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Encyclopedia > Sense (molecular biology)

Sense, when applied in a molecular biology context, is a general concept used to compare the polarity of nucleic acid molecules, particularly RNA, to other nucleic acid molecules. Depending on the context within molecular biology, sense may have slightly different meanings. Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... Schematic diagram of a double-stranded nucleic acid. ... Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a nucleic acid polymer consisting of covalently bound nucleotides. ...

Contents


Sense in viral genetics

RNA sense

In virology, the genome of a RNA virus can be said to be either positive-sense, also known as a "plus-strand", or negative-sense, also known as a "minus-strand". In most cases, the terms sense and strand are used interchangably, making such terms as positive-strand equivalent to positive-sense, and plus-strand equivalent to plus-sense. Whether a virus is positive-sense or negative-sense can used as a basis for classifiying viruses. Virology, often considered a part of microbiology, is the study of biological viruses: their structure and classification, their ways to infect and exploit cells to reproduce and cause disease, and their potential uses in research and therapy. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... An RNA virus is a virus that either uses RNA as its genetic material, or whose genetic material passes through an RNA intermediate during replication. ...


Viral mRNA is always designated positive-sense, thus it is used as the comparison against the sequence being examined. Positive-sense RNA is taken to mean that a particular viral RNA genomic sequence is identical to the mRNA translated from. As the viral RNA genome is identical to viral mRNA it can be immediately translated by the host cell. Negative-sense viral RNA is complementary to mRNA and thus must be converted to positive-sense RNA by an RNA polymerase before translation. Translation is the second process of protein biosynthesis (part of the overall process of gene expression). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


A viral genome which contains both positive-sense and negative-sense is said to be ambisense.


DNA sense

Less commonly used than in viral RNA, sense can also be applied to the polarity of DNA during viral replication. Positive-sense viral DNA is that which can be used as mRNA to produce functional products such as proteins. It is also viral DNA which produces an positive-sense RNA genome transcription. Negative-sense viral DNA therefore does not transcribe a RNA molecule that can be used immediately as mRNA, rather it forms a template for the creation of negative-sense RNA genomes. Transcription may be one of the following: In linguistics, transcription is the conversion of spoken words into written language. ...


Antisense mRNA

Main article: Antisense mRNA

Antisense mRNA is an mRNA transcript that is complementary to endogenous mRNA, in other words, the non-coding strand complementary to the coding sequence of mRNA. Introducing a transgene coding for antisense mRNA is a technique used to block expression of a gene of interest. Radioactively-labelled antisense mRNA can be used to show the level of transcription of genes in various cell types. Some alternative antisense structural types are being experimentally applied as antisense therapy, with at least one antisense therapy approved for use in humans. Antisense mRNA is an mRNA transcript that is complementary to endogenous mRNA. It is the noncoding strand complementary to the coding sequence of mRNA. Introducing a transgene coding for antisense mRNA is a strategy used to block expression of a gene of interest. ... In an economic model, an endogenous change is one that comes from inside the model and is explained by the model itself. ... A transgene is a gene or genetic material which has been transferred by any of a number of genetic engineering techniques from one organism to another. ... Antisense therapy is a theoretical form of treatment for genetic disorders. ...


See also

Orders A virus is a submicroscopic particle that can infect the cells of a biological organism. ... An RNA virus is a virus that either uses RNA as its genetic material, or whose genetic material passes through an RNA intermediate during replication. ... Antisense therapy is a theoretical form of treatment for genetic disorders. ... Transcription may be one of the following: In linguistics, transcription is the conversion of spoken words into written language. ... Translation is the second process of protein biosynthesis (part of the overall process of gene expression). ...

References

  • Prescott, L. (1993). Microbiology, Wm. C. Brown Publishers, ISBN 0697013723
  • Viral replication and genetics - Google's cache of a page from the International Veterinary Information Service

 
 

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