. (1971)
  • Sassoon, Solomon David, "The Spiritual Heritage of the Sephardim," in The Sephardi Heritage, Vol. 1 ed. R. D. Barnett, New York: Ktav Publishing House Inc. (1971)
  • Scherman, Rabbi Nosson and Zlotowitz, Rabbi Meir eds., History of the Jewish People: The Second Temple Era, Brooklyn: Mesorah Publications, Ltd. (1982)
  • Stillman, Norman, "Aspects of Jewish Life in Islamic Spain" in Aspects of Jewish Culture in the Middle Ages ed. Paul E. Szarmach, Albany: State University of New York Press (1979)
  • Whiston, A. M., trans., The Life and Works of Flavius Josephus Philadelphia: The John C. Winston Company (19??)

האוניברסיטה העברית בירושלים, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (האוניברסיטה העברית בירושלים) is one of Israels oldest, largest and most important institutes of higher learning and research. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... The Harvard University Press is a publishing house, a division of Harvard University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... The Jewish Publication Society of America was founded in Philadelphia in 1888 to provide the children of Jewish immigrants to America with books about their heritage in the language of the New World. ... Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion (also known as HUC or HUC-JIR) is the main seminary for training rabbis, cantors, educators and communal workers in Reform Judaism. ... The State University of New York (acronym SUNY; usually pronounced SOO-nee) is a system of public institutions of higher education in New York, United States. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Sephardi Hebrew language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (126 words)
The Sephardi Hebrew language is an offshoot of Biblical Hebrew favored for liturgical use by Sephardi Jewish practice.
When Eliezer ben Yehuda drafted his Standard Hebrew language, he based it on Sephardi Hebrew, believing it to be most beautiful of the Hebrew dialects.
However, the phonology of Modern Hebrew is further constrained to that of Ashkenazi Hebrew, including the elimination of pharyngeal articulation and the conversion of /r/ from an alveolar flap to a voiced uvular fricative.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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