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Encyclopedia > Sensor

A sensor is a type of transducer. Direct-indicating sensors, for example, a mercury thermometer, are human-readable. Other sensors, such as a thermocouple, only produce an output voltage or other electrical output which must be interpreted by another device (such as a computer). Most sensors are electrical or electronic, although other types exist. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Distinguish from slover, censer and censor. ... A censer is a vessel for burning incense. ... For omission and secrecy, see censorship. ... A detector is a device that recovers information of interest contained in a modulated wave. ... A transducer is a device, usually electrical or electronic, that converts one type of energy to another. ... A mercury-in-glass thermometer is a thermometer consisting of mercury, in a glass tube. ... In electronics, thermocouples are a widely used type of temperature sensor and can also be used as a means to convert thermal potential difference into electric potential difference. ... Electricity (from New Latin Ä“lectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ... This article is about the engineering discipline. ...


Sensors are used in everyday objects such as touch-sensitive elevator buttons and lamps which dim or brighten by touching the base. There are also innumerable applications for sensors of which most people are never aware. Applications include automobiles, machines, aerospace, medicine, industry, and robotics.


A sensor's sensitivity indicates how much the sensor's output changes when the measured quantity changes. For instance, if the mercury in a thermometer moves 1cm when the temperature changes by 1°, the sensitivity is 1cm/1°. Sensors that measure very small changes must have very high sensitivities.


Technological progress allows more and more sensors to be manufactured on a microscopic scale as microsensors using MEMS technology. In most cases, a microsensor reaches a significantly higher speed and sensitivity compared with macroscopic approaches. See also MEMS sensor generations. A microscope (Greek: micron = small and scopos = aim) is an instrument for viewing objects that are too small to be seen by the naked or unaided eye. ... A mite next to a gear set produced using MEMS. Courtesy Sandia National Laboratories, SUMMiTTM Technologies, www. ... Macroscopic is commonly used to describe physical objects that are measurable and observable by the naked eye. ... MEMS sensor generations represent the progress made in micro sensor technology and can be categorized as follows: 1st Generation MEMS sensor element mostly based on a silicon structure, sometimes combined with analog amplification on a micro chip. ...

Contents

Types

Because sensors are a type of transducer, they change one form of energy into another. For this reason, sensors can be classified according to the type of energy transfer that they detect.


Thermal

For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... A common mercury thermometer A thermometer is a device that measures temperature or temperature gradient, using a variety of different principles. ... In electronics, thermocouples are a widely used type of temperature sensor and can also be used as a means to convert thermal potential difference into electric potential difference. ... NTC thermistor, bead type, insulated wires Thermistor symbol A thermistor is a type of resistor used to measure temperature changes, relying on the change in its resistance with changing temperature. ... A resistance temperature detector measures the relationship between electrical resistance and temperature. ... thermocouple and Peltier_Seebeck effect. ... Bi-metallic thermostat for buildings A thermostat is a device for regulating the temperature of a system so that the systems temperature is maintained near a desired setpoint temperature. ... For other uses, see Heat (disambiguation) In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in temperature. ... Rendition of an imaging bolometer from Los Alamos National Laboratory A bolometer is a device for measuring incident electromagnetic radiation. ... A calorimeter is a device used for calorimetry, the science of measuring the heat of chemical reactions or physical changes as well as heat capacity. ...

Electromagnetic

Electricity (from New Latin ēlectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ... An Ohmmeter is an electrical measuring instrument that measures electrical resistance, the opposition to the flow of an electric current. ... A digital multimeter A low cost digital multimeter An analog benchtop multimeter A multimeter or a multitester is an electronic measuring instrument that combines several functions in one unit. ... Electricity (from New Latin ēlectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ... Wire carrying current to be measured Restoring spring N and S are poles of magnet A galvanometer is a type of ammeter — an instrument for detecting and measuring electric current. ... Wire carrying current to be measured Spring providing restoring force An ammeter is a measuring instrument used to measure the flow of electric current in a circuit. ... Electricity (from New Latin ēlectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ... An electrometer is an electrical instrument for measuring electric charge or electrical potential difference. ... Two digital voltmeters. ... Electricity (from New Latin ēlectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ... Typical US domestic electricity meter An electricity meter is generally taken to be a device which measures the amount of electrical energy supplied to a customer of an electricity company. ... For other senses of this word, see magnetism (disambiguation). ... This article is about the navigational tool. ... Fluxgate Compass The basic fluxgate compass is a simple electromagnetic device that employs two small coils of wire to directly sense the horizontal component of the earths magnetic field. ... A magnetometer is a scientific instrument used to measure the strength and/or direction of the magnetic field in the vicinity of the instrument. ... Hall effect diagram, showing electron flow (rather than conventional current). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Inductive sensor. ... For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ...

Mechanical

This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ... Diagram showing the face of a three-pointer sensitive aircraft altimeter displaying altitude in feet. ... A barometer is an instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure. ... A barograph is a recording aneroid barometer. ... Many techniques have been developed for the measurement of reduced or increased pressures. ... Airspeed Indicator The airspeed indicator is an instrument used in an aircraft to display the crafts airspeed, typically in knots to the pilot. ... A variometer (also known as a rate-of-climb indicator, a vertical speed indicator (VSI), or a vertical velocity indicator (VVI)) is an instrument in an aircraft used to inform the pilot of the rate of descent or climb. ... The term Variometer also refers to a type of tunable electrical transformer // Definition A variometer (also known as a rate-of-climb indicator, a vertical speed indicator (VSI), or a vertical velocity indicator (VVI)) is an instrument in an aircraft used to inform the pilot of the rate of descent... Gas phase particles (atoms, molecules, or ions) move around freely Gas is one of the four major states of matter, consisting of freely moving atoms or molecules without a definite shape and without a definite volume. ... For other uses, see Liquid (disambiguation). ... A flow sensor is a device for sensing the rate of fluid flow. ... A hemispherical cup anemometer of the type invented in 2000 by John Thomas Romney Robinson An anemometer is a device for measuring the velocity or the pressure of the wind, and is one instrument used in a weather station. ... Flow measurement is the quantification of bulk fluid or gas movement. ... A residential gas meter of the usual diaphragm style A gas meter is used to measure the flow of fuel gases such as natural gas and propane. ... A typical residential water meter A water meter is a device used to measure water usage. ... A mass flow sensor responds to the amount of a fluid (usually a gas) flowing through a chamber containing the sensor. ... Gas phase particles (atoms, molecules, or ions) move around freely Gas is one of the four major states of matter, consisting of freely moving atoms or molecules without a definite shape and without a definite volume. ... For other uses, see Liquid (disambiguation). ... A viscometer (also called viscosimeter) is an instrument used to measure the viscosity of a fluid. ... A hydrometer is an instrument used for determining the specific gravity of liquids. ... Digital density measuring principle Digital density meter with oscillating U-tube installed With the oscillating U-tube principle, the density of liquids and gases is determined based on an electronic measurement of the frequency of oscillation, from which the density value is calculated. ... For other uses, see Mechanic (disambiguation). ... A depiction of an accelerometer designed at Sandia National Laboratories. ... A position sensor is any device that enables position measurement. ... The synchro is a type of rotary electrical transformer that is used for measuring the angle of a rotating machine such as an antenna platform. ... Electrical switches. ... Typical foil strain gauge. ... Humidity is the amount of water vapor in air. ... The interior of a Stevenson screen showing a motorized psychrometer Hygrometers are instruments used for measuring humidity. ...

Chemical

For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... // An oxygen sensor is an electronic device that measures the proportion of oxygen (O2) in the gas or liquid being analyzed. ... An ion selective electrode (ISE) is an electrode designed to respond to only one type of ion. ... Glass electrode is a potentiometric sensor made from glass of f specific composition. ... A redox electrode is an electrode made from electron-conductive material and characterized by high chemical stability in the solution under test. ... Carbon Monoxide detector connected to a North American power outlet. ...

Optical radiation

  • light time-of-flight. Used in modern surveying equipment, a short pulse of light is emitted and returned by a retroreflector. The return time of the pulse is proportional to the distance and is related to atmospheric density in a predictable way - see LIDAR.
  • infra-red sensor, especially used as occupancy sensor for lighting and environmental controls.
  • proximity sensor- A type of distance sensor but less sophisticated. Only detects a specific proximity. May be optical - combination of a photocell and LED or laser. Applications in cell phones, paper detector in photocopiers, auto power standby/shutdown mode in notebooks and other devices. May employ a magnet and a Hall effect device.
  • scanning laser- A narrow beam of laser light is scanned over the scene by a mirror. A photocell sensor located at an offset responds when the beam is reflected from an object to the sensor, whence the distance is calculated by triangulation.
  • focus. A large aperture lens may be focused by a servo system. The distance to an in-focus scene element may be determined by the lens setting.
  • binocular. Two images gathered on a known baseline are brought into coincidence by a system of mirrors and prisms. The adjustment is used to determine distance. Used in some cameras (called range-finder cameras) and on a larger scale in early battleship range-finders
  • interferometry. Interference fringes between transmitted and reflected lightwaves produced by a coherent source such as a laser are counted and the distance is calculated. Capable of extremely high precision.
  • short path optical interception - detection device consists of a light-emitting diode illuminating a phototransistor, with the end position of a mechanical device detected by a moving flag intercepting the optical path, useful for determining an initial position for mechanisms driven by stepper motors.

A FASOR used at the Starfire Optical Range for LIDAR and laser guide star experiments is tuned to the sodium D2a line and used to excite sodium atoms in the upper atmosphere. ... For other uses, see Light (disambiguation). ... Photosensors or photodetectors appear in several varieties: Photoresistors or Light Dependant Resistors (LDR) which change resistance when illuminated Photovoltaic cells or solar cells which produce a voltage and supply an electric current when illuminated Photodiodes which can operate in photovoltaic mode or photoconductive mode Phototubes containing a photocathode which emits... A semiconductor is a solid whose electrical conductivity is in between that of a conductor and that of an insulator, and can be controlled over a wide range, either permanently or dynamically. ... A photoresistor is an electronic component whose resistance decreases with increasing incident light intensity. ... Photodiode closeup A photodiode A photodiode is a semiconductor diode that functions as a photodetector. ... The fact that traditional transistors (these days called “Bipolar Junction Transistors” or BJTs) are photosensitive has been known ever since they were invented. ... A specially developed CCD used for ultraviolet imaging in a wire bonded package. ... A dismantled USB webcam, with and without a lens over its (Bayer format) image sensor. ... Structure of a vacuum tube diode Structure of a vacuum tube triode In electronics, a vacuum tube, electron tube, or (outside North America) thermionic valve or just valve, is a device used to amplify, switch or modify a signal by controlling the movement of electrons in an evacuated space. ... A diagram illustrating the emission of electrons from a metal plate, requiring energy gained from an incoming photon to be more than the work function of the material. ... Photomultipliers, or photomultiplier tubes (PMT) are extremely sensitive detectors of light in the ultraviolet, visible and near infrared. ... A Nichols radiometer is the apparatus used by Nichols and Hull in 1901 for the measurement of radiation pressure. ... Image of a small dog taken in mid-infrared (thermal) light (false color) Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength longer than visible light, but shorter than microwave radiation. ... Not to be confused with lightning. ... Proximity sensors are sensors able to detect the presence of near objects without any physical contact. ... Distance is a numerical description of how far apart objects are at any given moment in time. ... Hall effect diagram, showing electron flow (rather than conventional current). ... Triangulation can be used to find the distance from the shore to the ship. ... It has been suggested that Optical interferometry be merged into this article or section. ... Coherence is the property of wave-like states that enables them to exhibit interference. ... For other uses, see Laser (disambiguation). ... A Scintillometer is a scientific device used to measure atmospheric optical disturbances called scintillations, which are caused by fluctuations of the refractive index of air. ... Optical fibers An optical fiber (or fibre) is a glass or plastic fiber designed to guide light along its length. ... “LED” redirects here. ... Photodiode closeup A photodiode A photodiode is a semiconductor diode that functions as a photodetector. ... Because of induction of the windings, power requirements, and temperature management some glue circuitry is necessary between digital controller and motor. ...

Ionising radiation

For other uses, see Radiation (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A dosimeter is any device used to measure an individuals exposure to a hazardous environment, particularly when the hazard is cumulative over long intervals of time, or ones lifetime. ... A scintillation counter measures ionizing radiation. ... Neutron detection is the effective detection of neutrons entering a well-positioned laboratory detector. ... Helium atom (schematic) Showing two protons (red), two neutrons (green) and two electrons (yellow). ... The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is an example of a large particle detector. ... A scintillator is a device or substance that absorbs high energy (ionizing) electromagnetic or charged particle radiation then, in response, fluoresces photons at a characteristic Stokes-shifted (longer) wavelength, releasing the previously absorbed energy. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Discovery of the positron in 1932 by Carl D. Anderson in a cloud chamber The cloud chamber, also known as the Wilson chamber, is used for detecting particles of ionizing radiation. ... A bubble chamber A bubble chamber is a vessel filled with a superheated transparent liquid used to detect electrically charged particles moving through it. ...

Acoustic

  • acoustic : uses ultrasound time-of-flight echo return. Used in mid 20th century polaroid cameras and applied also to robotics. Even older systems like Fathometers (and fish finders) and other 'Tactical Active' Sonar (Sound Navigation And Ranging) systems in naval applications which mostly use audible sound frequencies.
  • sound sensors : microphones, hydrophones, seismometers.

Acoustics is the branch of physics concerned with the study of sound (mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids). ... For other uses, see Ultrasound (disambiguation). ... This article is about underwater sound propagation. ... This article is about audible acoustic waves. ... Microphones redirects here. ... A hydrophone is a sound-to-electricity transducer for use in water or other liquids, analogous to a microphone for air. ... Seismometers (in Greek seismos = earthquake and metero = measure) are used by seismologists to measure and record the size and force of seismic waves. ...

Other types

This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... U.S. Army soldier uses a radar gun to catch speeding violators at Tallil Air Base, Iraq. ... Speedometer gauge on a car, showing the speed of the vehicle in miles and kilometres per hour on the out– and inside respectively. ... Tachometer showing engine RPM (revolutions per minute), and a redline from 6000 and 7000 RPM. A tachometer is an instrument that measures the speed of rotation of a shaft or disk, as in a motor or other machine. ... A modern non-digital odometer A Smiths speedometer from the 1920s showing odometer and trip meter An odometer is a device used for indicating distance traveled by an automobile or other vehicle. ... ... The turn coordinator is an aircraft instrument which displays to a pilot information about his rate of turn, rate of roll, and the quality or coordination of the turn. ... Orientation can refer to different things. ... A gyroscope For other uses, see Gyroscope (disambiguation). ... This article or section should be merged with Attitude indicator The term Artificial Horizon is used to describe devices that can indicate the position of the horizon when it is not possible to see the actual horizon. ... A ring laser gyroscope uses interference of laser light within a bulk optic ring to detect changes in orientation and spin. ... Distance is a numerical description of how far apart objects are at any given moment in time. ... Magnetostriction is a property of ferromagnetic materials that causes them to change their shape when subjected to a magnetic field. ...

Non Initialized systems

  • Gray code strip or wheel- a number of photodetectors can sense a pattern, creating a binary number. The gray code is a mutated pattern that ensures that only one bit of information changes with each measured step, thus avoiding ambiguities.

The reflected binary code, also known as Gray code after Frank Gray, is a binary numeral system where two successive values differ in only one digit. ...

Initialized systems

These require starting from a known distance and accumulate incremental changes in measurements.

  • Quadrature wheel- A disk-shaped optical mask is driven by a gear train. Two photocells detecting light passing through the mask can determine a partial revolution of the mask and the direction of that rotation.
  • whisker sensor- A type of touch sensor and proximity sensor.

There are several kinds of whisker: Look up whisker in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Classification of measurement errors

A good sensor obeys the following rules:

  1. the sensor should be sensitive to the measured property
  2. the sensor should be insensitive to any other property
  3. the sensor should not influence the measured property

Ideal sensors are designed to be linear. The output signal of such a sensor is linearly proportional to the value of the measured property. The sensitivity is then defined as the ratio between output signal and measured property. For example, if a sensor measures temperature and has a voltage output, the sensitivity is a constant with the unit [V/K]; this sensor is linear because the ratio is constant at all points of measurement. For other uses, see Linear (disambiguation). ... See: Sensitivity (electronics) Sensitivity (human) Sensitivity (tests) For sensitivity in finance, see beta coefficient This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


If the sensor is not ideal, several types of deviations can be observed:

  • The sensitivity may in practice differ from the value specified. This is called a sensitivity error, but the sensor is still linear.
  • Since the range of the output signal is always limited, the output signal will eventually reach a minimum or maximum when the measured property exceeds the limits. The full scale range defines the maximum and minimum values of the measured property.
  • If the output signal is not zero when the measured property is zero, the sensor has an offset or bias. This is defined as the output of the sensor at zero input.
  • If the sensitivity is not constant over the range of the sensor, this is called nonlinearity. Usually this is defined by the amount the output differs from ideal behavior over the full range of the sensor, often noted as a percentage of the full range.
  • If the deviation is caused by a rapid change of the measured property over time, there is a dynamic error. Often, this behaviour is described with a bode plot showing sensitivity error and phase shift as function of the frequency of a periodic input signal.
  • If the output signal slowly changes independent of the measured property, this is defined as drift.
  • Long term drift usually indicates a slow degradation of sensor properties over a long period of time.
  • Noise is a random deviation of the signal that varies in time.
  • Hysteresis is an error caused by when the measured property reverses direction, but there is some finite lag in time for the sensor to respond, creating a different offset error in one direction than in the other.
  • If the sensor has a digital output, the output is essentially an approximation of the measured property. The approximation error is also called digitization error.
  • If the signal is monitored digitally, limitation of the sampling frequency also can cause a dynamic error.
  • The sensor may to some extent be sensitive to properties other than the property being measured. For example, most sensors are influenced by the temperature of their environment.

All these deviations can be classified as systematic errors or random errors. Systematic errors can sometimes be compensated for by means of some kind of calibration strategy. Noise is a random error that can be reduced by signal processing, such as filtering, usually at the expense of the dynamic behaviour of the sensor. See: Sensitivity (electronics) Sensitivity (human) Sensitivity (tests) For sensitivity in finance, see beta coefficient This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... In computer science, an offset within an array or other data structure object is an integer indicating the distance (displacement) from the beginning of the object up until a given element or point, presumably within the same object. ... For other senses of this word, see bias (disambiguation). ... In mathematics, a nonlinear system is one whose behavior cant be expressed as a sum of the behaviors of its parts (or of their multiples. ... In physics, dynamics is the branch of classical mechanics that is concerned with the effects of forces on the motion of objects. ... The Bode plot for a first-order Butterworth filter A Bode plot, named after Hendrik Wade Bode, is usually a combination of a Bode magnitude plot and Bode phase plot: A Bode magnitude plot is a graph of log magnitude against log frequency often used in signal processing to show... Drift may refer to: Look up drift in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about noise as in sound. ... A system with hysteresis exhibits path-dependence, or rate-independent memory. Consider a deterministic system with no hysteresis and no dynamics. ... Digitizing, or digitization, is the process of turning an analog signal into a digital representation of that signal. ... The sampling frequency or sampling rate defines the number of samples per second taken from a continuous signal to make a discrete signal. ... Systematic errors are biases in measurement which lead to measured values being systematically too high or too low. ... In statistics, the concepts of error and residual are easily confused with each other. ... calibration refers to the process of determining the relation between the output (or response) of a measuring instrument and the value of the input quantity or attribute, a measurement standard. ... Signal processing is the processing, amplification and interpretation of signals, and deals with the analysis and manipulation of signals. ...


Resolution

The resolution of a sensor is the smallest change it can detect in the quantity that it is measuring. Often in a digital display, the least significant digit will fluctuate, indicating that changes of that magnitude are only just resolved. The resolution is related to the precision with which the measurement is made. For example, a scanning probe (a fine tip near a surface collects an electron tunnelling current) can resolve atoms and molecules. A display device is a device for visual presentation of images (including text) acquired, stored, or transmitted in various forms. ... “Accuracy” redirects here. ... Image of reconstruction on a clean Au(100) surface. ... Properties For other meanings of Atom, see Atom (disambiguation). ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ...


Biological sensors

All living organisms contain biological sensors with functions similar to those of the mechanical devices described. Most of these are specialized cells that are sensitive to:

Artificial sensors that mimic biological sensors by using a biological sensitive component, are called biosensors. Magnetic field lines shown by iron filings Magnetostatics Electrodynamics Electrical Network Tensors in Relativity This box:      In physics, the magnetic field is a field that permeates space and which exerts a magnetic force on moving electric charges and magnetic dipoles. ... Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ... Humidity is the amount of water vapor in air. ... Oscillation is the variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibrium) or between two or more different states. ... In physics, an electric field or E-field is an effect produced by an electric charge that exerts a force on charged objects in its vicinity. ... This article is about audible acoustic waves. ... An actively stretching Siberian tiger Cat stretching in utterly relaxed position Stretching, as theorized in literature, is the deliberate act of lengthening of muscles, in order to increase muscle flexibility and/or joint range of motion (Weerapong et al 189-206). ... // Proprioception (PRO-pree-o-SEP-shun (IPA pronunciation: ); from Latin proprius, meaning ones own and perception) is the sense of the relative position of neighbouring parts of the body. ... For other uses, see Toxin (disambiguation). ... A nutrient is either a chemical element or compound used in an organisms metabolism or physiology. ... Fanning honeybee exposes Nasonov gland (white-at tip of abdomen) releasing pheromone to entice swarm into an empty hive A pheromone is a chemical that triggers an innate behavioural response in another member of the same species. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... When substances are dissolved, the number of distinct particles in solution is measured as Osmolality. ... For other uses, see Hormone (disambiguation). ... Chemical structure of D-aspartic acid, a common amino acid neurotransmitter. ... Cytokines are a group of proteins and peptides that are used in organisms as signaling compounds. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Look up artificial in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A biosensor is a device for the detection of an analyte that combines a biological component with a physicochemical detector component. ...


The human senses are examples of specialized neuronal sensors. See Sense. This article is about modern humans. ... Senses Senses are a UK based alternative rock band from Coventry. ... This article is about cells in the nervous system. ... Senses are the physiological methods of perception. ...


Geodetic sensors

Geodetic measuring devices measure georeferenced displacements or movements in one, two or three dimensions. It includes the use of instruments such as total stations, levels and global navigation satellite system receivers. A total station is an optical instrument used in modern surveying. ... Dumpy level in use on a construction site Leveler for use by hand A dumpy level, builders auto level, leveling instrument or automatic level is an optical instrument used in surveying and building to transfer, measure, or set horizontal levels. ... GNSS - Global Navigation Satellite System In 1994 in a meeting of the ECAC, a satellite strategy was approved, with as targets: - firstly developing items for an European supplement on the current satellite systems, now called GNSS-1 - secondly designing and defining future satellite systems for civil use (called GNSS-2...


See also

An actuator is a mechanical device for moving or controlling a mechanism or system. ... // Distinguish from censure and censer and censor. ... A rain sensor is a water conservation device connected to an automatic irrigation system that causes the system to shut down in the event of rainfall. ... Data acquisition is the sampling of the real world to generate data that can be manipulated by a computer. ... This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. ... A data logger (sometimes spelt Datalogger) is an electronic instrument (or specialised computing device in some cases) that records digital, analogue, frequency or smart protocol based measurements over time. ... Detection theory, or signal detection theory, is a means to quantify the ability to discern between signal and noise. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... A hydrogen microsensor is a small-scale device that detects the presence of hydrogen. ... In fish, the lateral line is a sense organ used to detect movement in the surrounding water. ... In physiology, psychology, or psychophysics, a limen or a liminal point is a threshold of a physiological or psychological response. ... HSDL-9100-021 proximity sensor - For cell phones, copiers and notbooks by Agilent. ... Machine olfaction is the automated simulation of the sense of smell. ... ROC curve of three epitope predictors. ... A sensor network is a computer network of many, spatially distributed devices using sensors to monitor conditions at different locations, such as temperature, sound, vibration, pressure, motion or pollutants. ... The Sensor Web is a new class of geographic information system (GIS) that is especially well suited for environmental monitoring and control. ...

External links

Look up Sensor in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

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