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Encyclopedia > Sensory system
The human eye is the first element of a sensory system: in this case, vision, for the visual system.
The human eye is the first element of a sensory system: in this case, vision, for the visual system.
Typical sensory system: the visual system, illustrated by the classic Gray's FIG. 722– This scheme shows the flow of information from the eyes to the central connections of the optic nerves and optic tracts, to the visual cortex. Area V1 is the region of the brain which is engaged in vision.
Typical sensory system: the visual system, illustrated by the classic Gray's FIG. 722– This scheme shows the flow of information from the eyes to the central connections of the optic nerves and optic tracts, to the visual cortex. Area V1 is the region of the brain which is engaged in vision.

A sensory system is a part of the nervous system responsible for processing sensory information. A sensory system consists of sensory receptors, neural pathways, and parts of the brain involved in sensory perception. Commonly recognized sensory systems are those for vision, hearing, somatic sensation (touch), taste and olfaction (smell). Image:Menschliches auge. ... Image:Menschliches auge. ... For other uses, see Eye (disambiguation). ... In psychology, visual perception is the ability to interpret visible light information reaching the eyes which is then made available for planning and action. ... The visual system is the part of the nervous system which allows organisms to see. ... Image File history File links Gray722. ... Image File history File links Gray722. ... The visual system is the part of the nervous system which allows organisms to see. ... An illustration from the 1918 edition Henry Grays Anatomy of the Human Body (or Grays Anatomy as it has more commonly become known) is an anatomy textbook widely regarded as a classic work on human anatomy. ... For other uses, see Eye (disambiguation). ... This article is about the anatomical structure. ... Brodmann area 17 (primary visual cortex) is shown in red in this image which also shows area 18 (orange) and 19 (yellow) The visual cortex refers to the primary visual cortex (also known as striate cortex or V1) and extrastriate visual cortical areas such as V2, V3, V4, and V5. ... The human brain In animals, the brain (enkephalos) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... In psychology, visual perception is the ability to interpret visible light information reaching the eyes which is then made available for planning and action. ... The Human Nervous System. ... Senses are the physiological methods of perception. ... In a sensory system, a sensory receptor is a structure that recognizes a stimulus in the internal or external environment of an organism. ... A neural pathway is a neural tract connecting one part of the nervous system with another, usually consisting of bundles of elongated, myelin insultated neurons, known collectively as white matter. ... The human brain In animals, the brain (enkephalos) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... Visual perception is one of the senses, consisting of the ability to detect light and interpret (see) it as the perception known as sight or naked eye vision. ... Hearing (or audition) is one of the traditional five senses, and refers to the ability to detect sound. ... The somatosensory system is the sensory system of somatic sensation. ... For the social and aesthetic aspects of taste, see taste (sociology). ... Olfaction (also known as olfactics) refers to the sense of smell. ...


The receptive field is the specific part of the world to which a receptor organ and receptor cells respond. For instance, the part of the world an eye can see, is its receptive field; the light that each rod or cone can see, is its receptive field.[1] Receptive fields have been identified for the visual system, auditory system and somatosensory system, so far. The receptive field of a sensory neuron is a region of space in which the presence of a stimulus will alter the firing of that neuron. ... Rod may mean: Rod (geometry), a straight and slender stick; a wand; a cylinder; hence, any slender bar Rod cell, a cell found in the retina that is sensitive to light/dark (black/white) Rod (unit), an Imperial unit of length, also known as the pole or perch Rod (cryptozoology... Normalized responsivity spectra of human cone cells, S, M, and L types Cone cells, or cones, are photoreceptor cells in the retina of the eye which function best in relatively bright light. ... The receptive field of a sensory neuron is a region of space in which the presence of a stimulus will alter the firing of that neuron. ... The visual system is the part of the nervous system which allows organisms to see. ... The auditory system is the sensory system for the sense of hearing. ... Somatic sensation consists of the various sensory receptors that trigger the experiences labelled as touch or pressure, temperature (warm or cold), pain (including itch and tickle), and the sensations of muscle movement and joint position including posture, movement, and facial expression (collectively also called proprioception). ...

Contents

Stimulus

Sensory systems code for four aspects of a stimulus; type (modality), intensity, location, and duration. Certain receptors are sensitive to certain types of stimuli (for example, different mechanoreceptors respond best to different kinds of touch stimuli, like sharp or blunt objects). Receptors send impulses in certain patterns to send information about the intensity of a stimulus (for example, how loud a sound is). The location of the receptor that is stimulated gives the brain information about the location of the stimulus (for example, stimulating a mechanoreceptor in a finger will send information to the brain about that finger). The duration of the stimulus (how long it lasts) is conveyed by firing patterns of receptors. In physiology, a stimulus is a detectable change in the internal or external environment. ... A mechanoreceptor is a sensory receptor that responds to mechanical pressure or distortion. ... A. A schematic view of an idealized action potential illustrates its various phases as the action potential passes a point on a cell membrane. ...


Modality

A stimulus modality (sensory modality) is a type of physical phenomenon that can be sensed. Examples are temperature, taste, sound, and pressure. The type of sensory receptor activated by a stimulus plays the primary role in coding the stimulus modality. Stimulus modality is one aspect of a stimulus. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... For the social and aesthetic aspects of taste, see taste (sociology). ... Sound is a disturbance of mechanical energy that propagates through matter as a wave. ... This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ... In a sensory system, a sensory receptor is a structure that recognizes a stimulus in the internal or external environment of an organism. ...


In the memory-prediction framework, Jeff Hawkins mentions a correspondence between the six layers of the cerebral cortex and the six layers of the optic tract of the visual system. The primary visual cortex has areas labelled V1, V2, V3, V4, V5, MT, IT, etc. Thus Area V1 mentioned below, is meant to signify only one class of cells in the brain, for which there can be many other cells which are also engaged in vision. The memory-prediction framework is a theory of brain function that was created by Jeff Hawkins and described in his book On Intelligence. ... Jeff Hawkins (born June 1, 1957 in Huntington, New York) is the founder of Palm Computing (where he invented the Palm Pilot) [1] and Handspring (where he invented the Treo). ... For other uses, see Cortex. ... The optic tract is a part of the visual system in the brain. ... The visual system is the part of the nervous system which allows organisms to see. ... Brodmann area 17 (primary visual cortex) is shown in red in this image which also shows area 18 (orange) and 19 (yellow) The primary visual cortex (usually called V1) is the most well-studied visual area in the brain. ...


Hawkins lays out a scheme for the analogous modalities of the sensory system. Note that there can be many types of senses, some not mentioned here. In particular, for humans, there will be cells which can be labelled as belonging to V1, V2 A1, A2, etc.: This article is about modern humans. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the...


V1 (vision)

Visual Area 1, or V1, is used for vision, via the visual system to the primary visual cortex. See the illustration above. The visual system is the part of the nervous system which allows organisms to see. ... Brodmann area 17 (primary visual cortex) is shown in red in this image which also shows area 18 (orange) and 19 (yellow) The primary visual cortex (usually called V1) is the most well-studied visual area in the brain. ...

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1416x2032, 333 KB) Summary this photo was taken by myself Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1416x2032, 333 KB) Summary this photo was taken by myself Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... For other uses, see Ear (disambiguation). ...

A1 (auditory - hearing)

Auditory Area 1, or A1, is for hearing, via the auditory system, the primary auditory cortex. The auditory system is the sensory system for the sense of hearing. ... The primary auditory cortex is the region of the brain that is responsible for processing of auditory (sound) information. ...


S1 (somatosensory - touch)

Somatosensory Area 1, or S1, is for touch and proprioception in the somatosensory system. The somatosensory system feeds the Brodmann Areas 3, 1 and 2 of the primary somatosensory cortex. But there are also pathways for proprioception (via the cerebellum), and motor control (via Brodmann area 4). This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... // Proprioception (PRO-pree-o-SEP-shun (IPA pronunciation: ); from Latin proprius, meaning ones own and perception) is the sense of the relative position of neighbouring parts of the body. ... Somatic sensation consists of the various sensory receptors that trigger the experiences labelled as touch or pressure, temperature (warm or cold), pain (including itch and tickle), and the sensations of muscle movement and joint position including posture, movement, and facial expression (collectively also called proprioception). ... The lateral postcentral gyrus is a prominent structure in the parietal lobe of the human brain and an important landmark. ... The lateral postcentral gyrus is a prominent structure in the parietal lobe of the human brain and an important landmark. ... // Proprioception (PRO-pree-o-SEP-shun (IPA pronunciation: ); from Latin proprius, meaning ones own and perception) is the sense of the relative position of neighbouring parts of the body. ... The cerebellum (Latin: little brain) is a region of the brain that plays an important role in the integration of sensory perception and motor output. ... In vertebrates, the term motor neuron (or motoneuron) classically applies to neurons located in the central nervous system (CNS) which project their axons outside the CNS and directly or indirectly control muscles. ... Look up control in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Brodmann area 4 of human brain. ...

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (564x645, 193 KB) One of a series of common objects I photographed in the summer of 2005 to illustrate simple:Basic English picture wordlist. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (564x645, 193 KB) One of a series of common objects I photographed in the summer of 2005 to illustrate simple:Basic English picture wordlist. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...

G1 (gustatory - taste)

Gustatory Area 1, or G1, is used for taste. The gustatory system is the sensory system that uses taste buds (or lingual papillae) on the upper surface of the tongue to provide information about the taste of food being eaten. ...


O1 (olfactory - smell)

The olfactory bulbs are the most highly developed part of this Tyrannosaurus rex's brain.

Olfactory Area 1, or O1, is used for smell. In contrast to vision and hearing, the olfactory bulbs are not cross-hemispheric; the right bulb connects to the right hemisphere and the left bulb connects to the left hemisphere. CT scan of Sue, Tyrannosaurus rexs brain - the olfactory bulbs are the most highly developed part. ... CT scan of Sue, Tyrannosaurus rexs brain - the olfactory bulbs are the most highly developed part. ... Binomial name Tyrannosaurus rex Osborn, 1905 Synonyms Manospondylus gigas Dynamosaurus imperiosus Dinotyrannus megagracilis Nanotyrannus lancensis? Tyrannosaurus (IPA pronunciation or ; from the Greek τυραννόσαυρος, meaning tyrant lizard) is a genus of tyrannosaurid theropod dinosaur. ... The olfactory bulb is a structure of the vertebrate forebrain involved in olfaction, the perception of odors. ...


Human sensory system

The Human sensory system consists of the following sub-systems:

Human sensory receptors are: The visual system is the part of the nervous system which allows organisms to see. ... A photoreceptor, or photoreceptor cell, is a specialized type of neuron found in the eyes retina that is capable of phototransduction. ... The auditory system is the sensory system for the sense of hearing. ... Somatic sensation consists of the various sensory receptors that trigger the experiences labelled as touch or pressure, temperature (warm or cold), pain (including itch and tickle), and the sensations of muscle movement and joint position including posture, movement, and facial expression (collectively also called proprioception). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... Pain redirects here. ... An itch (Latin: pruritus) is an uncomfortable sensation felt on an area of skin that causes a person or animal to desire to scratch that area. ... While not moving, a human can be in one of the following main positions. ... In a general sense, locomotion simply means active movement or travel, applying not just to biological individuals. ... Taste is one of the most common and fundamental of the senses in life on Earth. ... Olfaction (also known as olfactics) refers to the sense of smell. ... In a sensory system, a sensory receptor is a structure that recognizes a stimulus in the internal or external environment of an organism. ...

A Chemosensor, also known as chemoreceptor, is a cell or group of cells that transduce a chemical signal into an action potential. ... A mechanoreceptor is a sensory receptor that responds to mechanical pressure or distortion. ... A nociceptor is a sensory receptor that sends signals that cause the perception of pain in response to potentially damaging stimulus. ... A photoreceptor, or photoreceptor cell, is a specialized type of neuron found in the eyes retina that is capable of phototransduction. ... A thermoreceptor is a sensory receptor that responds to temperature, primarily within the innocuous range. ... The Human Nervous System. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... The human brain In animals, the brain (enkephalos) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... The Spinal cord nested in the vertebral column. ... The Peripheral nervous system resides or extends outside the CNS central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) to serve the limbs and organs. ... The somatic nervous system is that part of the peripheral nervous system associated with the voluntary control of body movements through the action of skeletal muscles, and also reception of external stimuli. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) is a branch of the autonomic nervous system. ... Autonomic nervous system innervation, showing the sympathetic and parasympathetic (craniosacral) systems, in red and blue, respectively The parasympathetic nervous system is one of three divisions of the autonomic nervous system. ... The enteric nervous system (ENS) is an interdependent part of the autonomic nervous system. ... The Human Nervous System. ... Senses are the physiological methods of perception. ... The traditional five senses in human kind are the senses of vision, hearing, taste, and smell, and touch. ... The visual system is the part of the nervous system which allows organisms to see. ... In psychology, visual perception is the ability to interpret visible light information reaching the eyes which is then made available for planning and action. ... The auditory system is the sensory system for the sense of hearing. ... Hearing (or audition) is one of the traditional five senses, and refers to the ability to detect sound. ... A Chemosensor, also known as chemoreceptor, is a cell or group of cells that transduce a chemical signal into an action potential. ... The olfactory system is the sensory system used for olfaction. ... Olfaction (also known as olfactics) refers to the sense of smell. ... The gustatory system is the sensory system that uses taste buds (or lingual papillae) on the upper surface of the tongue to provide information about the taste of food being eaten. ... For the social and aesthetic aspects of taste, see taste (sociology). ... Somatic sensation consists of the various sensory receptors that trigger the experiences labelled as touch or pressure, temperature (warm or cold), pain (including itch and tickle), and the sensations of muscle movement and joint position including posture, movement, and facial expression (collectively also called proprioception). ... A nociceptor is a sensory receptor that sends signals that cause the perception of pain in response to potentially damaging stimulus. ... A thermoreceptor is a sensory receptor that responds to temperature, primarily within the innocuous range. ... It has been suggested that Equilibrioception be merged into this article or section. ... A mechanoreceptor is a sensory receptor that responds to mechanical pressure or distortion. ... This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ... Oscillation is the variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibrium) or between two or more different states. ... // Proprioception (PRO-pree-o-SEP-shun (IPA pronunciation: ); from Latin proprius, meaning ones own and perception) is the sense of the relative position of neighbouring parts of the body. ... In a sensory system, a sensory receptor is a structure that recognizes a stimulus in the internal or external environment of an organism. ... For other uses, see System (disambiguation). ... Systems science is the science of complex systems. ... Systems science is a term in use since the 1960s that refers to the field of science surrounding systems theory, cybernetics, the science of complex systems. ... For other uses, see Life (disambiguation), Lives (disambiguation) or Living (disambiguation), Living Things (disambiguation) Look up life, living in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... There are many definitions of complexity, therefore many natural, artificial and abstract objects or networks can be considered to be complex systems, and their study (complexity science) is highly interdisciplinary. ... Complex adaptive systems are special cases of complex systems. ... A conceptual system is a system that is comprised of non-physical objects, i. ... Cultural system refers to the functional interaction between the different elements of culture in a particular manner. ... The Lorenz attractor is an example of a non-linear dynamical system. ... An economic system is a particular set of social institutions which deals with the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services in a particular society. ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... In logic and mathematics, a formal system consists of two components, a formal language plus a set of inference rules or transformation rules. ... GPS redirects here. ... List of bones of the human skeleton Human anatomy is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the adult human body. ... Information System (example) An Information System (IS) is the system of persons, data records and activities that process the data and information in a given organization, including manual processes or automated processes. ... The International System of Units (symbol: SI) (for the French phrase Syst me International dUnit s) is the most widely used system of units. ... The Human Nervous System. ... In mathematics, a nonlinear system is one whose behavior cant be expressed as a sum of the behaviors of its parts (or of their multiples. ... An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer and provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. ... A physical system is a system that is comprised of matter and energy. ... A political system is a system of politics and government. ... See Social structure of the United States for an explanation of concepts exsistance within US society. ... This article is about the Solar System. ... For other uses, see System (disambiguation). ... A system of measurement is a set of units which can be used to specify anything which can be measured and were historically important, regulated and defined because of trade and internal commerce. ... For other uses, see Chaos Theory (disambiguation). ... Complex systems have a number of properties, some of which are listed below. ... For control theory in psychology and sociology, see control theory (sociology). ... For other uses, see Cybernetics (disambiguation). ... Holism in science, or Holistic science, is an approach to research that emphasizes the study of complex systems. ... Sociotechnical systems theory is theory about the social aspects of people and society and technical aspects of machines and technology. ... Systems biology is a term used very widely in the biosciences, particularly from the year 2000 onwards, and in a variety of contexts. ... System dynamics is an approach to understanding the behaviour of complex systems over time. ... Systems Ecology is a transdiscipline which studies ecological systems, or ecosystems. ... Systems engineering techniques are used in complex projects: from spacecrafts to chip design, from robotics to creating large software products to building bridges, Systems engineering uses a host of tools that include modeling & simulation, requirements analysis, and scheduling to manage complexity Systems Engineering (SE) is an interdisciplinary approach and means... Systems theory is an interdisciplinary field of science. ... Systems science is the science of complex systems. ... Russell Lincoln Ackoff (born 12 February 1919) is a Professor Emeritus of the Wharton School in operations research and systems theory. ... William Ross Ashby (September 6, 1903, London, England - November 15, 1972) was a British psychiatrist and a pioneer in the study of complex systems. ... Gregory Bateson (9 May 1904–4 July 1980) was a British anthropologist, social scientist, linguist and cyberneticist whose work intersected that of many other fields. ... Karl Ludwig von Bertalanffy (September 19, 1901, Vienna, Austria - June 12, 1972, New York, USA) was a biologist who was a founder of general systems theory--which he literally translated from the mathematization of Nicolai Hartmanns Ontology as stated by himself in his seminal work-- .An Austrian citizen, he... Kenneth E. Boulding Kenneth Ewart Boulding (January 18, 1910 - March 18, 1993) was an economist, educator, peace activist, poet, religious mystic, devoted Quaker, systems scientist, and interdisciplinary philosopher. ... British academic Peter Checkland is the developer of soft-systems methodology (SSM) in the field of systems thinking. ... Charles West Churchman (born August 29, 1913 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, died March 21, 2004 Bolinas, California) was an American philospher in the field of management science, operations research and systems theory. ... He is a twat He was born in Vienna and died in Pescadero, California. ... Charles François is a Belgian citizen, born 1922 and retired from the Belgian Foreign Service since 1987. ... Jay Wright Forrester (born 14 July 1918 Climax, Nebraska) is an American pioneer of computer engineering. ... Ralph Waldo Gerard (7 October 1900, Harvey, Illinois - 17 February 1974) was an American neurophysiologist and behavioral scientist known for his wide-ranging work on the nervous system, nerve metabolism, psychopharmacology, and biological bases of schizophrenia [1]. // Gerard was born in Harvey, Illinois at the beginning of the 20th century. ... Debora Hammond down the Green River in Canyonlands National Park Debora Hammond is an American systems theorist, working as an Associate Professor professor Interdisciplinary Studies of the Hutchins School of Liberal Studies at the Sonoma State University. ... George Jiri Klir (1932 Prague, Czechoslovakia) is an Czech-American computer scientist and professor of systems sciences at the Center for Intelligent Systems at the Binghamton University in New York. ... Niklas Luhmann (December 8, 1927 - November 6, 1998) was a German sociologist, administration expert, and social systems theorist, as well as one the most prominent modern day thinkers in the sociological systems theory. ... Humberto Maturana (born September 14, 1928 in Santiago) is a Chilean biologist whose work crosses over into philosophy and cognitive science. ... Donella Dana Meadows (March 13, 1941 Elgin, Illinois, USA - February 20, 2001, New Hampshire) was a pioneering environmental scientist, a teacher and writer. ... Mihajlo D. Mesarovic (1928) is a Yugoslavian scientist, who was professor of Systems Engineering and Mathematics at Case Western Reserve University. ... Howard Thomas Odum (1924-2002), commonly known as H.T. Odum or Tom Odum, was an eminent American ecosystem ecologist and a professor at the University of Florida. ... Talcott Parsons Talcott Edgar Frederick Parsons (December 13, 1902–May 8, 1979) was for many years the best-known sociologist in the United States, and indeed one of the best-known in the world. ... Ilya Prigogine (January 25, 1917 – May 28, 2003) was a Belgian physicist and chemist noted for his work on dissipative structures, complex systems, and irreversibility. ... Anatol Rapoport (born May 22, 1911) is a Russian-born American Jewish, mathematical psychologist. ... Francisco Varela (Santiago, September 7, 1946 – May 28, 2001, Paris) was a Chilean biologist and philosopher who, together with his teacher Humberto Maturana, is best known for introducing the concept of autopoiesis to biology. ... JOHN N. WARFIELD The career of John Warfield has been described as passing through four phases: Phase 1: Electrical engineering faculty member: 1948-1965 Phase 2: Starting a systems science research career path: 1966-1980 Phase 3: Accruing evidence and developing components of systems science: 1980-2000 Phase 4: Aggregating... Norbert Wiener Norbert Wiener (November 26, 1894, Columbia, Missouri – March 18, 1964, Stockholm Sweden) was an American theoretical and applied mathematician. ...

References

  1. ^ Kolb & Whishaw: Fundamentals of Human Neuropsychology (2003)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Sensory system - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (627 words)
A sensory system consists of sensory receptors, neural pathways, and parts of the brain involved in sensory perception.
In the memory-prediction framework, Jeff Hawkins mentions a correspondence between the six layers of the cerebral cortex and the six layers of the optic tract of the visual system.
The somatosensory system feeds the Brodmann Areas 3, 1 and 2 of the primary somatosensory cortex.
The Somatic Sensory System (3249 words)
All sensory systems are organized in more or less the same way, so I'll first introduce some general principles of how the sensory nervous system works and then focus on the kinds of sensation that are detected by the somatic sensory (or somatosensory) system.
In somatic sensory neurons, the trigger zone is usually adjacent to the receptive region of the neuron, so activation of the receptive region may cause an action potential that is then propagated all the way to the synapses that the sensory neurons make onto other neurons in the spinal cord.
The sensory endings of the axons that enter a given dorsal root are normally clustered together on the surface of the body.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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