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Encyclopedia > Sense

Senses are the physiological methods of perception. The senses and their operation, classification, and theory are overlapping topics studied by a variety of fields, most notably neuroscience, cognitive psychology (or cognitive science), and philosophy of perception. The nervous system has a sensory system dedicated to each sense. Look up sense in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ... Drawing of the cells in the chicken cerebellum by S. Ramón y Cajal Neuroscience is a field that is devoted to the scientific study of the nervous system. ... Cognitive Psychology is the school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. ... Cognitive science is usually defined as the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence (e. ... The philosophy of perception concerns how mental processes and symbols depend on the world internal and external to the perceiver. ... The Human Nervous System. ... The human eye is the first element of a sensory system: in this case, vision, for the visual system. ...

Contents

Definition of "sense"

There is no firm agreement among neurologists as to exactly how many senses there are, because of differing definitions of a sense. In general, one can say that a "sense" is a faculty by which outside stimuli are perceived. School children are routinely taught that there are five senses (sight, hearing, touch, smell, taste; a classification traditionally attributed to Aristotle). It is generally agreed that there are at least nine different senses in humans, and a minimum of two more observed in other organisms. For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ...


A broadly acceptable definition of a sense would be "a system that consists of a sensory cell type (or group of cell types) that responds to a specific kind of physical phenomenon, and that correspond to a defined region (or group of regions) within the brain where the signals are received and interpreted." Where disputes as to the number of senses arise is with regard to the exact classification of the various cell types and their mapping to regions of the brain. Within evolutionary biology, signalling theory refers to the scientific theory around how organisms signal their condition to others. ... A hand-drawn mind map A mind map is a diagram used to represent words, ideas, tasks or other items linked to and arranged radially around a central key word or idea. ...


Five classical senses

Sight

Sight or vision describes the ability of the brain and eye detecting electromagnetic waves within the visible range (light) interpreting the image as "sight." There is disagreement as to whether this constitutes one, two or even three distinct senses. Neuroanatomists generally regard it as two senses, given that different receptors are responsible for the perception of colour (the frequency of photons of light) and brightness (amplitude/intensity - number of photons of light). Some argue that stereopsis, the perception of depth, also constitutes a sense, but it is generally regarded that this is really a cognitive (that is, post-sensory) function of brain to interpret sensory input to derive new information. The inability to see is called blindness. In psychology, visual perception is the ability to interpret visible light information reaching the eyes which is then made available for planning and action. ... For other uses, see Light (disambiguation). ... Stereopsis (from stereo meaning solidity, and opsis meaning vision or sight) is the process in visual perception leading to perception of stereoscopic depth. ... This article is about the visual condition. ...


Hearing

Hearing or audition is the sense of sound perception and results from tiny hair fibres in the inner ear detecting the motion of a membrane which vibrates in response to changes in the pressure exerted by atmospheric particles within (at best) a range of 9 to 22000 Hz, however this changes for each individual. Sound can also be detected as vibrations conducted through the body by tactition. Lower and higher frequencies than that can be heard are detected this way only. The inability to hear is called deafness. Hearing (or audition) is one of the traditional five senses, and refers to the ability to detect sound. ... This article is about audible acoustic waves. ... For other uses, see Ear (disambiguation). ... The word deaf can have very different meanings depending on the background of the person speaking or the context in which the word is used. ...


Taste

Taste or gustation is one of the two main "chemical" senses. It is well-known that there are at least four types of taste "bud" (receptor) on the tongue and hence there are anatomists who argue that these in fact constitute four or more different senses, given that each receptor conveys information to a slightly different region of the brain. The inability to taste is called ageusia. For the social and aesthetic aspects of taste, see taste (sociology). ... For other uses, see Tongue (disambiguation). ... Ageusia (pronounced ay-GOO-see-uh) is the loss of taste functions of the tongue, particularly the inability to detect sweetness, sourness, bitterness, and saltiness. ...


The four well-known receptors detect sweet, salt, sour, and bitter, although the receptors for sweet and bitter have not been conclusively identified. A fifth receptor, for a sensation called umami, was first theorised in 1908 and its existence confirmed in 2000[1]. The umami receptor detects the amino acid glutamate, a flavor commonly found in meat and in artificial flavourings such as monosodium glutamate. Human taste sensory organs, called taste buds or gustatory calyculi, and concentrated on the upper surface of the tongue, appear to be receptive to relatively few chemical species as tastes. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ...


Smell

Smell or olfaction is the other "chemical" sense. Unlike taste, there are hundreds of olfactory receptors, each binding to a particular molecular feature. Odor molecules possess a variety of features and thus excite specific receptors more or less strongly. This combination of excitatory signals from different receptors makes up what we perceive as the molecule's smell. In the brain, olfaction is processed by the olfactory system. Olfactory receptor neurons in the nose differ from most other neurons in that they die and regenerate on a regular basis. The inability to smell is called anosmia. Olfaction (also known as olfactics) refers to the sense of smell. ... The olfactory system is the sensory system used for olfaction. ... Bold text == Headline text == minni hi. ... For other uses, see Nose (disambiguation). ... Anosmia is the lack of olfaction, or a loss of the ability to smell. ...


Touch

Touch, also called tactition or mechanoreception, is the sense of pressure perception, generally in the skin. There are a variety of pressure receptors that respond to variations in pressure (firm, brushing, sustained, etc). The inability to feel anything or almost anything is called anesthesia. Paresthesia is a sensation of tingling, pricking, or numbness of a person's skin with no apparent long term physical effect. Somatic sensation consists of the various sensory receptors that trigger the experiences labelled as touch or pressure, temperature (warm or cold), pain (including itch and tickle), and the sensations of muscle movement and joint position including posture, movement, and facial expression (collectively also called proprioception). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A mechanoreceptor is a sensory receptor that responds to mechanical pressure or distortion. ... For other uses, see Skin (disambiguation). ... Anesthesia or anaesthesia (see spelling differences) has traditionally meant the condition of having the perception of pain and other sensations blocked. ... Paresthesia or paraesthesia (in British English) is a sensation of tingling, pricking, or numbness of a persons skin with no apparent long-term physical effect, more generally known as the feeling of pins and needles or of a limb being asleep (but not directly related to the phenomenon of... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sensation and perception psychology. ... Paresthesia (paraesthesia in British) is a sensation of tingling, pricking, or numbness of the skin with no apparent physical cause, more generally known as the feeling of pins and needles. ... For other uses, see Person (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Skin (disambiguation). ...


Other senses

Temperature

Thermoception is the sense of heat and the absence of heat (cold), also by the skin and including internal skin passages. There is some disagreement about how many senses this actually represents - the thermoceptors in the skin are quite different from the homeostatic thermoceptors in the brain (hypothalamus) which provide feedback on internal body temperature. Thermoception or thermoreception is the sense by which an organism perceives temperature. ... For other uses, see Skin (disambiguation). ... Homeostasis is the property of either an open system or a closed system, especially a living organism, which regulates its internal environment so as to maintain a stable, constant condition. ... POAH is an acronym for preoptic anterior hypothalamus, the part of the brain that senses core body temperature and regulates it to about 98. ...


Pain

Nociception (physiological pain) is the nonconscious perception of near-damage or damage to tissue. It can be classified as from one to three senses, depending on the classification method. The three types of pain receptors are cutaneous (skin), somatic (joints and bones) and visceral (body organs). For a considerable time, it was believed that pain was simply the overloading of pressure receptors, but research in the first half of the 20th century indicated that pain is a distinct phenomenon that intertwines with all other senses, including touch. Pain was once considered a wholly subjective experience, but recent studies show that pain is registered in the anterior cingulate gyrus of the brain. Pain redirects here. ... Grays FIG. 727– Medial surface of left cerebral hemisphere. ...


Balance and Acceleration

Equilibrioception, the vestibular sense, is the perception of balance or acceleration and is mainly related to cavities containing fluid in the inner ear. There is some disagreement as to whether this also includes the sense of "direction" or orientation. However, as with depth perception earlier, it is generally regarded that "direction" is a post-sensory cognitive awareness. Equilibrioception or sense of balance is one of the physiological senses. ...


Body awareness

Proprioception, the kinesthetic sense, is the perception of body awareness and is a sense that people are frequently not aware of, but rely on enormously. More easily demonstrated than explained, proprioception is the "unconscious" awareness of where the various regions of the body are located at any one time. (This can be demonstrated by anyone's closing the eyes and waving the hand around. Assuming proper proprioceptive function, at no time will the person lose awareness of where the hand actually is, even though it is not being detected by any of the other senses). It can be used in reaction time. Proprioception and touch are related in subtle ways, and their impairment results in surprising and deep deficits in perception and action (Robles-De-La-Torre 2006). // Proprioception (PRO-pree-o-SEP-shun (IPA pronunciation: ); from Latin proprius, meaning ones own and perception) is the sense of the relative position of neighbouring parts of the body. ... Reaction time, in humans, is the elapsed time between the receiving of stimuli and the subsequent reaction. ...


Other internal senses

An internal sense is "any sense that is normally stimulated from within the body."[2] These involve numerous sensory receptors in internal organs, such as stretch receptors that are neurologically linked to the brain. Stretch receptors are mechanoreceptors responsive to distention of the thorax, which are neurologically linked to the medulla via efferent nerve cells, joining them to the expiratory cells present there. ...

  • Pulmonary stretch receptors are found in the lungs and control the respiratory rate.
  • Cutaneous receptors in the skin not only respond to touch, pressure, and temperature, but also respond to vasodilation in the skin such as blushing.
  • Stretch receptors in the gastrointestinal tract sense gas distension that may result in colic pain.
  • Stimulation of sensory receptors in the esophagus result in sensations felt in the throat when swallowing, vomiting, or during acid reflux.
  • Sensory receptors in pharynx mucosa, similar to touch receptors in the skin, sense foreign objects such as food that may result in a gagging reflex and corresponding gagging sensation.
  • Stimulation of sensory receptors in the urinary bladder and rectum may result in sensations of fullness.
  • Stimulation of stretch sensors that sense dilation of various blood vessels may result in pain, for example headache caused by vasodilation of brain arteries.

Pulmonary stretch receptors are mechanoreceptors found in the lungs. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Minute volume. ... A cutaneous receptor is a types of sensory receptor found in the dermis or epidermis. ... For a person to flush is to become markedly red in the face and often other areas of the skin, from various physiological conditions. ... Gut redirects here. ... For the Bush song, see Swallowed (song). ... Emesis redirects here. ... Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD, or GORD when -oesophageal, the BE form, is substituted) is injury to the esophagus that develops from chronic exposure of the esophagus to acid coming up from the stomach (reflux). ... The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the neck and throat situated immediately posterior to the mouth and nasal cavity, and cranial, or superior, to the esophagus, larynx, and trachea. ... For other meanings of the word gag, see gag (disambiguation). ... This article is about the urinary bladder. ... The rectum (from the Latin rectum intestinum, meaning straight intestine) is the final straight portion of the large intestine in some mammals, and the gut in others, terminating in the anus. ...

Non-human senses

Analogous to human senses

Other living organisms have receptors to sense the world around them, including many of the senses listed above for humans. However, the mechanisms and capabilities vary widely.


Smell

Among non-human species, dogs have a much keener sense of smell than humans, although the mechanism is similar. Insects have olfactory receptors on their antennae. Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domestic subspecies of the wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... Insects display a wide variety of antennal shapes. ...


Vision

Pit vipers and some boas have organs that allow them to detect infrared light, such that these snakes are able to sense the body heat of their prey. The common vampire bat may also have an infrared sensor on its nose.[3] Infrared senses are, however, just sight in a different light frequency range. It has been found that birds and some other animals are tetrachromats and have the ability to see in the ultraviolet down to 300 nanometers. Bees are also able to see in the ultraviolet. Genera Many, see text *May be treated as a separate family, Crotalidae Pit Vipers (sometimes called crotalines) are mostly New World vipers found in North, Central and South America; a few species are recorded from isolated areas of Southeast Asia, the Caspian region of Europe, China and Japan. ... This article is about the Korean pop singer. ... For other uses, see Infrared (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Geoffroy, 1810 The Common Vampire Bat (Desmodus rotundus) is a species of vampire bat. ... For other meanings of bird, see bird (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ... Families Andrenidae Anthophoridae Apidae Colletidae Ctenoplectridae Halictidae Heterogynaidae Megachilidae Melittidae Oxaeidae Sphecidae Stenotritidae This article is about the insect. ...


Balance

Ctenophores have a balance receptor (a statocyst) that works very differently from the mammalian semi-circular canals. Classes Tentaculata Nuda Ctenophores are jellyfish-like animals commonly called comb jellies, sea gooseberries, sea walnuts, or Venus girdles. ... The statocyst is a balance organ present in some aquatic invertebrates (Cnidarians, Ctenophores, Bilaterians). ...


Not analogous to human senses

In addition, some animals have senses that humans do not, including the following:

  • Electroception (or "electroreception"), the most significant of the non-human senses, is the ability to detect electric fields. Several species of fish, sharks and rays have evolved the capacity to sense changes in electric fields in their immediate vicinity. Some fish passively sense changing nearby electric fields; some generate their own weak electric fields, and sense the pattern of field potentials over their body surface; and some use these electric field generating and sensing capacities for social communication. The mechanisms by which electroceptive fishes construct a spatial representation from very small differences in field potentials involve comparisons of spike latencies from different parts of the fish's body.
The only order of mammals that is known to demonstrate electroception is the monotreme order. Among these mammals, the platypus[4] has the most acute sense of electroception.
Body modification enthusiasts have experimented with magnetic implants to attempt to replicate this sense,[5] however in general humans (and probably other mammals) can detect electric fields only indirectly by detecting the effect they have on hairs. An electrically charged balloon, for instance, will exert a force on human arm hairs, which can be felt through tactition and identified as coming from a static charge (and not from wind or the like). This is however not electroception as it is a post-sensory cognitive action.
  • Echolocation is the ability to determine orientation to other objects through interpretation of reflected sound (like sonar). Bats and cetaceans are noted for this ability, though some other animals use it, as well. It is most often used to navigate through poor lighting conditions or to identify and track prey. There is currently an uncertainty whether this is simply an extremely developed post-sensory interpretation of auditory perceptions or it actually constitutes a separate sense. Resolution of the issue will require brain scans of animals while they actually perform echolocation, a task that has proven difficult in practice. Blind people report they are able to navigate by interpreting reflected sounds (esp. their own footsteps), a phenomenon which is known as Human echolocation.
  • Magnetoception (or "magnetoreception") is the ability to detect fluctuations in magnetic fields and is most commonly observed in birds, though it has also been observed in insects such as bees. Although there is no dispute that this sense exists in many avians (it is essential to the navigational abilities of migratory birds), it is not a well-understood phenomenon[6]. There is experimental and physical evidence to suggest this sense exists in a weak form in humans.
Magnetotactic bacteria build miniature magnets inside themselves and use them to determine their orientation relative to the Earth's magnetic field.
  • Pressure detection uses the lateral line, which is a pressure-sensing system of hairs found in fish and some aquatic amphibians. It is used primarily for navigation, hunting, and schooling. Humans have a basic relative-pressure detection ability when eustachian tube(s) are blocked, as demonstrated in the ear's response to changes in altitude.
  • Polarized light direction / detection is used by bees to orient themselves, especially on cloudy days.

Electroreception, sometimes written as electroception, is the biological ability to receive and make use of electrical impulses. ... In physics, the space surrounding an electric charge or in the presence of a time-varying magnetic field has a property called an electric field. ... For other uses, see Shark (disambiguation). ... Families †Kollikodontidae Ornithorhynchidae Tachyglossidae †Steropodontidae Monotremes (monos, single + trema, hole; refers to the cloaca) are mammals that lay eggs instead of giving birth to live young like marsupials (Metatheria) and placental mammals (Eutheria). ... For other uses, see Platypus (disambiguation). ... Body modification (or body alteration) is the permanent or semi-permanent deliberate altering of the human body for non-medical reasons, such as spiritual, various social (markings), BDSM edgeplay or aesthetic. ... Echolocation, also called Biosonar, is the biological sonar used by several mammals such as bats (although not all species), dolphins and whales (though not baleen whales). ... This article is about underwater sound propagation. ... “Chiroptera” redirects here. ... Suborders Mysticeti Odontoceti Archaeoceti (extinct) (see text for families) The order Cetacea (IPA: , L. cetus, whale) includes whales, dolphins and porpoises. ... Human echolocation is the ability of humans to sense objects in their environment by hearing echos off those objects. ... Magnetoception (or magnetoreception) is the ability to detect flux direction in a magnetic field, and is most commonly observed in birds, though it has also been observed in many other migratory animals. ... Magnetic field lines shown by iron filings Magnetostatics Electrodynamics Electrical Network Tensors in Relativity This box:      In physics, the magnetic field is a field that permeates space and which exerts a magnetic force on moving electric charges and magnetic dipoles. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Western honey bee and Bee (disambiguation). ... The word Avian can refer to different things: .. Most commonly it is used referring to the class of animals named birds. Avians are a fantasy race in several fantasy settings. ... Magnetotactic bacteria are a class of bacteria discovered in the 1970s that are characterised by being able to orient themselves in response to the Earths magnetic field (magnetotaxis). ... In fish, the lateral line is a sense organ used to detect movement in the surrounding water. ... For other uses, see Amphibian (disambiguation). ... Families Andrenidae Anthophoridae Apidae Colletidae Ctenoplectridae Halictidae Heterogynaidae Megachilidae Melittidae Oxaeidae Sphecidae Stenotritidae This article is about the insect. ...

See also

This article is about psychological concept of attention. ... An auditory illusion is an illusion of hearing, the sound equivalent of an optical illusion: the listener hears either sounds which are not present in the stimulus, or impossible sounds. ... An optical illusion. ... Touch illusions are illusions that exploit the sense of touch. ... Sour redirects here. ... For the Bobby Womack album, see Communication (1972 album). ... In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience, especially sensory perception, in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas. ... Intuition is an unconscious form of knowledge. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sensation and perception psychology. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The sensitivity or insensitivity of a human, often considered with regard to a particular kind of stimulus, is the strength of the feeling it results in, in comparison with the strength of the stimulus. ... Although the sense of time is not associated with a specific sensory system, the work of psychologists and neuroscientists indicates that our brains do have a system governing the perception of time. ... The term sensorium (plural: sensoria) refers to the sum of an organisms perception, the seat of sensation where it experiences and interprets the environments within which it lives. ... For other uses, see Synesthesia (disambiguation). ...

Research Centers

The Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) is a United States non-profit medical research institute based in Chevy Chase, Maryland and originally founded by the aviator and engineer Howard Hughes in 1953. ... The stated objective of the Institute for Advanced Science and Engineering is the explanation of experience in nature. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.nature.com/neuro/press_release/nn0200.html
  2. ^ Dorland's Medical Dictionary 26th edition, under sense
  3. ^ www.pitt.edu/AFShome/s/l/slavic/public/html/courses/vampires/images/bats/vambat.html. Retrieved on 2007-05-25.
  4. ^ http://web.archive.org/web/19981206164009/http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/bionb420.07/anelson/platypus.html
  5. ^ Implant gives artist the sense of "magnetic vision". Retrieved on 2007-05-25.
  6. ^ http://www.ks.uiuc.edu/Research/magsense/ms.html

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Sense - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1876 words)
The senses and their operation, classification, and theory are overlapping topics studied by a variety of fields, most notably neuroscience, cognitive psychology (or cognitive science), and philosophy of perception.
Hearing or audition is the sense of sound perception and results from tiny hair fibres in the inner ear detecting the motion of a membrane which vibrates in response to changes in the pressure exerted by atmospheric particles within (at best) a range of 9 to 20000 Hz, however this changes for each individual.
Steiner proposed three more senses as well: the sense of phoneme or language, the sense of thought and the sense of ego (the ability to recognize an ego outside of our own); he termed these three 'higher senses' that depended upon the healthy development of the foundational senses of balance, movement, pain/wellness and touch.
The senses (1142 words)
A broadly acceptable definition of a sense would be "a system that consists of a sensory cell type (or group of cell types) that respond to a specific kind of physical energy, and that correspond to a defined region (or group of regions) within the brain where the signals are received and interpreted".
Neuroanatomists generally regard it as two senses, given that different receptors are responsible for the perception of colour (the frequency of light) and brightness (the energy of light).
Thermoception is the sense of heat and the absence of heat (cold).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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