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Encyclopedia > Separatism

Separatism is a term usually applied to describe the attitudes or motivations of those seeking independence or "separation" of their land or region from the country that governs them. To a lesser extent, separatism may also refer to social isolation or involvement in cliques. The term separatist movements usually refers to social movements that aspire to autonomy for a particular group of people from a dominant political institution under which they suffer, although separatism can also be enforced by a ruling political power, as occurred in South Africa under apartheid. The grounds for separation can be regional, ethnic, linguistic, cultural, religious, or gender — or a combination of these factors. Separatists can refer to the following: A person fighting as part of a separatism movement, a political movement to gain autonomy for a group of people (list) The Confederacy of Independent Systems, a group rebelling against the Galactic Republic in Episodes II and III of the Star Wars film series. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions. ... Consent of the governed is a political theory that says a governments legitimacy and moral right to use state power is, or ought to be, derived from the people or society over which that power is exercised. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... 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Political and administrative separatism

Political separatism may involve attempts to obtain sovereignty and to split a territory or a group of people (usually a people with a distinctive national consciousness) from one another, or one nation from another. One type of example involves colonies gaining independence from a metropolis. Separatist groups themselves often reject the term separatism: they may consider it pejorative, and prefer more neutral terms such as self-determination. “Sovereign” redirects here. ... One of the most influential doctrines in history is that all humans are divided into groups called nations. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 A metropolis (in Greek μήτηρ, mētēr = mother and πόλις, pólis = city/town) is a big city[1], in most cases with over half a million inhabitants in the city proper, and with a population of at least one million living... Self-determination is a principle in international law that a people ought to be able to determine their own governmental forms and structure free from outside influence. ...


Separatist movements often operate using strictly constitutional and peaceful methods. The province of Quebec in Canada has, with the exception of the October Crisis of 1970, fostered a mostly peaceful separatist movement since the 1960s. Broadly peaceful movements ended in the break-up of Czechoslovakia and of the Soviet Union. Singapore also peacefully seceded from the Malaysian Federation. The formation of the Confederate States of America in 1861 occasioned major warfare only after a series of arguably constitutional and orderly secessions. , Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Pierre Duchesne - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area  Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² (595... Military cordon in support of police taking surrender of terrorist Liberation cell, December 3, 1970 The October Crisis was a series of dramatic events triggered by two terrorist kidnappings by members of the Front de libération du Québec in the province of Quebec, Canada, in October 1970, which... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Religion...


Separatism can also often take the form of a violent response to a past military takeover. Around the world many groups espouse separatism as the "only" way to achieve their goal of national liberation. These include the Basque ETA from Basque Country, divided in France and Spain states, Sikh separatists in India during the 1980s, the IRA in Ireland since the 1910s, and the Front de Libération du Québec in the 1960s, culminating in the October Crisis in 1970. These guerrilla campaigns can also lead to full-blown civil wars, as has happened in Chechnya. Languages Basque - few monoglots Spanish - 1,525,000 monoglots French - 150,000 monoglots Basque-Spanish - 600,000 speakers Basque-French - 76,000 speakers [4] other native languages Religions Traditionally Roman Catholic The Basques (Basque: ) are an indigenous people[5] who inhabit parts of northeastern Spain and southwestern France. ... or ETA (Basque for Basque Homeland and Freedom; IPA pronunciation: [) is defined as a terrorist organization by the European Union,[1] the United States, and the United Nations but considered by itself as a paramilitary Basque nationalist group. ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... This article is about the historical army of the Irish Republic (1919–1922) which fought in the Irish War of Independence 1919–21, and the Irish Civil War 1922–23. ... The Front de libération du Québec (Québec Liberation Front), commonly known as the FLQ, was a left-wing terrorist group in Canada responsible for more than 200 bombings and the deaths of at least five people, which culminated in 1970 with what is known as the October... Military cordon in support of police taking surrender of terrorist Liberation cell, December 3, 1970 The October Crisis was a series of dramatic events triggered by two terrorist kidnappings by members of the Front de libération du Québec in the province of Quebec, Canada, in October 1970, which... The Chechen Republic (IPA: ; Russian: , Chechenskaya Respublika; Chechen: , Noxçiyn Respublika), or, informally, Chechnya (; Russian: ; Chechen: , Noxçiyçö), sometimes referred to as Ichkeria, Chechnia, Chechenia or Noxçiyn, is a federal subject of Russia. ...


Violence usually diminishes when there exist political means that would-be separatists can use to gain more political and economic autonomy within the current constitutional order. Free elections and referendums sometimes help to reduce tensions. Very few countries acknowledge their potential divisibility, however. The wars erupting with the break-up of Yugoslavia for instance, despite constitutional provisions in the former Yugoslavia that theoretically allowed referendums and division if all member states agreed. This does not cite any references or sources. ...


Motivations for separatism

Separatist movements often have at least a superficial basis in nationalism or in religious fervour. More often than not, however, feelings of inadequate political clout and perceived economic (dis)advantage play an important role. Economics proved a factor in the break-up of Czechoslovakia; a principal cause involved Slovakia's reluctance to abandon state-run industries, the core of its economy. Bohemia and Moravia -- the areas of the future Czech Republic -- had a greater willingness to experiment with the idea of a free market, and thus the countries parted. Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Flag of Moravia Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava; German: ; Hungarian: ; Polish: ) is a historical region in the east of the Czech RepublicCzechia. ... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy...


Quebec also provides an example of how political marginalisation can lead to separatist ambitions. Throughout the first century of Canadian Confederation from 1867, a small minority of Anglophone Montrealers dominated the province politically and economically. Rejection of this status quo led to the growth of Quebec separatist groups in the 1960s and 1970s, which pledged to form an independent state that could better serve French-Canadian interests. Look up Anglophone in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... “Canadiens” redirects here. ...


Spain's Basque areas, which have not had independence for centuries, developed violent separatist groups in reaction to violent oppression by Francisco Franco's regime (furthermore, the Basque language, despite being minoritary, provides a basis for Basque nationalism, as in some other instances throughout the world). A similar pattern emerged in Ethiopia, where Eritrean rebels expressed from anger at despotism and corruption. General Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892 - November 20, [1] 1975), commonly abbreviated to Francisco Franco (pron. ... Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ...


The nations of the northern Italian peninsula maintained political independence for centuries (for example Veneto had a separate identity from the 10th to 19th centuries as the Republic of Venice and the Republic of Genoa acted independently for the best part of seven centuries. The separatism of northern Italy has not only economic roots, but also linguistic (associated with the Gallo-romance language group) and cultural ones. Veneto or Venetia, is one of the 20 regions of Italy. ... Cultural identity is the identity of a group or culture, or of an individual as far as he is influenced by his belonging to a group or culture. ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... The Republic of Genoa, in full the Most Serene Republic of Genoa (known as the Ligurian Republic from 1798 to 1805) was an independent state in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast from ca. ... The Gallo-Romance branch of Romance languages includes French, Oïl languages, Catalan, and Occitan, among other languages. ...


Degrees of separation

A wide spectrum of different intensities of separatist feeling and activity occurs in history:

  • Some separatist movements engage in armed struggle using conventional military forces. Many countries in the Americas gained their independence in this manner between 1775 and 1825.
  • Many separatists, lacking pro tem the resources to fight openly, fall back on guerrilla tactics (and thus run the risk of their opponents dismissing them as terrorists). Basque separatism falls into this category; Algeria built up its independence movement in this manner; Chechen separatism has moved in this direction since the diminishing of open warfare in the Caucasus.
  • In cases where an occupying power has rigid control and overwhelming capabilities, separatist movements have little choice but to go "deep underground". Tsarist authorities in Poland in the 19th century, for example, generally gave little scope to Polish irredentists to bear arms and sometimes suppressed the use of their language and the practice of their cultural activities in public. But Polish separatism on "Russian" soil did not die, it merely waited for more favorable times.
  • Where permitted, separatism can advance its aims through constitutional means, particularly via parliamentary representation. Irish separatism took this form for much of the 19th century.
  • India provides the classic case of the use of passive resistance to advocate separatism and political independence. The methodology and philosophy of Mahatma Gandhi proved important in this regard.
  • Separatism through cultural distinction can gnaw away at a super-national hegemony. Separatism in Cornwall has often operated in this manner, and it proved effective in the Baltic region prior to World War I.
  • Intellectually-based separatism has emerged in cases such as Cascadia. The idea of an independent Cascadia may or may not grow and take on some other intensity of separatist activity.
  • Temporary or intermittent dissatisfaction with a national or regional situation can provoke flickering feelings of separatism that rise and fall in popularity. The New England region of New South Wales provides a case in point.
  • The separatism of micronations can veer towards the non-serious. Areas such as the Hutt River Province or Sealand can declare independence and set up constitutions and institutions - issuing stamps, banknotes and passports - without necessarily greatly upsetting their metropolitan power or changing the balance in voting blocs at the United Nations. Such examples can serve as vehicles for political or economic protest without necessarily threatening existing nation-states. Jocular and short-lived entities such as the so-called Republic of Hawera come and go. In some cases separatism can almost become a farce - a far cry from the bloodshed that full-blown nationalism can occasion.

For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... Guerrilla warfare (also guerilla) is the unconventional warfare and combat with which small group combatants (usually civilians) use mobile tactics (ambushes, raids, etc) to combat a larger, less mobile formal army. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... Languages Basque - few monoglots Spanish - 1,525,000 monoglots French - 150,000 monoglots Basque-Spanish - 600,000 speakers Basque-French - 76,000 speakers [4] other native languages Religions Traditionally Roman Catholic The Basques (Basque: ) are an indigenous people[5] who inhabit parts of northeastern Spain and southwestern France. ... The Chechen Republic (IPA: ; Russian: , Chechenskaya Respublika; Chechen: , Noxçiyn Respublika), or, informally, Chechnya (; Russian: ; Chechen: , Noxçiyçö), sometimes referred to as Ichkeria, Chechnia, Chechenia or Noxçiyn, is a federal subject of Russia. ... Underground Resistance (commonly abbreviated to UR) are a musical collective from Detroit, Michigan, in the United States of America. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... A parliament is a legislature, especially in those countries whose system of government is based on the Westminster system modelled after that of the United Kingdom. ... Nonviolent resistance (or nonviolent action) is the practice of applying power to achieve socio-political goals through symbolic protests, economic or political noncooperation, civil disobedience and other methods, without the use of physical violence. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Gujarati: , Hindi: , IAST: mohandās karamcand gāndhÄ«, IPA: ) (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948), was a major political and spiritual leader of India and the Indian independence movement. ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... One popular proposed flag for Cascadia. ... The New England region of Australia, here showing Mt Duval Approximate location of New England within New South Wales; red a narrow definition, yellow a broader definition New England is the name given to a region in the north of the state of New South Wales, Australia. ... Slogan or Nickname: First State, Premier State Motto(s): Orta Recens Quam Pura Nites (Newly Risen, How Brightly You Shine) Other Australian states and territories Capital Sydney Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Professor Marie Bashir Premier Morris Iemma (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 50  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004... This article is about entities that are not officially recognised by world governments or major international organisations. ... The Hutt River Province Principality is Australias oldest micronation. ... The Principality of Sealand is a micronation located on HM Fort Roughs, a former Maunsell Sea Fort located in the North Sea 10 km (six miles) off the coast of Suffolk, England, in what is claimed as territorial waters using a twelve-nautical-mile radius. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... Demonstrators march in the street while protesting the World Bank and International Monetary Fund on April 16, 2005. ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ...

Fickle separatisms

Separatism can change in form, intensity and direction over time. Belgium fought a bloody war for nationhood in 1830. However, in the late twentieth century, Belgium became one of the vanguard countries in forming the multi-national European Union. Its capital Brussels became also the capital city of the European Union. But at the same time, Belgium itself was transformed into a federal state, with the regions of Flanders (Dutch-speaking) and Wallonia (French-speaking) gaining a degree of autonomy. Texan separatism came to fruition in 1836, as it gained independence from Mexico, but then faded with the state's annexation to the United States in 1845. Still, Texas sovereigntists support the notion of an independent Texas to this day. Much of the population of British India, prior to 1947, agitated for an independent state, only to experience Islamic separatism in the formation of Pakistan, which in turn later fell victim to Bengali separatism as the independent state of Bangladesh 1971 was established. Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth Metroplex Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... Republic of Texas logo used in some of their documents and Web sites The Republic of Texas is an independence movement that claims that the annexation of Texas by the United States was illegal and that Texas remains an independent nation under occupation. ... Anthem God Save The Queen/King British India, circa 1860 Capital Calcutta (1858-1912), New Delhi (1912-1947) Language(s) Hindi, Urdu, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1877-1901 Victoria  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - January-December 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George...


Countries which have been dismembered by separatist movements during the latter XX and early XXI centuries

East Pakistan was a former province of Pakistan which existed between 1955 and 1971. ... West Pakistan was the popular and sometimes official (1955–1970) name of the western wing of Pakistan until 1971, when the eastern wing (East Pakistan) became independent as Bangladesh. ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throuout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... Anthem Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, Bright Dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Demonym Montenegrin Government Republic  -  President Filip Vujanović  -  Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence due to the dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   -  Declared June 3, 2006... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... ... SAO Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Srem stands for Serbian Autonomous Region of Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Srem. ... The Republic of Dubrovnik, also known as the Republic of Ragusa, was a maritime city-state that was based in the city of Dubrovnik from the 14th century until 1808. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Anthem: Bože Pravde2 (English: God of Justice) Patron Saint: Saint Stephen3 The location of Republika Srpska as part of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Anthem: Bože Pravde2 (English: God of Justice) Patron Saint: Saint Stephen3 The location of Republika Srpska as part of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Coat of Arms of Western Bosnia Autonomous Province of Western Bosnia existed in the territory of present day Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1993 and 1995 as a result of secessionist politics during the Bosnian War. ... Coat of Arms of Western Bosnia Autonomous Province of Western Bosnia existed in the territory of present day Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1993 and 1995 as a result of secessionist politics during the Bosnian War. ... The location of the FBiH entity as part of the state of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Europe. ... Coat of Arms of Herzeg-Bosnia Flag of Herzeg-Bosnia The Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia (locally Hrvatska Republika Herceg-Bosna) was an unrecognized entity in present day Bosnia and Herzegovina existing between 1991 and 1994 as a result of secessionist politics during the Bosnian War. ... The location of the FBiH entity as part of the state of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Europe. ... Anthem: Bože Pravde2 (English: God of Justice) Patron Saint: Saint Stephen3 The location of Republika Srpska as part of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Coat of Arms of Western Bosnia Autonomous Province of Western Bosnia existed in the territory of present day Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1993 and 1995 as a result of secessionist politics during the Bosnian War. ... Coat of Arms of Western Bosnia Autonomous Province of Western Bosnia existed in the territory of present day Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1993 and 1995 as a result of secessionist politics during the Bosnian War. ... Anthem Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, Bright Dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Demonym Montenegrin Government Republic  -  President Filip Vujanović  -  Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence due to the dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   -  Declared June 3, 2006... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to...

Other Historical separatist movements

Anthem God Save The Queen/King British India, circa 1860 Capital Calcutta (1858-1912), New Delhi (1912-1947) Language(s) Hindi, Urdu, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1877-1901 Victoria  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - January-December 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George... The Indus (सिन्‍धु नदी) (known as Sindhu in ancient times) is the principal river of Pakistan. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: ) is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... Irish nationalism refers to political movements that desire greater autonomy or the independence of Ireland from Great Britain. ... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... East Bengal was the name used during two periods in the 20th century for a territory that roughly included the modern state of Bangladesh. ... The National Liberation Army (Albanian: Ushtria Çlirimtare Kombëtare - UÇK ; Macedonian: Ослободителна национална армија - ОНА), also known as the Macedonian UÇK, is a military organization that operated in the Republic of Macedonia in 2001. ... The Islamic Republic of Pakistan, or Islami Jamhooriya-e-Pakistan, in Urdu, or Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia and the Greater Middle East. ... East Pakistan was a former province of Pakistan which existed between 1955 and 1971. ... Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গ Bôngo, বাংলা Bangla, বঙ্গদেশ Bôngodesh or বাংলাদেশ Bangladesh), is a historical and geographical region in the northeast of South Asia. ... This article covers the Chechen people as an ethnic group, not Chechen meaning citizens of Chechnya. ...

Entities which have proclaimed independence without gaining international recognition as independent countries

See also: List of unrecognized countries Capital Sokhumi Official languages Abkhaz, Georgian Government  -  Chairman, Cabinet of Ministers  -  Chairman, Supreme Council Temur Mzhavia Autonomous republic of Georgia  -  Georgian independence Declared Recognised 9 April 1991 25 December 1991  Currency Georgian lari (GEL) Anthem Aiaaira Capital Sukhumi Official languages Abkhaz, Russian1 Government  -  President Sergei Bagapsh  -  Prime Minister Alexander Ankvab... Official language Chechen Capital Grozny (Dzhokharabad, after 1996) President Doku Umarov Independence  â€“ Declared  â€“ Recognition From Russia  â€“ November 1, 1991  â€“ Georgian Republic National anthem Death or Freedom The Chechen Republic of Ichkeria IPA: (Нохчийн Республика Нохчийчоь) is the unrecognized secessionist government of Chechnya. ... Nagorno-Karabakh (Azerbaijani: Dağlıq Qarabağ or Yuxarı Qarabağ, literally mountainous black garden or upper black garden; Russian: Нагорный Карабах, translit. ... ... For other territories formerly called Somaliland, see Somaliland (disambiguation). ... Anthem unknown Capital Tskhinvali Official languages Ossetian1 Government  -  President Eduard Kokoity  -  Prime Minister Yury Morozov De facto independence from Georgia  -  Declared November 28, 1991   -  Recognition none  Currency Russian ruble (RUB) Russian in widespread use by government and other institutions. ... For the region during the Second World War, see Transnistria (World War II). ... Anthem Ä°stiklâl Marşı(Turkish) Independence March Capital Nicosia Official languages Turkish Government Representative democratic republic1  -  President Mehmet Ali Talat  -  Prime Minister Ferdi Sabit Soyer Sovereignty from Cyprus   -  Proclaimed November 15, 1983   -  Recognition By Turkey  Area  -  Total 3,355 km² (not ranked) 1,295 sq mi   -  Water (%) 2. ... The list of unrecognized countries enumerates those geo-political entities which lack general diplomatic recognition, but wish to be recognized as sovereign states. ...


States with separatist movements

See: List of active autonomist and secessionist movements This is a list of currently active autonomist and secessionist movements around the world. ...


Ethnic/racial separatism

Main article: Racial separatism

Ethnic separatism refers to groups that attempt to separate themselves culturally and economically or racially, though not always seeking political autonomy. Racial segregation is a kind of formalized or institutionalized discrimination on the basis of race, characterized by the races separation from each other. ...


White separatism

Main article: White separatism

White separatism is the belief that those who are of white or Caucasian race should have separate institutions or even separate societies, territories, governments, and should not intermarry or have children with those considered to be of non-white races. White separatists groups are "racialists". White separatism is a political movement that promotes a separate homeland for white people. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Race (disambiguation). ... White separatism is a political movement that promotes a separate homeland for white people. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Latino separatism

One of the currents of the 1960s Chicano Movement in the United States was politically separatist. Its proponents sought to recreate Aztlán, the mythical homeland of the Aztecs as a Chicano nation comprising the Southwestern United States. To further this aim, they drew on the Latin American concepts of racial identity such as the bronze race and La Raza Cósmica. The Chicano Movement, also called the Chicano Civil Rights Movement, the Mexican-American Civil Rights Movement, and El Movimiento, is the part of the American Civil Rights Movement that searched for social liberation and power for Mexican Americans. ... For other uses, see Aztlán (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Mexica be merged into this article or section. ... Chicano nationalism is the ethnic nationalist ideology of Mexican Americans. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... Bronze race (Spanish: raza de bronce) is a term used by early 20th century Latin American writers of the indigenista and americanista schools to refer to the mestizo race that arose in America with the arrival of European (particularly Spanish) colonisers and their intermingling with the New Worlds indigenous... The phrase La raza cosmica, in English the cosmic people, embodies the notion that traditional, exclusive concepts of race and nationality can be transcended in the name of humanitys common destiny. ...


Black separatism

Main article: Black separatism

Black separatism is the belief the Black people should live separately from other races. Black separatism is a separatist political movement that seeks a separate homeland for black people, particularly African-Americans. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


See also: Identity politics Identity politics is the political activity of various social movements for self-determination. ...


Religious separatism

Religious groups whose members believe they should not interact with anyone except co-religionists tend to break into plethoras of sects. Religious separatism has become a particular feature of those Protestant churches in which ecclesiastical government and theological authority resides at the local, congregational level. Probably, the most famous example of Protestant Separatists were the Pilgrims who established the first successful colony in New England. They differed from Puritans who believed the Church of England could be redeemed through purification. The Separatist Pilgrims instead believed the Church was beyond redemption and therefore sought complete separation. Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual... A sect is generally a small religious or political group that has branched off from a larger established group. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian... A congregation is the group of members who make up a local Christian church, Jewish synagogue, Mosque or other religious assembly. ... Pilgrims is the name commonly applied to early settlers of the Plymouth Colony in present-day Plymouth, Massachusetts. ... The Puritans were members of a group of radical Protestants which developed in England after the Reformation. ... The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ...


Compare the religious landscape of 16th century Europe with that of 21st century North America. And see shunning as a potential tool of separation. Shunning is the act of deliberately avoiding association with, and habitually keeping away from an individual or group. ...


Those who advocate a strict separation of church and state often term themselves "separationists" (with "accommodationists" as the converse). Constantines Conversion, depicting the conversion of Emperor Constantine the Great to Christianity, by Peter Paul Rubens. ...


Gender and sexuality

Separatist feminism suggests that the political disparities between men and women cannot be readily resolved, and encourages women to direct their energies toward other women rather than men. A branch of separatist feminism known as lesbian separatism advocates lesbianism as the logical result of feminism. Not all separatist feminists advocate complete avoidance of men, but instead may refuse to participate in male-dominated institutions. Some advocate permanent separation, while others see it as a period necessary for personal growth. A number of small women-only communities with a separatist philosophy have emerged since the 1970s, sometimes allowing male children up to a certain age such as puberty. Depictions of women-only societies in fiction can be found throughout history, including stories of Amazons, or the 1915 utopian novel Herland. Separatist feminism is a form of feminism that does not support heterosexual relationships due to a belief that sexual disparities between men and women are unresolvable. ... Lesbian separatism refers to a range of extreme positions within the feminist and gay liberation movements. ... A lesbian is a woman who is romantically and sexually attracted only to other women. ... The Amazons (in Greek, ) were a mythical ancient nation of all-female warriors. ... Herland is a utopian novel from 1915, written by feminist Charlotte Perkins Gilman. ...


Some contemporary queer and transgender writers and activists have critiqued gender as a form of separatism that artificially divides the human population into two classes. The word queer has traditionally meant strange or unusual, but it is also currently often used in reference to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex, and asexual communities. ... A transgendered person in New York Citys Gay Pride Parade Transgender (IPA: , from trans (Latin) and gender (English) ) is a general term applied to a variety of individuals, behaviors, and groups involving tendencies that diverge from the normative gender role (woman or man) commonly, but not always, assigned at... Gender in common usage refers to the sexual distinction between male and female. ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Separatism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1944 words)
Separatism is a term usually applied to describe the attitudes or motivations of those seeking independence or "separation" of their land or region from the country that governs them.
Political separatism may involve attempts to obtain sovereignty and to split a territory or a group of people (usually a people with a distinctive national consciousness) from one another, or one nation from another.
White separatism is the belief that those who are of white or Caucasian race should have separate institutions or even separate societies, territories, governments, and should not intermarry or have children with those considered to be of non-white races.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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