FACTOID # 27: If you're itching to live in a trailer park, hitch up your home and head to South Carolina, where a whopping 18% of residences are mobile homes.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Sense of self
Psychology
Portal
History
Psychologist
Areas
Applied
Behavioral
Biological
Clinical
Cognitive
Developmental
Educational
Evolutionary
Gestalt
Humanistic
Linguistics
Personality
Sensory
Social
Lists
Psychologists
Publications
Topics

The self is a key construct in several schools of psychology. Usages differ between theorists and fields of study, but in general the self refers to the conscious, reflective personality of an individual. The study of the self involves significant methodological problems, especially concerning consciousness. Some of these are taken up in philosophy of mind and metaphysics. Auguste Rodins The Thinker, bronze cast by Alexis Rudier, Laeken Cemetery, Brussels, Belgium Psychology (ancient Greek: psyche = soul or mind, logos/-ology = study of) is an academic and applied field involving the study of the mind and behavior, both human and nonhuman. ... Image File history File links Human_brain_NIH.jpg NIH image of human brain Source: http://lbc. ... The history of psychology consists of a prescientific and a scientific epoch. ... A psychologist is a scientist who studies psychology, the systematic investigation of the human behaviour and mental processes. ... The basic premise of applied psychology is the use of psychological principles and theories to overcome practical problems in other fields, such as business management, product design, ergonomics, nutrition or clinical medicine. ... Behaviorism or behaviourism (not to be confused with behavioralism in political science) is an approach to psychology based on the proposition that behavior can be researched scientifically without recourse to inner mental states. ... Biological psychology may be looked at as a hybrid of neuroscience and psychology. ... Clinical psychology is the application of psychology within a clinical (health) setting. ... Cognitive psychology is the psychological science that studies cognition, the mental processes that underlie behavior, including thinking, deciding, reasoning, and to some extent motivation and emotion. ... Developmental psychology is the scientific study of progressive psychological changes that occur in human beings as they age. ... Evolutionary psychology (abbreviated ev-psych or EP) proposes that animal psychology can be better understood in light of evolution. ... Gestalt psychology (also Gestalt theory of the Berlin School) is a theory of mind and brain that proposes that the operational principle of the brain is holistic, parallel, and analog, with self-organizing tendencies. ... Humanistic psychology is a school of psychology that emerged in the 1950s in reaction to both behaviorism and psychoanalysis. ... Psycholinguistics or psychology of language is the study of the psychological and neurobiological factors that enable humans to acquire, use, and understand language. ... Personality psychology is a branch of psychology which studies personality and individual difference processes - that which makes us into a person. ... Psychophysics is the branch of cognitive psychology dealing with the relationship between physical stimuli and their perception. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This list includes famous psychologists and contributors to psychology; some of them may not have thought of themselves primarily as psychologists but are included here because of their important contributions to the discipline. ... // Introducing Psychology Introducing Psychology Nigel Benson Introducing Psychology, 1998. ... This page aims to list articles related to psychology. ... Auguste Rodins The Thinker, bronze cast by Alexis Rudier, Laeken Cemetery, Brussels, Belgium Psychology (ancient Greek: psyche = soul or mind, logos/-ology = study of) is an academic and applied field involving the study of the mind and behavior, both human and nonhuman. ... It has been suggested that Personality psychology be merged into this article or section. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise such key features as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... Philosophy of mind is the philosophical study of the nature of the mind, mental events, mental functions, mental properties, and consciousness. ... Metaphysics (Greek words meta = after/beyond and physics = nature) is a branch of philosophy concerned with the study of first principles and being (ontology). ...


A psychological school of thought focused on the self was originally proposed by Heinz Kohut (1913-1981). Heinz Kohut (1913-1981) was a pioneer in the fields of psychology and psychiatry. ...

Contents


Self constructs

Major conceptualizations within the theory of the self include:

R.D.Laing. ... According to Maslow, self actualization (usu. ... Self-awareness is the ability to perceive ones own existence, including ones own traits, feelings and behaviours. ... A persons self image is the mental picture, generally of a kind that is quite resistant to change, that depicts not only details that are potentially available to objective investigation by others (height, weight, hair color, nature of external genitalia, I.Q. score, is this person double-jointed, etc. ... Self-confidence is an attitude which allows individuals to have positive yet realistic views of themselves and their situations. ... Discipline is any training intended to produce a specific character or pattern of behaviour, especially training that produces moral or mental development in a particular direction. ... Personal development (also known as self-development or personal growth) comprises the development of the self. ... Self-disclosure is both the conscious and unconscious act of revealing more about ourselves to others. ... Self efficacy is an individuals estimate or personal judgment of his or her own ability to succeed in reaching a specific goal, e. ... In psychology, self-esteem or self-worth includes a persons subjective appraisal of himself or herself as intrinsically positive or negative to some degree (Sedikides & Gregg, 2003). ... Though the term self-help can refer to any case whereby an individual or a group (support group) betters themselves economically, intellectually or emotionally, the connotations of the phrase have come to apply particularly to psychological or psychotherapeutic nostrums, often purveyed through the popular genre of the self-help book. ... The self-concept or self-identity is the mental and conceptual awareness and persistent regard that sentient beings hold with regard their own being. ... A persons self image is the mental picture, generally of a kind that is quite resistant to change, that depicts not only details that are potentially available to objective investigation by others (height, weight, hair color, nature of external genitalia, I.Q. score, is this person double-jointed, etc. ... Self-perception theory is an account of attitude change developed by psychologist Daryl Bem. ... Categories: Substubs ... Social Cognitive Perspective Zimmerman et al specified three important characteristics: self-observation (monitoring ones activities); self-judgement (self-evaluation of ones performance) and self-reactions (reactions to performance outcomes) Cognitive Processing Perspective Winne & Marx posited that motivational thoughts and beliefs are governed by the basic principles of cognitive... In psychology, self-esteem or self-worth is a persons self-image at an emotional level; circumventing reason and logic. ...

A critique of the concept of selfhood

'Selfhood' or complete autonomy is a uniquely Western approach to psychology and models of self are employed constantly in areas such as psychotherapy and self help. Edward E. Sampson (1989) argues that the preoccupation with independence is harmful in that it creates racial, sexual and national divides and does not allow for observation of the self-in-other and other-in-self. Psychotherapy is a set of techniques intended to improve mental health, emotional or behavioral issues in individuals, who are often called clients. These issues often make it hard for people to manage their lives and achieve their goals. ... Though the term self-help can refer to any case whereby an individual or a group (support group) betters themselves economically, intellectually or emotionally, the connotations of the phrase have come to apply particularly to psychological or psychotherapeutic nostrums, often purveyed through the popular genre of the self-help book. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX in Roman) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see The Other. ...


The very notion of selfhood is an attacked idea because it is seen as necessary for the mechanisms of advanced capitalism to function. In Inventing our selves: Psychology, power, and personhood, Nikolas Rose (1998) proposes that psychology is now employed as a technology that allows humans to buy into an invented and arguably false sense of self. Rose sees that freedom assists governments and exploitation.


It is said by some that for an individual to talk about, explain, understand or judge oneself is linguistically impossible, since it requires the self to understand its self. This is seen as philosophically invalid, being self-referential, or reification, also known as a Circular argument. Thus, if actions arise so that the self attempts self-explanation, confusion may well occur within linguistic mental pathways and processes. Reification, also called hypostatization, is treating a concept, an abstraction, as if it were a real, concrete thing. ... Begging the question, in modern popular usage, is often used synonymously for raising the question. However the original meaning is quite different: it described a type of logical fallacy (also called petitio principii) in which the evidence given for a proposition as much needs to be proved as the proposition...


See also

The notion of identity has many uses throughout the social sciences. ... In philosophy, the self is the idea of a unified being which is the source of an idiosyncratic conciousness. ...

External links

  • Definitions of Various Self Constructs - Self-esteem, self-efficacy, self-confidence & self-concept

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m