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Encyclopedia > Separation of Church and State
Constantine's Conversion, depicting the conversion of Emperor Constantine the Great to Christianity, by Peter Paul Rubens.
Constantine's Conversion, depicting the conversion of Emperor Constantine the Great to Christianity, by Peter Paul Rubens.

Separation of church and state is the political and legal idea that government and religion should be separate, and not interfere in each other's affairs. [1] Image File history File links Constantine's_conversion. ... Image File history File links Constantine's_conversion. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... Constantine. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Peter Paul Rubens (June 28, 1577 – May 30, 1640) was a prolific seventeenth-century Flemish and European painter, and a proponent of an exuberant Baroque style that emphasized movement, color, and sensuality. ... Politics is the process by which decisions are made within groups. ... This article is about law in society. ...


In the United States separation of church and state is often identified with the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, which states that "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof…" The phrase "building a wall of separation between church and state" was written by Thomas Jefferson in a January 1, 1802 letter to the Danbury Baptist Association. [2] “First Amendment” redirects here. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1802 (MDCCCII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...

Contents

Overview

There are inherent entanglements between the institutions of church and state, inasmuch as religious institutions and their adherents are a part of civil society. [3] Moreover, private religious practices often come into conflict with broad legislation not intending to target any particular religious minority.


Beliefs about the proper relationship between religion and government cover a wide spectrum, from state atheism through secular government to varying degrees of theocracy. Perhaps the primary distinctions to be made between varying forms of government are the divisions between ideas of government secularization and church independence. [4] State atheism is the official rejection of religion in all forms by a government in favor of atheism. ... It has been suggested that Laïcité be merged into this article or section. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      For the metal band, refer to Theocracy (band). ...


History of the concept and term

Ancient

In most ancient cultures the political ruler was also the highest religious leader and sometimes considered divine.[citation needed] Under republican government religious officials were appointed just like political ones. Ancient Israel was different in as much as the King and the priesthood were separate and limited to their respective spheres of authority and responsibility, though interferences did happen as well. Later, under foreign supremacy, the high priest also held the highest civil authority in an autonomous theocracy. Biblically, Hezekiah destroyed a copper serpent, calling it Nehushtan, or a lump of brass. From this it was argued that the rulers in Church and State have authority to prohibit, in the public worship of God, the use of things that have been abused to Idolatry. [5] Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      For the metal band, refer to Theocracy (band). ... Hezekiah (or Ezekias) (Hebrew: חזקיה or חזקיהו, God has strengthened) was the 13th king of indepedent Judah and the son of King Ahaz and Abijah (2 Chronicles 29:1), who was a daughter of a man (who was not the prophet) named Zechariah. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... Moses lifts up the brass snake, curing the Isrealites from Snake Bites. ... Brazen redirects here. ... Taken during a Hindu prayer ceremony on the eve of Diwali. ...


Roman emperors were considered divine and also occupied the highest religious office. This was challenged by Christians and Jews who acknowledged the Emperor's political authority but refused to participate in the state's religion or to recognize the emperor's divinity. While the Jews were exempted from this demand, Christians were considered enemies of the state and adherence to Christianity was punishable by death (e.g., Justin Martyr under Marcus Aurelius). At various times this resulted in violent persecutions until the Edict of Milan in 313. The Roman Empire formally became Christian by edict of Theodosius I in 380. Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Justin Martyr (also Justin the Martyr, Justin of Caesarea, Justin the Philosopher) (100–165) was an early Christian apologist and saint. ... Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (Rome, April 26, 121[2] – Vindobona or Sirmium, March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to his death in 180. ... Spanish Leftists during the Red Terror Shoot at a statue of Christ The persecution of Christians is religious persecution that Christians sometimes undergo as a consequence of professing their faith, both historically and in the current era. ... The Edict of Milan was a letter that proclaimed religious toleration in the Roman Empire. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... An engraving depicting what Theodosius may have looked like, ca. ...


Medieval

See also: Church and state in medieval Europe

In the West, the issue of the separation of church and state during the medieval period centered on monarchs who ruled in the secular sphere but encroached on the Church's rule of the spiritual sphere. This unresolved contradiction in ultimate control of the Church led to power struggles and crises of leadership, notably in the Investiture Controversy, that resulted in a number of important events in the development of the west.[6] The relationship between church and state during the medieval period went through a number of developments, roughly from the end of the Roman Empire through to the beginning of the Reformation. ... The Investiture Controversy, also known as the lay investiture controversy, was the most significant conflict between secular and religious powers in medieval Europe. ...


In the Eastern Roman Empire the Emperor had supreme power over the church and controlled its highest representative: the Patriarch of Constantinople.[citation needed] Eastern Orthodoxy was the state religion. When the Ottomans conquered Constantinople (now Istanbul) in 1453, the Emperor was killed. The position of head of the Orthodox Church was given to Gennadius II Scholarius by the conquering Caliph and the Ottoman ruler, Sultan Mehmed II, who continued to practice the right of the Roman Emperor to appoint the head of the Eastern Orthodox Church. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Byzantine Empire. ... The Patriarch of Constantinople is the Ecumenical Patriarch, ranking as the first among equals in the Eastern Orthodox communion. ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... The Ottoman Dynasty (or the Imperial House of Osman) ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1281 to 1923, beginning with Osman I (not counting his father, Ertuğrul), though the dynasty was not proclaimed until 1383 when Murad I declared himself sultan. ... Mehmed II (Ottoman Turkish: محمد ثانى , Turkish: ), (also known as el-Fatih (الفاتح), the Conqueror, in Ottoman Turkish, or, in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmet) (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. ...


Modern

See Separation of church and state in the United States

The concept of separating church and state is often credited to the writings of the British philosopher John Locke.[7] According to his principle of the social contract, Locke argued that the government lacked authority in the realm of individual conscience, as this was something rational people could not cede to the government for it or others to control. For Locke, this created a natural right in the liberty of conscience, which he argued must therefore remain protected from any government authority. These views on religious tolerance and the importance of individual conscience, along with his social contract, became particularly influential in the American colonies and the drafting of the United States Constitution.[8] The separation of church and state is a legal and political principle derived from the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, which reads, Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof . ... For other persons named John Locke, see John Locke (disambiguation). ... John Lockes writings on the Social Contract were particularly influential among the American Founding Fathers. ...


The concept was implicit in the flight of Roger Williams from religious oppression in Massachusetts to found what became Rhode Island on the principle of state neutrality in matters of faith.[citation needed] For other persons named Roger Williams, see Roger Williams (disambiguation). ...

Thomas Jefferson as President of the United States.
Thomas Jefferson as President of the United States.

The phrase "separation of church and state" is derived from a letter written by Thomas Jefferson in 1802 to a group identifying themselves as the Danbury Baptists. In that letter, referencing the First Amendment of the United States Constitution, Jefferson writes: Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Baptist. ... The first ten Amendments to the U.S. Constitution make up the Bill of Rights. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ...

"Believing with you that religion is a matter which lies solely between Man & his God, that he owes account to none other for his faith or his worship, that the legitimate powers of government reach actions only, & not opinions, I contemplate with sovereign reverence that act of the whole American people which declared that their legislature should "make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof," thus building a wall of separation between Church & State." [9]

Another early user of the term was James Madison, the principal drafter of the United States Bill of Rights, who often wrote of "total separation of the church from the state." [10] "Strongly guarded . . . is the separation between religion and government in the Constitution of the United States," Madison wrote, and he declared, "practical distinction between Religion and Civil Government is essential to the purity of both, and as guaranteed by the Constitution of the United States." [11] This attitude is further reflected in the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, originally authored by Thomas Jefferson, but championed by Madison, and guaranteeing that no one may be compelled to finance any religion or denomination. James Madison (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836), was an American politician and the fourth President of the United States (1809–1817), and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. ... The United States Bill of Rights consists of the first 10 amendments to the United States Constitution. ... Thomas Jefferson was the author of the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ...

... no man shall be compelled to frequent or support any religious worship, place, or ministry whatsoever, nor shall be enforced, restrained, molested, or burthened in his body or goods, nor shall otherwise suffer on account of his religious opinions or belief; but that all men shall be free to profess, and by argument to maintain, their opinion in matters of religion, and that the same shall in no wise diminish enlarge, or affect their civil capacities. [12]

Under the United States Constitution, the treatment of religion by the government is broken into two clauses: the establishment clause and the free exercise clause. While both are discussed in the context of the separation of church and state, it is more often discussed in regard to whether certain state actions would amount to an impermissible government establishment of religion. Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... The first ten Amendments to the U.S. Constitution make up the Bill of Rights. ... The Bill of Rights, First Amendment to the United States Constitution, passed in 1789 includes the Free Exercise Clause which guarantees the freedom of religion: Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the...


The phrase was also mentioned in an eloquent letter written by President John Tyler on July 10, 1843.[citation needed] John Tyler, Jr. ...


The United States Supreme Court has referenced the separation of church and state metaphor more than 25 times, first in 1878. In Reynolds, the Court denied the free exercise claims of Mormons in the Utah territory who claimed polygamy was an aspect of their religious freedom. The Court used the phrase again by Justice Hugo Black in 1947 in Everson. The term was used and defended heavily by the Court until the early 1970s. In Wallace v. Jaffree, Justice Rehnquist presented the view that the establishment clause was intended to protect local establishments of religion from federal interference-- a view which diminished the strong separation views of the Court. Justice Scalia has criticized the metaphor as a bulldozer removing religion from American public life.[13] Holding Religious duty was not a suitable defense to a criminal indictment Court membership Case opinions Laws applied Sect. ... Polygamy has been a feature of human culture since earliest history. ... Holding The Establishment Clause of the First Amendment is incorporated against the states. ... Holding Just as the right to speak and the right to refrain from speaking are complementary components of a broader concept of individual freedom of mind, so also the individuals freedom to choose his own creed is the counterpart of his right to refrain from accepting the creed established...


International views

See also: Laicite, Secularism, Pseudo-secularism, and Secular humanism

Countries have varying degrees of separation between government and religious institutions. While the United States is recognized as the first country to completely disestablish its government from any religion in its Constitution ratified in 1791, [14] a number of other countries have since followed. Nevertheless, the degree of actual separation between government and religion or religious institutions varies widely. In some countries the two institutions remain heavily interconnected. There are new conflicts in the post-Communist world.[clarify][15] In France and some other French-speaking countries, laïcité (pronounced /laisite/ IPA/X-SAMPA) is a prevailing conception of the separation of church and state and the absence of religious interference into government affairs (and conversely). ... This article is about secularism. ... Pseudo-secularism in a societal setting is the state of implicit non-secular trends in the face of pledged secularism. ... Secular humanism is a humanist philosophy that upholds reason, ethics, and justice, and specifically rejects the supernatural and the spiritual as warrants of moral reflection and decision-making. ...


In the United States, the "Separation of Church and State" is generally discussed as a political and legal principle derived from the First Amendment of the United States Constitution, which reads, "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof . . . ." The concept of separation is commonly credited to the combination of the two clauses: the establishment clause, generally interpreted as preventing the government from establishing a national religion, providing tax money in support of religion, or otherwise favoring any single religion or religion generally; and the free exercise clause, ensuring that private religious practices are not restricted by the government. The effect of prohibiting direct connections between religious and governmental institutions while protecting private religious freedom and autonomy has been termed the "separation of church and state." The first ten Amendments to the U.S. Constitution make up the Bill of Rights. ... The Bill of Rights, First Amendment to the United States Constitution, passed in 1789 includes the Free Exercise Clause which guarantees the freedom of religion: Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the...


Nevertheless, issues of free exercise are also implicated by the extent to which laws are permitted to impinge upon private religious practice. In the United States, state laws can prohibit practices such as bigamy, sex with children, human and occasionally animal sacrifice, use of drugs, or other criminal acts, even if citizens claim the practices are part of their religious belief system. However, the federal courts give close scrutiny to any state or local laws that impinge upon the bona fide exercise of religious practices. The courts ensure that genuine and important religious rights are not impeded, and that questionable practices are limited only to the extent necessary. The courts usually demand that any laws restricting religious practices must demonstrate a fundamental or "compelling" state interest such as protecting citizens from bodily harm. Polygamy, literally many marriages in ancient Greek, is a marital practice in which a person has more than one spouse simultaneously (as opposed to monogamy where each person has a maximum of one spouse at any one time). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The United States federal courts are the system of courts organized under the... Strict scrutiny is the highest standard of judicial review used by courts in the United States. ...


The many variations on separation can be seen in some countries with high degrees of religious freedom and tolerance combined with strongly secular political cultures which have still maintained state churches or financial ties with certain religious organizations into the 21st century. In England, there is a constitutionally established state religion but one inclusive of other faiths as well.[16] In Norway, the King is also the leader of the state church, and the 12th article of the Constitution of Norway requires more than half of the members of the Norwegian Council of State to be members of the state church. Yet, the second article guarantees freedom of religion, while also stating that Evangelical Lutheranism is the official state religion.[17] In countries like these, the head of government or head of state or other high-ranking official figures may be legally required to be a member of a given faith. Powers to appoint high-ranking members of the state churches are also often still vested in the worldly governments. These powers may be slightly anachronistic or superficial, however, and disguise the true level of religious freedom the nation possesses. In the case of Andorra there are two heads of state. One is the Bishop of Seu d'Urgell, a town located in Catalunya. He has the title of Episcopalian Coprince. Coprinces enjoy political power in terms of law ratification and constitutional court designation, among others. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... South America Europe Middle East Africa Asia Oceania Demography of religions by country Full list of articles on religion by country Religion Portal         Nations with state religions:  Buddhism  Islam  Shia Islam  Sunni Islam  Orthodox Christianity  Protestantism  Roman Catholic Church A state religion (also called an official religion, established church... The Church of Norway (Den norske kirke in BokmÃ¥l or Den norske kyrkja in Nynorsk), also known as the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Norway, is the state church of Norway, to which 83%[1] of Norwegians are members. ... The Constitution of Norway was first adopted on May 16, 1814 by the Norwegian Constituent Assembly at Eidsvoll (a small town north of the countrys capital, Christiania), then signed and dated May 17. ... The Norwegian Council of State consists of the Monarch, a prime minister and at least seven ministers. ... The Church of Norway (Den norske kirke in BokmÃ¥l or Den norske kyrkja in Nynorsk), also known as the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Norway, is the state church of Norway, to which 83%[1] of Norwegians are members. ... The head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ...


Two common examples of the most active type of separation are France and Turkey. The French version of separation is called laïcité. This model of a secularist state protects the religious institutions from some types of state interference, but with public religious expression also to some extent limited. This aims to protect the public power from the influences of religious institutions, especially in public office. Religious views which contain no idea of public responsibility, or which consider religious opinion irrelevant to politics, are less impinged upon by this type of secularization of public discourse. Turkey, whose population is overwhelmingly Muslim, is also considered to have practiced the laïcité school of secularism since 1923. While France comes from a Roman Catholic tradition and Turkey from an Islamic one, secularism in Turkey and secularism in France present many similarities. Motto of the French republic on the tympanum of a church, in Aups (Var département) which was installed after the 1905 law on the Separation of the State and the Church. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Over the last century, there has been a strong tradition of secularism in Turkey. ...


Nevertheless, even France and Turkey present certain entanglements involving funding to certain religious institutions of the kind which has not been permitted in the United States. In Turkey for example, despite it being an officially secular country, the Preamble of the Constitution states that "There shall be no interference whatsoever of the sacred religious feelings in State affairs and politics."[18] In order to control the way religion is perceived by adherents, the State pays imams' wages (only for Sunni Muslims), and provides religious education (of the Sunni Muslim variety) in public schools. The State has a Department of Religious Affairs, directly under the Prime Minister bureaucratically, responsible for organizing the Sunni Muslim religion - including what will and will not be mentioned in sermons given at mosques, especially on Fridays. Such an interpretation of secularism, where religion is under strict control of the State is very different from that of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, and is a good example of how secularism can be applied in a variety of ways in different regions of the world. Imam is an Arabic word meaning Leader. The ruler of a country might be called the Imam, for example. ... The term public school has two contrary meanings: In England, one of a small number of prestigious historic schools open to the public which normally charge fees and are financed by bodies other than the state, commonly as private charitable trusts; here the word public is used much as in... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... The first ten Amendments to the U.S. Constitution make up the Bill of Rights. ...


Mexico was guided toward separation of church and state by Benito Juarez who, in 1859, attempted to eliminate the role of the Roman Catholic church in the nation by appropriating its land and prerogatives.[19][20] In 1859 the Ley Lerdo was issued-separating church and state, abolishing monastic orders, and nationalizing church property.[19][20][21] To this day all churches are owned by the Government of Mexico.[citation needed] Benito Ju rez (March 21, 1806 - July 18, 1872) was a Zapotec Indian who served two terms (1861-1863 and 1867-1872) as President of Mexico. ...


Japan under the military occupation government of General Douglas Macarthur, made separation of religion and state a major priority.


The opposite end of the spectrum from separation is a theocracy, in which the state is founded upon the institution of religion, and the rule of law is based on the dictates of a religious court. Examples include Saudi Arabia, the Vatican and Iran. In such countries state affairs are managed by religious authority, or at least by its consent. In theocracies, the degree to which those who are not members of the official religion are to be protected is decided by professors of the official religion, and ordinarily the civil rights, or restrictions of rights of the unfavored group, are defined in terms of the official religion. (See also State religion) Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      For the metal band, refer to Theocracy (band). ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The rule of law, in its most basic form, is the principle that no one is above the law. ... South America Europe Middle East Africa Asia Oceania Demography of religions by country Full list of articles on religion by country Religion Portal         Nations with state religions:  Buddhism  Islam  Shia Islam  Sunni Islam  Orthodox Christianity  Protestantism  Roman Catholic Church A state religion (also called an official religion, established church...


The belief that authority derives from a God and diffuses downward through a monarch was promoted by the French philosopher Jean Bodin. His ideas were naturally welcomed by the Bourbon and Stuart monarchs who advocated the alleged "divine right of kings." The duty of the common people was simply to obey God and the king. This concept of Jean Bodin was totally contradicted by the founders of the American republic who saw authority as being inherent in the people; who may then assign powers to their government, revocably. Thus, the authority of the US Constitution rests in "We the People," not in any God. The godless character of the US constitution places it in striking contrast with others such as those of Canada, Iran and Israel. Jean Bodin (1530-1596) was a French jurist, member of the Parliament of Paris and professor of Law in Toulouse. ...


The discussion over the separation of church and state is often connected with the general divide between the concepts of secularism and theocracy. While the term "secularism" was first coined by the British writer George Holyoake in 1846[22] (more than half a century after the ratification of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, and nearly as long after Jefferson's reference to the "Wall of Separation"), it has since come to denote the general concept of separating religion from other aspects of social life, and particularly from the governmental sphere. As such, outside of the United States (where Jefferson's metaphor of the "Wall of Separation" has less importance), and to some extent in the United States as well, the discussion of secularism versus theocracy has come to provide the broader rubric for discussing the relationship between religion and government. This article is about secularism. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      For the metal band, refer to Theocracy (band). ... George Jacob Holyoake (April 13, 1817 - January 22, 1906), English secularist and co-operator, was born in Birmingham, England. ... “First Amendment” redirects here. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ...


Advocacy

Roman Catholic views

On December 8, 1864, on the same day as the Pope's encyclical Quanta Cura, the Holy See under Pope Pius IX issued a document titled Syllabus of Errors (Latin: Syllabus Errorum). This document listed 80 specific assertions which it declared to be erroneous. Assertion number 55 in this list, in the section headed "Errors about civil society, considered both in itself and in its relation to the Church", reads: "The Church ought to be separated from the State, and the State from the Church."[23] However, the proposition here listed had been condemned as erroneous opinion in the sense and context in which they originally occurred, in this case, the proposed disestablishment of the Church in Spain, and in fact remained silent about such separation as a general rule. is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... An encyclical was a circular letter sent to all the churches of a particular area in the ancient Christian church. ... Quanta Cura was a Papal encyclical issued by Pope Pius IX on December 8, 1864, which condemned religious freedom and freedom of speech. ... Pope Pius IX (May 13, 1792 – February 7, 1878), born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from his election in June 16, 1846, until his death more than 31 years later in 1878. ... The Syllabus of Errors (Latin: Syllabus Errorum) was a document issued by Pope Pius IX on December 8,1864, Feast of the Immaculate Conception, as an appendix to his encyclical Quanta Cura. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...


The Catholic Church's 1983 Code of Canon law, while not laying down general rules about relations between Church and State, considers that a religious and moral education in harmony with the conscience of the pupils' parents is an integral part of education, and obliges Catholics to try to secure its inclusion: "Christ's faithful are to strive to secure that in the civil society the laws which regulate the formation of the young also provide a religious and moral education in the schools that is in accord with the conscience of the parents" (canon 799) [24] Catholic Church redirects here. ... Canon Law is the ecclesiastical law of the Roman Catholic Church. ...


American Catholics and majority Protestants, eventually came to see the separation of church and state as a positive development[citation needed]. The work of Jesuit priest and theologian John Courtney Murray in the 1960s was significant as he developed a theological justification of the separation view based upon St. Thomas Aquinas' observation that there existed a necessary distinction between morality and civil law; that the latter is limited in its capacity in cultivating moral character through criminal prohibitions. As Murray said, "it is not the function of civil law to prescribe everything that is morally right and to forbid everything that is morally wrong."[25] The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... TIME Magazine - Dec. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 - March 7, 1274) was a Catholic philosopher and theologian in the scholastic tradition, who gave birth to the Thomistic school of philosophy, which was long the primary philosophical approach of the Roman Catholic Church. ...


Baptist views

Historically, Baptists have supported separation of church and state. In particular, many radical Anabaptist movements, sensitised by the persecution they suffered under both Protestant and Catholic authorities, held that the state should not interfere in religious affairs and vice-versa. One of the earliest calls for separation came from Thomas Helwys, the founder of the first Baptist Church in England. In his last written work, A Short Declaration on the Mystery of Iniquity, he penned a note inside the cover of a single copy that was intended for King James. Whether the King received it or not is disputed, but Helwys was later arrested and placed in Newgate Prison. The words that got him in trouble were as follows (spelling is updated to modern conventions): Baptist churches are part of a Christian movement often regarded as an Evangelical, Protestant denomination. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Anabaptists (Greek... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Thomas Helwys, (c. ...

Hear, O king, and despise not the counsel of the poor, and let their complaints come before thee. The king is a mortal man and not God, therefore has no power over the immortal souls of his subjects, to make laws and ordinances for them, and to set spiritual lords over them. If the king has authority to make spiritual lords and laws, then he is an immortal God and not a mortal man. O king, be not seduced by deceivers to sin against God whom you ought to obey, nor against your poor subjects who ought and will obey you in all things with body, life and goods, or else let their lives be taken from the earth. God save the king. Tho. Helwys. Spittalfield near London.[26]

Another formal plea for separation of church and state in England, called Religious Peace: or, a Plea for Liberty of Conscience. was written to King James by a London citizen named Leonard Busher,[27] a man later identified as an Anabaptist.[28] In 1868, the renowned Baptist pastor Charles Haddon Spurgeon perhaps best summed up the separationist Baptist stand thusly: James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... Spurgeon in his late twenties. ...

Which shall we wonder at most, the endurance of the faithful or the cruelty of their tormentors? Is it not proven beyond all dispute that there is no limit to the enormities which men will commit when they are once persuaded that they are keepers of other men's consciences? To spread religion by any means, and to crush heresy by all means is the practical inference from the doctrine that one man may control another's religion. Given the duty of a state to foster some one form of faith, and by the sure inductions of our nature slowly but certainly persecution will occur. To prevent for ever the possibility of Papists roasting Protestants, Anglicans hanging Romish priests, and Puritans flogging Quakers, let every form of state-churchism be utterly abolished, and the remembrance of the long curse which it has cast upon the world be blotted out for ever.[29]

American Baptists also claim as a forebear Roger Williams, who fled Massachusetts Colony in order to establish a haven for religious liberty at Providence Plantation, now Rhode Island. He had suffered persecution for his religiously nonconformist beliefs, and had witnessed the oppression of Quakers. Consequently, he set up the new colony as a place where all religions could practice freely.


In more recent years, the foremost Baptist witness in the United States for the protection of separation of church and state has been the Baptist Joint Committee for Religious Liberty. An education and advocacy group in Washington, D.C., the Baptist Joint Committee is affiliated with fourteen Baptist bodies collectively representing over 10 million Baptists in the United States. The Baptist Joint Committee for Religious Liberty (BJC) is an education and advocacy association in the United States with a number of Baptist denominations. ...


Islamic views

Most Islamists consider the Western concept of separation of Church and State to be rebellion against God's law, but an increasing number of moderate and liberal Muslims in India, Indonesia, Turkey and the Arab world are demanding such a separation. In Europe and North America, a number of Muslim organisations have the demand for secular democracy in their mission statements. There is a contemporary debate in Islam whether obedience to Islamic law is ultimately compatible with the Western secular pattern, which separates religion from civic life. However, some majority Muslim nations are secular, such as Turkey, Senegal, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Azerbaijan. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


The Medieval Muslim scholar Averroes holds the view that reason and revelation do not conflict, but rather independently lead to the same truth. However, only reason provides demonstrative proofs. Averroes wrote commentaries on most Aristotelian works and defended him against allegations of self-contradiction and unbelief. The school of thought named Averroism is credited as the origin of secular thought, although Averroes himself did not consider religious institutions as separate from the state. Ibn Rushd, known as Averroes (1126 – December 10, 1198), was an Andalusian-Arab philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics, and medicine. ... Averroism is the term applied to either of two philosophical trends among scholastics in the late 13th century, the first of which was based on the Arab philosopher Averroës or Ibn Rushd interpretations of Aristotle and the resolution of various conflicts between the writings of Aristotle and the Muslim...


Jewish views

A Bundist demonstration, 1917
A Bundist demonstration, 1917
Main article: Secular Judaism

Even in religious Judaism there is much room for a range of political or moral views; this is only more so for secular Jews. However, even Jewish secular culture is often strongly influenced by moral beliefs deriving from Jewish scripture and tradition. In recent centuries, Jews in Europe and the Americas have traditionally tended towards the political left, and played key roles in the birth of the labor movement as well as socialism. While Diaspora Jews have also been represented in the conservative side of the political spectrum, even politically conservative Jews have tended to support pluralism more consistently than many other elements of the political right. Some scholars[30] attribute this to the fact that Jews are not expected to proselytize, and as a result do not expect a single world-state, which differs from the beliefs of many religions, such as the Roman Catholic and Islamic traditions; rather, since in Jewish theology the religions of most nations are respected, there was never any perceived reason to convert others. This lack of a universalizing religion is combined with the fact that most Jews live as minorities in their countries, and that no central Jewish religious authority has existed for over 2,000 years. (See also the list of Jews in politics, which illustrates the diversity of Jewish political thought and of the roles Jews have played in politics.) 1917 This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... A Bundist demonstration, 1917 The General Jewish Labour Union of Lithuania, Poland and Russia, in Yiddish the Algemeyner Yidisher Arbeter Bund in Lite, Poyln un Rusland (אַלגמײַנער ײדישער אַרבײטערסבונד אין ליטאַ, פוילין און רוסלאַנד), generally called The Bund (בונד) or the Jewish Labor Bund, was a Jewish political party operating in several European countries between the 1890s and the... Secular Jewish culture embraces several related phenomena; above all, it is the culture of secular communities of Jewish people, but it can also include the cultural contributions of individuals who identify as secular Jews, or even those of religious Jews working in cultural areas not generally considered to be connected... Left wing redirects here. ... The labor movement (or labour movement) is a broad term for the development of a collective organization of working people, to campaign in their own interest for better treatment from their employers and political governments. ... Socialism is a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favor tradition and gradual change, where tradition refers to religious, cultural, or nationally defined beliefs and customs. ... This article deals with Jewish views of religious pluralism. ... “Right wing” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Missionary (disambiguation). ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Rainbow is the ancient symbol of the Noahide Movement reminiscing the seven coloured rainbow that appeared after the Great Flood of the Bible. ... // Statesmen Ehud Barak, prime minister of Israel 1999-2001 Menachem Begin, prime minister of Israel 1977-83 Francis Bell, Prime Minister 1925 New Zealand (Jewish mother) David Ben-Gurion, founder anf first Prime Minister of State of Israel 1948-54 1955-63 Leon Blum, prime minister of France 1936-1937...


Other views

Coptic

Since the 5th century, the Coptic Church has advocated separation of church and state. Unitarian Universalists also advocate separation of church and state. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Christ - Coptic Art Coptic Orthodox Christianity is the indigenous form of Christianity that, according to tradition, the apostle Mark established in Egypt in the middle of the 1st century AD (approximately AD 60). ... The flaming chalice is the universally recognized symbol for Unitarian Universalism. ...


The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has long held to the doctrine of separation of church and state originating in part from the long antagonism local and state governments have had towards their faith. Mormon writings have affirmed "[n]o domination of the state by the church; No church interference with the functions of the state; No state interference with the functions of the church, or with the free exercise of religion; The absolute freedom of the individual from the domination of ecclesiastical authority in political affairs; The equality of all churches before the law. The Church's official Articles of Faith, which outline the basic beliefs of the church, state that: "We believe in being subject to kings, presidents, rulers, and magistrates, in obeying, honoring, and sustaining the law".[31] [32] For other uses, see Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (disambiguation). ...


Seventh-day Adventist

The Seventh-day Adventist Church also has a long tradition of advocating the separation of church and state, due to Sabbath-keeping persecution early in their history. Adventist writings suggest that when church and state unite in the United States of America, the antichrist will come and lead the union.[33] The Seventh-day Adventist (abbreviated Adventist[1]) Church is a Christian denomination which is distinguished by its observance of Saturday, the seventh day of the week, as the Sabbath. ...


See also

American

Historical

William Bradford (March 19, 1590 – May 9, 1657) was a leader of the separatist settlers of the Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts, and was elected thirty times to be the Governor after John Carver died. ... Seal of Plymouth Colony Map of Plymouth Colony showing town locations Capital Plymouth Language(s) English Religion Puritan, Separatist Government Monarchy Legislature General Court History  - Established 1620  - First Thanksgiving 1621  - Pequot War 1637  - King Philips War 1675–1676  - Part of the Dominion of New England 1686–1688  - Disestablished 1691... For other persons named Roger Williams, see Roger Williams (disambiguation). ... Providence Plantation was founded in 1636 by Roger Williams, a Baptist minister fleeing from religious persecution in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. ... For other uses, see William Penn (disambiguation). ... A map of the Province of Pennsylvania. ... Delaware Colony was an English colony in North America. ...

Contemporary

Billboard by the Freedom from Religion Foundation
Billboard by the Freedom from Religion Foundation

Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Americans United for Separation of Church and State (Americans United or AU for short) is an advocacy group in the United States which promotes the separation of church and state, a legal doctrine derived from the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment. ... The American Center for Law and Justice was founded in 1990 by Christian televangelist Dr. Pat Robertson as a nonprofit public interest law firm composed of attorneys committed to defending what it sees as the Judeo-Christian values of religious liberty, the sanctity of human life, and the two-parent... The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) is an American organization consisting of two separate entities. ... The Workmens Circle Logo The Arbeter Ring (אַרבעטער־רינג) (Workmen’s Circle) is a Yiddish language-oriented American Jewish fraternal organization loosely connected to the Humanistic Judaism movement. ... First Things is a monthly ecumenical journal concerned with the creation of a religiously informed public philosophy for the ordering of society (First Things website). ... The Freedom From Religion Foundation is an American Freethought organization based in Madison, Wisconsin. ... The North American Religious Liberty Association (NARLA) is a regional chapter of the International Religious Liberty Association (IRLA). ... People For the American Way (PFAW) is a liberal, self described progressive advocacy organization in the United States. ... The Seventh-day Adventist Church State Council is a non-profit organization that works through courts, legislatures, and through public education throughout the five state western region of Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada, and Utah to preserve and promote religious freedom. ... Movement of Humanistic Judaism founded by Rabbi Sherwin Wine. ...

General

Motto of the French republic on the tympanum of a church, in Aups (Var département) which was installed after the 1905 law on the Separation of the State and the Church. ... South America Europe Middle East Africa Asia Oceania Demography of religions by country Full list of articles on religion by country Religion Portal         Nations with state religions:  Buddhism  Islam  Shia Islam  Sunni Islam  Orthodox Christianity  Protestantism  Roman Catholic Church A state religion (also called an official religion, established church... Look up Antidisestablishmentarianism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In Neo-Calvinism, sphere sovereignty is the concept that each sphere (or sector) of life has its own distinct responsibilities and authority or competence, and stands equal to other spheres of life. ... The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen guarantees freedom of religion, as long as religious activities do not infringe on public order in ways detrimental to society. ... The status of religious freedom around the world varies from country to country. ... For the Religioustolerance. ... Christian anarchism is any of several traditions which combine anarchism with Christianity. ... Christian Reconstructionism is a religious and theological movement within Protestant Christianity that calls for Christians to put their faith into action in all areas of life. ... Islamic leadership is what a Muslim leader is supposed to show, in order to lead in accordance to Islamic principles. ... Ayatollah Mohamed Hossein Kazemini Borujerdi is an Iranian proponent of the separation of religion and politics. ... For other senses of this word, see dogma (disambiguation). ... The Age of Enlightenment (French: ; Italian: ; German: ; Swahili: ; Swedish: Upplysningen) was an eighteenth-century movement in Western philosophy. ... An intellectual is a person who uses his or her intellect to study, reflect, and speculate on a variety of different ideas. ... Human-Etisk Forbund (HEF), the Norwegian Humanist Association, is currently one of the largest Humanist associations in the world, with 76,470 members (January 2006). ... The American Center for Law and Justice was founded in 1990 by Christian televangelist Dr. Pat Robertson as a nonprofit public interest law firm composed of attorneys committed to defending what it sees as the Judeo-Christian values of religious liberty, the sanctity of human life, and the two-parent... The Becket Fund for Religious Liberty is a nonprofit, nonpartisan, interfaith, legal and educational institute dedicated to protecting the free expression of all religious traditions. ... The Rutherford Institute is a public interest law firm and resource center based in Charlottesville, Virginia. ... The Acton Institute for the Study of Religion & Liberty is a research and educational institution dedicated to the promotion of a free and virtuous society. ... The Muslim Canadian Congress is a grassroots organization that claims to provide a voice to Muslims who support a progressive, liberal, pluralistic, democratic, and secular society where everyone has the freedom of religion. ... Democratic Muslims (Danish: Demokratiske muslimer) is a political movement in Denmark founded by Naser Khader and other Muslims in February 2006 after the escalation of the Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy. ... The Progressive Muslim Union of North America is an Islamic organization. ... The Institute for the Secularisation of Islamic Society (ISIS) is an organization of scholars and writers that promotes the ideas of rationalism, secularism, democracy and human rights within Islamic society. ... The criticism of the Pledge of Allegiance of the United States exists on several grounds. ...

References

  1. ^ The Civics Glossary. historycentral.com. Retrieved on 2007-12-29.
  2. ^ Jefferson's Letter to the Danbury Baptists.
  3. ^ Zorach v. Clauson, 343 U.S. 306 (1952). ("Otherwise the state and religion would be aliens to each other - hostile, suspicious, and even unfriendly. Churches could not be required to pay even property taxes. Municipalities would not be permitted to render police or fire protection to religious groups. Policemen who helped parishioners into their places of worship would violate the Constitution.")
  4. ^ Feldman, Noah (2005). Divided by God. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, pg. 23-25 ("Yet an alternative, revisionist view of the history, first articulated by Mark DeWolfe Howe in the 1960s, adopted by several Justices of the Supreme Court, and recently redeveloped and deepened in an important book by Philip Hamburger, emphasizes not Jefferson's concern for the protection of the state from religion but rather eighteenth-century religious dissenters' concern to protect the church from the state.")
  5. ^ Hunt, John (June 1972). Religious Thought In England: From The Reformation To The End Of The Last Century. Ams Pr Inc. ISBN 0404094805.  (3 volume set)
  6. ^ Berman, Harold J. (1983). Law and Revolution: The Formation of the Western Legal Tradition. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-51774-1. 
  7. ^ Feldman, Noah (2005). Divided by God. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, pg. 29 ("It took John Locke to translate the demand for liberty of conscience into a systematic argument for distinguishing the realm of government from the realm of religion.")
  8. ^ Feldman, Noah (2005). Divided by God. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, pg. 29
  9. ^ Jefferson, Thomas (1802-01-01). Jefferson's Letter to the Danbury Baptists. U.S. Library of Congress. Retrieved on 2006-11-31.
  10. ^ (1819 letter to Robert Walsh)
  11. ^ (1811 letter to Baptist Churches)
  12. ^ Bureau of International Information Programs. Backgrounder on the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom. U.S. State Department. Retrieved on 2006-11-30.
  13. ^ Lee v. Weisman, 505 U.S. 577 (1992)
  14. ^ Feldman, Noah (2005). Divided by God. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, pg. 10 ("For the first time in recorded history, they designed a government with no established religion at all.")
  15. ^ Péter Tibor Nagy. The social and political history of Hungarian education - State-Church relations in the history of educational policy of the first post-communist Hungarian government, HTML, Hungarian Electronic library. ISBN 963 200 511 2. Retrieved on 2007-04-27. 
  16. ^ Status of religious freedom by country, United Kingdom. Wikipedia.
  17. ^ The Constitution of the Kingdom of Norway
  18. ^ The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey. Turkish Grand National Assembly (TBMM).
  19. ^ a b Mexico, A brief History, history-world.org, <http://history-world.org/mexico.htm>. Retrieved on 13 October 2007
  20. ^ a b Greg Clements, Ley Lerdo, historicaltextarchive.com, <http://www.historicaltextarchive.com/sections.php?op=viewarticle&artid=548>. Retrieved on 13 October 2007
  21. ^ Ley Lerdo (Spanish text), history-world.org, <http://www.historicaltextarchive.com/sections.php?op=viewarticle&artid=687>. Retrieved on 13 October 2007
  22. ^ Feldman, Noah (2005). Divided by God. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, pg. 113
  23. ^ Syllabus of Errors
  24. ^ Roman Catholic Church. Code of Canon Law. intratext.com. Retrieved on 2006-11-30.
  25. ^ Murray, John Courtney. Memo to Cushing on Contraception Legislation. Murray Archives, file 1-43. Full text available from the Woodstock Theological Center website.
  26. ^ Helwys, Thomas (1998). in Richard Groves: A Short Declaration on the Mystery of Iniquity: Classics of Religious Liberty 1. Mercer UP, p. xxiv. 
  27. ^ Busher, Leonard (1614). Religious Peace: or, a Plea for Liberty of Conscience. 
  28. ^ Whitsitt, Dr. William (1896). A Question in Baptist History: Whether the Anabaptists in England Practiced Immersion Before the Year 1641?. C. T. Dearing, pp. 69-70. 
  29. ^ Spurgeon, Charles H. (August 1988). "The Inquisition". Sword and Trowel. Retrieved on 2006-12-20.
  30. ^ Daniel J. Elazar, Judaism and Democracy: The Reality. Undated. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. Accessed 11 February 2006.
  31. ^ Clark, James R. (1965). Messages of the First Presidency. Brigham Young University, Department of Educational Leadership & Foundations. Retrieved on 2006-11-30.
  32. ^ Political Neutrality. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (2006). Retrieved on 2006-11-30.
  33. ^ White, Ellen G. (1888). The Great Controversy, pp. 563-581. 

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Holding Court membership Case opinions Zorach v. ... Year 1802 (MDCCCII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Look up November in Wiktionary, the free dictionary November is the eleventh month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of four Gregorian months with the length of 30 days. ... Robert Walsh (1785 - 7 February 1859) was a publicist and diplomat. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Holding --- Court membership Case opinions Laws applied --- Lee v. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ...

International Separation of church and state

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Europe

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

American activism in favor of strict separation

American activism against strict separation

Origins of the phrase

“PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to...

Islamic activism in favor of separation


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Separation of Church and State in America - ChristianAnswers.Net (0 words)
In the context of the "separation of church and state," the Court's foundational reinterpretation of the Constitution was complete.
"Separation of church and state," as applied to education, means that a prayer at a graduation ceremony is unconstitutional.
The doctrine of "separation of church and state" has been used, and is being used, to effectively purge religion from the public square.
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