FACTOID # 10: The total number of state executions in 2005 was 60: 19 in Texas and 41 elsewhere. The racial split was 19 Black and 41 White.
 
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Encyclopedia > Sense of time

Although the sense of time is not associated with a specific sensory system, the work of psychologists and neuroscientists indicates that our brains do have a system governing the perception of time. This is a highly distributed system including the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and basal ganglia as its components. One particular component, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, is responsible for the circadian (or daily) rhythm, while other cell clusters appear to be capable of shorter-range timekeeping. The sense of time is impaired in some patients with neurological diseases such as Parkinson's Disease and Attention Deficit Disorder. A psychologist is a scientist or clinician who studies psychology, the systematic investigation of the human mind, including behavior and cognition. ... Neuroscience is a field of study which deals with the structure, function, development, genetics, biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology and pathology of the nervous system. ... In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ... Look up time in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Location of the cerebral cortex Slice of the cerebral cortex, ca. ... The cerebellum (Latin: little brain) is a region of the brain that plays an important role in the integration of sensory perception and motor output. ... The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) are a group of nuclei in the brain interconnected with the cerebral cortex, thalamus and brainstem. ... The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is a nucleus in the hypothalamus situated immediately above the optic chiasm, on either side of the third ventricle. ... A circadian rhythm is a roughly-24-hour cycle in the physiological processes of living beings, including plants, animals, fungi and cyanobacteria. ... DISCLAIMER Please remember that Wikipedia is offered for informational use only. ...


Psychoactive drugs can also impair a person's perception of time, as those on stimulants tend to underestimate time intervals, whereas those on depressants tend to overestimate them.[citation needed] Those lack of proper estimations are generally attributed to the idea that the number of neurotransmitters active in our brain determines the ratio to which our conscious and sub-conscious selves can perceive perception in relation to time. Neurotransmitters such as dopamine and adrenaline are also thought to be partly responsible for one's perception of time. A stimulant is a drug which increases the activity of the sympathetic nervous system and produces a sense of euphoria or awakeness. ... See also sedative. ... IDEA may refer to: Electronic Directory of the European Institutions IDEA League Improvement and Development Agency Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Indian Distance Education Association Integrated Data Environments Australia Intelligent Database Environment for Advanced Applications IntelliJ IDEA - a Java IDE Interactive Database for Energy-efficient Architecture International IDEA (International Institute... Neurotransmitters are chemicals that are used to relay, amplify and modulate electrical signals between a presynaptic and a postsynaptic neuron. ... In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ... In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ... Dopamine is a phenethylamine naturally produced by the human body. ... Epinephrine (INN) or adrenaline (BAN) is a hormone and a neurotransmitter. ...


Imagine you are travelling in a car, without a speedometer, at a speed of 100km/h. You then pass a road sign telling you the speed limit is now 50km/h. You will find that without the aid of the speedometer you will slow to a speed of around 70km/h. This phenomenon is due to the mind's ability to alter conscious perception, much in the way that when you watch the ending credits of a movie and then redirect your vision elsewhere, your vision appears to roll in the reverse direction of that in which the credits were moving. This is a function of the brain believed to be used for the maintenance of a perceived balance adapted to our environment. Without this mechanism, we would be unable to attune to our current environment with its day-long and year-long cycles. Speedometer gauge on a car, showing the speed of the vehicle in miles and kilometres per hour on the out– and inside respectively. ...


Steven Hawking's book, 'A Brief History Of Time', touches briefly on the subject. Hawking suggests that the perception of time is a ratio; Unit of Time : Time Lived. For example, one hour to a six-month-old person would be approximately "1:4032", while one hour to a 40-year-old person would be "1:349,440" Obviously, an hour is much longer to a young child, or infant than to an aged adult, even though it is the exact same amount of "Time".


References

  • "Interactions emerge between biological clocks", The Pharmaceutical Journal, Vol 275 No 7376 p644, 19 November 2005
  • "The Future of Time", Discover, Apr 2006

See also

  • http://www.rotman.utoronto.ca/bicpapers/pdf/memoryfortime.pdf "A Cognitive Model of Retrospective Duration Estimations", Hee-Kyung Ahn, et al, March 7, 2006.
  • http://www.fb10.uni-bremen.de/homepages/wildgen/pdf/antwerpen_time.pdf "Time, Force, Motion, and the Semantics of Natural Languages", Wolfgang Wildgen, Antwerp Papers in Linguistics, 2003/2004.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Sense - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1744 words)
The senses and their operation, classification, and theory are overlapping topics studied by a variety of fields, most notably neuroscience, cognitive psychology (or cognitive science), and philosophy of perception.
Hearing or audition is the sense of sound perception and results from tiny hair fibres in the inner ear detecting the motion of a membrane which vibrates in response to changes in the pressure exerted by atmospheric particles within (at best) a range of 9 to 22000 Hz, however this changes for each individual.
For a considerable time, it was believed that pain was simply the overloading of pressure receptors, but research in the first half of the 20th century indicated that pain is a distinct phenomenon that intertwines with all other senses, including touch.
Sense of time - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (344 words)
Although the sense of time is not associated with a specific sensory system, the work of psychologists and neuroscientists indicates that our brains do have a system governing the perception of time.
The sense of time is impaired in some patients with neurological diseases such as Parkinson's Disease and Attention Deficit Disorder.
Neurotransmitters such as dopamine and adrenaline are also thought to be partly responsible for one's perception of time.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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