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Encyclopedia > Seneca the Younger
Bust, traditionally thought to be Seneca, now identified by some as Hesiod.
Bust, traditionally thought to be Seneca, now identified by some as Hesiod.

Lucius Annaeus Seneca (often known simply as Seneca, or Seneca the Younger) (ca. 4 BC–AD 65) was a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and in one work humorist, of the Silver Age of Latin literature. Lucius Annaeus Seneca, national museum, naples, italy The copyright status of this vintage image is undetermined; it may still be copyrighted. ... Lucius Annaeus Seneca, national museum, naples, italy The copyright status of this vintage image is undetermined; it may still be copyrighted. ... Roman bronze bust, the so-called Pseudo-Seneca, now identified by some as possibly Hesiod Hesiod (Hesiodos, ) was an early Greek poet and rhapsode, who presumably lived around 700 BC. Hesiod and Homer, with whom Hesiod is often paired, have been considered the earliest Greek poets whose work has survived... The Latin word circa, literally meaning about, is often used to describe various dates (often birth and death dates) that are uncertain. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC - 0s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 9 BC 8 BC 7 BC 6 BC 5 BC 4 BC 3 BC 2 BC 1 BC 1 2 Events Archelaus becomes... Headline text Events By place Roman Empire Gaius Calpurnius Piso conspires against Roman emperor Nero. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... A restored Stoa in Athens. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... Statesman is a respectful term used to refer to politicians, and other notable figures of state. ... A dramatist is an author of dramatic compositions, usually plays. ... A humorist is an author who specializes in short, humorous articles or essays. ... In reference to Roman literature, the Silver age covers the first two centuries A.D. directly after the Golden age (which was the first century B.C., and the start of the first century A.D.) Literature from the Silver age has traditionally, perhaps unfairly, been considered inferior to that...

Contents

Biography

Born in Córdoba, Hispania, about the time of Christ, Seneca was the second son of Helvia and Marcus (Lucius) Annaeus Seneca, a wealthy rhetorician known as Seneca the Elder. Both his gens name (Annaeus) and the names of his notable relatives, (e.g., Lucan) indicate his family was originally of Southern Italian, Oscan extraction, most likely hailing from the confluence of modern Apulia, Calabria and Basilicata. Many Southern Italian families, once obtaining Roman citizenship, participated in the colonization of Roman Spain. Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Córdoba (Spanish) Spanish name Córdoba Founded 8th century BC Postal code 140xx Website http://www. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... Christ is the English of the Greek word (Christós), which literally means The Anointed One. ... Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of spoken and written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ... Lucius, or Marcus, Annaeus Seneca, known as Seneca the Elder and Seneca the Rhetorician (c. ... Lucan can refer to: Lucan, a town in County Dublin Lucan, a town in Minnesota, USA Lucan, a town in Ontario, Canada Earl of Lucan, a British peerage title Richard Bingham, 7th Earl of Lucan, the most famous holder Lucan, a Roman poet Lucan the Butler, a Knight of the...


Seneca's older brother, Gallio, became proconsul at Achaia (where, according to Lukan Acts, he encountered the apostle Paul about AD 52). Seneca was uncle to the poet Lucan by his younger brother Annaeus Mela. Depiction of Gallio Junius Annaeus Gallio, (originally Lucius Annaeus Novatus) (c. ... For the Miocene ape, see Proconsul (genus) Under the Roman Empire a proconsul was a promagistrate filling the office of a consul. ... This article is about the modern Greek district Achaea. ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... A Roman law prohibits the execution of old and crippled slaves. ... Marcus Annaeus Lucanus (November 3, AD 39-April 30, 65), better known in English as Lucan, was a Roman poet, and is one of the outstanding figures of the Silver Latin period. ...


Tradition relates that he was a sickly child and that he was taken to Rome for schooling. He was trained in rhetoric and was introduced into Stoic philosophy by Attalos and Sotion. Due to his illness, Seneca stayed in Egypt (from 25-31) for treatment. Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of spoken and written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ... A restored Stoa in Athens. ...


After his return, he established a successful career as an advocate. Around 37, he was nearly killed as a result of a conflict with the Emperor Caligula who only spared him because he believed the sickly Seneca would not live long anyway. In 41, Messalina, wife of the Emperor Claudius, persuaded Claudius to have Seneca banished to Corsica on a charge of adultery with Julia Livilla. He spent his exile in philosophical and natural study and wrote the Consolations. An advocate is one who speaks on behalf of another, especially in a legal context. ... Events March 18 - The Roman Senate annuls Tiberius will and proclaims Caligula Roman Emperor. ... Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (August 31, 12 – January 24, 41), more commonly known by his nickname Caligula, was the third Roman Emperor and a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, ruling from 37 to 41. ... Events January 24 - Roman Emperor Gaius Caesar (Caligula), known for his eccentricity and cruel despotism, is assassinated by his disgruntled Praetorian Guards. ... Valeria Messalina (PIR1 V 161) , sometimes spelled Messallina ( 20-48) was a Roman Empress and third wife to Roman Emperor Claudius. ... For other persons named Claudius, see Claudius (disambiguation). ... Julia Livilla, daughter of Germanicus Julia Livilla or Julia Germanici filia (Lesbos, early 18 AD-Pandateria (?) late 41 or early 42 AD) was the youngest child of Germanicus and Agrippina the Elder and one of Caligulas sisters. ...


In AD 49, Claudius' new wife Agrippina had Seneca recalled to Rome to tutor her son who was to become the emperor Nero. On Claudius' death in 54, Agrippina secured the recognition of Nero as emperor over Claudius' son, Britannicus. Events Rome Emperor Claudius marries his niece Agrippina the younger (approximate date). ... Julia Agrippina (Classical Latin: IVLIA•AGRIPPINA; from the year 50, called IVLIA•AVGVSTA•AGRIPPINA[1]), most commonly known as Agrippina Minor or Agrippina the Younger (November 6, 15 – March 59), was the daughter of Germanicus and Agrippina Major. ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... Events October 13 - Roman Empire emperor Claudius dies after being poisoned by Agrippina, his wife and niece. ... Britannicus (41 - 55 A.D.) was the son of the Roman emperor Claudius and his third wife Messalina. ...


Seneca acted as Nero's advisor for eight years from 54 to 62. Seneca's influence was said to be especially strong in the first year.[1] Many historians consider Nero's early rule with Seneca and the praetorian prefect Sextus Afranius Burrus to be quite competent. Over time, Seneca and Burrus lost their influence over Nero. With the death of Burrus in 62 and accusations of embezzlement, Seneca retired and devoted his time to more study and writing. Events October 13 - Roman Empire emperor Claudius dies after being poisoned by Agrippina, his wife and niece. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 10s 20s 30s 40s 50s - 60s - 70s 80s 90s 100s 110s Years: 57 58 59 60 61 - 62 - 63 64 65 66 67 Events A great earthquake damages cities in Calabria including Pompeii. ... Praetorian prefect (Latin Praefectus praetorio) was the constant title of a high office in the Roman state that changed fundamentally in nature. ... Sextus Afranius Burrus , Pretorian Prefect, was Neros tutor and later advisor. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 10s 20s 30s 40s 50s - 60s - 70s 80s 90s 100s 110s Years: 57 58 59 60 61 - 62 - 63 64 65 66 67 Events A great earthquake damages cities in Calabria including Pompeii. ...


In 65, Seneca was accused of being involved in the Pisonian conspiracy, a plot to kill Nero. Then, having escaped the assassination attempt, he went home to commit ritual suicide. Tacitus gives an account of the suicide of Seneca in his book, the Annals, in Book XV, Chapter/Number 60 through 64. His wife, Pompeia Paulina, intended to commit suicide after but was forbidden to do so by Nero. She attempted suicide by cutting her wrists, but the wounds were bound up, and she did not make a second attempt. Unfortunately for Seneca, who also chose to cut his wrists, his diet caused the blood to flow slowly, thus causing pain instead of a quick death. He took poison given to him by a friend, but it didn't work. He dictated to a scribe, and then jumped into a hot pool. He did not try to drown, but instead, it appears, tried to make the blood flow faster. Tacitus wrote in his Annals of Imperial Rome that Seneca died from suffocation from the steam rising from the pool. Headline text Events By place Roman Empire Gaius Calpurnius Piso conspires against Roman emperor Nero. ... The conspiracy of Gaius Calpurnius Piso (65 CE) represented one of the major turning points in the reign of Nero (54-68 CE). ... Gaius Cornelius Tacitus Publius or Gaius Cornelius Tacitus (c. ... Pompeia Paulina was the wife of the statesman, philosopher, and orator Lucius Annaeus Seneca, and she was part of a circle of educated Romans who sought to lead a principled life under the emperor Nero. ... Gaius Cornelius Tacitus Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (c. ... The Annals, or, in Latin, Annales, is a history book by Tacitus covering the reign of the 4 Roman Emperors succeeding to Caesar Augustus. ...


Works

Works attributed to Seneca include a satire, a meteorological essay, philosophical essays, 124 letters dealing with moral issues, and nine tragedies. One of the tragedies attributed to him, Octavia, was clearly not written by him. He even appears as a character in the play. His authorship of another, Hercules on Oeta, is doubtful. Seneca's brand of Stoic philosophy emphasized practical steps by which the reader might confront life's problems. In particular, he considered it important to confront the fact of one's own mortality. The discussion of how to approach death dominates many of his letters. 1867 edition of the satirical magazine Punch, a British satirical magazine, ground-breaking on popular literature satire. ... Satellite image of Hurricane Hugo with a polar low visible at the top of the image. ... A moral is a one sentence remark made at the end of many childrens stories that expresses the intended meaning, or the moral message, of the tale. ... Stoicism is a school of philosophy commonly associated with such Greek philosophers as Zeno of Citium, Cleanthes, or Chrysippus and with such later Romans as Cicero, Seneca, Marcus Aurelius, and Epictetus. ...


Seneca's Tragedies

Many scholars have thought, following the ideas of the nineteenth century German scholar Leo, that Seneca's tragedies were written for recitation only. Other scholars think that they were written for performance and that it is possible that actual performance had taken place in Seneca's life time (George W.M. Harrison (ed.), Seneca in performance, London: Duckworth, 2000). Ultimately, this issue is not capable of resolution on the basis of our existing knowledge.


The tragedies of Seneca have been successfully staged in modern times. The dating of the tragedies is highly problematic in the absence of any ancient references. A relative chronology has been suggested on metrical grounds but scholars remain divided. It is inconceivable that they were written in the same year. They are not at all based on Greek tragedies, they have a five act form and differ in many respects from extant Attic drama, and whilst the influence of Euripides on some these works is considerable, so is the influence of Virgil and Ovid. A statue of Euripides Euripides (Greek: Ευριπίδης) (c. ... Publius Vergilius Maro (October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC), later called Virgilius, and known in English as Virgil or Vergil, was a classical Roman poet, the author of the Eclogues, the Georgics and the substantially completed Aeneid, the last being an epic poem of twelve books that became... Engraved frontispiece of George Sandyss 1632 London edition of Publius Ovidius Naso (Sulmona, March 20, 43 BC – Tomis, now Constanţa AD 17), a Roman poet known to the English-speaking world as Ovid, wrote on topics of love, abandoned women and mythological transformations. ...


Seneca's plays were widely read in medieval and Renaissance European universities so they strongly influenced tragic drama in that time, such as Elizabethan England (Shakespeare and other playwrights), France (Corneille and Racine) and the Netherlands (Joost van den Vondel) . The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... This article is about the continent. ... Representation of a university class, 1350s. ... In general usage a tragedy is a play, movie or sometimes a real world event with a sad outcome. ... The Elizabethan Era is the period associated with the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558 - 1603) and is often considered to be a golden age in English history. ... Shakespeare redirects here. ... Corneille is the name or pseudonym of several artists: Pierre Corneille (1606-1684), French dramatist Thomas Corneille (1625-1709), French dramatist Guillaume Cornelis van Beverloo (born 1922), Dutch painter Corneille Nyungura, German-born Québécois rhythm and blues singer Corneille is a French word for raven. ... Racine is the name of several communities in the United States of America: Racine, Wisconsin, the largest Racine Racine, Minnesota Racine, Missouri Racine, Ohio Racine, West Virginia Racine County, Wisconsin Jean Racine was a 17th century French dramatist. ... Joost van den Vondel (1587-1679) was born in the Große Witschgasse in Cologne. ...


Tragedies:

  • Hercules Oetaeus (Hercules on Oeta) and Octavia closely resemble Seneca's plays in style, but are probably written by a follower.

The Phoenician Women (Also known by the Greek title, Phoenissae) is a tragedy by Euripides based on the same story as Aeschylus play Seven Against Thebes. ... Phaedra, play by Seneca the Younger. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In Greek mythology, Thyestes was the son of Pelops, King of Mycenae, and Hippodamia and father of Pelopia and Aegisthus. ... The so-called Mask of Agamemnon. Discovered by Heinrich Schliemann in 1876 at Mycenae. ... Oedipus with the Sphinx, from an Attic red-figure cylix from the Vatican Museum, ca. ... Octavia, a play in Latin traditionally attributed to Seneca the Younger, focuses on three days in AD 62, during which Nero divorced and exiled one wife (Claudia Octavia) and married another (Poppaea Sabina). ...

Dialogues

  • (40) Ad Marciam, De consolatione (To Marcia, On consolation)
  • (41) De Ira (On anger)
  • (42) Ad Helviam matrem, De consolatione (To Helvia, On consolation) - Letter to his mother consoling her in his absence during exile.
  • (44) De Consolatione ad Polybium (To Polybius, On consolation)
  • (49) De Brevitate Vitae (On the shortness of life) - Essay expounding that any length of life is sufficient if lived wisely.
  • (62) De Otio (On leisure)
  • (63) De Tranquillitate Animi (On tranquillity of mind)
  • (64) De Providentia (On providence)
  • (55) De Constantia Sapientiis (On the Firmness of the Wise Person)
  • (58) De Vita Beata (On the happy life)

Events Roman Empire Caligula embarks on a campaign to conquer Britain, and fails miserably. ... Stoic Eschatology: Around 50CE, Seneca the Younger wrote “ the inhabited world… in huge conflagration it will burn and scorch and burn all mortal things… stars will clash with stars and all the feiry matter of the world… will blaze up in a common conflagration. ... Events January 24 - Roman Emperor Gaius Caesar (Caligula), known for his eccentricity and cruel despotism, is assassinated by his disgruntled Praetorian Guards. ... This article is about the year 42. ... For alternate uses, see Number 44. ... Events Rome Emperor Claudius marries his niece Agrippina the younger (approximate date). ... Seneca wrote the moral essay De Brevitate Vitae--On the Shortness of Life--to his friend Paulinus. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 10s 20s 30s 40s 50s - 60s - 70s 80s 90s 100s 110s Years: 57 58 59 60 61 - 62 - 63 64 65 66 67 Events A great earthquake damages cities in Calabria including Pompeii. ... [edit] Events [edit] By place [edit] Roman Empire Vespasian becomes governor of Africa Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo was restored to command after the Roman debacle at the Battle of Rhandeia, he invaded Armenia and defeated Tiridates II, who accepted Roman sovereignty, Parthia withdrew from the war. ... De Tranquillitate Animi ... July 18 - Great fire of Rome: A fire began to burn in the merchant area of Rome and soon burned completely out of control while Emperor Nero allegedly played his lyre and sang while watching the blaze from a safe distance, although there is no hard evidence to support this... The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ... Seneca the Younger wrote the moral essay De Vita Beata (On the Happy Life) to his brother Gallio. ...

Other

  • (54) Apocolocyntosis divi Claudii (The Pumpkinification of the Divine Claudius), a satirical work. {Also has references to Nero as having a longer life than Nestor at the hands of the three fates--obvious flattery.}
  • (56) De Clementia (On Clemency) - written to Nero on the need for clemency as a virtue in an emperor.
  • (63) De Beneficiis (On Benefits) [seven books]
  • (63) Naturales quaestiones [seven books] of no great originality but offering an insight into ancient theories of cosmology, meteorology, and similar subjects.
  • (64) Epistulae morales ad Lucilium - collection of 124 letters dealing with moral issues written to Lucilius.
  • (370?) Cujus etiam ad Paulum apostolum leguntur epistolae: These letters, allegedly between Seneca and St. Paul, were revered by early authorities, but currently are not believed to be authentic by most scholars. [1] [2]

Events October 13 - Roman Empire emperor Claudius dies after being poisoned by Agrippina, his wife and niece. ... The Pumpkinification of (the Divine) Claudius or Apocolocyntosis (divi Claudii) is a political satire on the Roman emperor Claudius, probably written by Seneca the Younger. ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... The word may have one of the following meanings. ... // Events By place Roman Empire War between Rome and Parthia broke out due to the invasion of Armenia by Vologases, who replaced the Roman supported ruler with his brother Tiridates of Parthia Publius Clodius Thrasea Paetus becomes a consul in Rome. ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... A pardon is the forgiveness of a crime and the penalty associated with it. ... Personification of virtue (Greek ἀρετή) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey Virtue (Latin virtus; Greek ) is moral excellence of a person. ... Cosmology, from the Greek: κοσμολογία (cosmologia, κόσμος (cosmos) order + λογια (logia) discourse) is the study of the Universe in its totality, and by extension, humanitys place in it. ... Satellite image of Hurricane Hugo with a polar low visible at the top of the image. ... The Epistulae morales ad Lucilium is a bundle of letters which were written by Seneca the Younger. ... Lucilius is the nomen of the gens Lucilia of ancient Rome. ... Events Basil of Caesarea becomes bishop of Caesarea. ...

Seneca as a humanist saint

Medieval writers and works (such as the Golden Legend, which erroneously has Nero as a witness to his suicide) believed that Seneca had been converted to the Christian faith by Saint Paul, and early humanists regarded his fatal bath as a kind of disguised baptism. The Golden Legend by Jacobus de Voragine is a collection of fanciful hagiographies, lives of the saints, that became a late mediæval best seller. ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... Humanism[1] is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appeal to universal human qualities—particularly rationalism. ...


Dante, nevertheless, placed Seneca in the First Circle of Hell, or Limbo, a place of perfect natural happiness where good non-Christians like the ancient philosophers had to stay for eternity, due to their lack of the justifying grace (given only by Christ) required to go to heaven. DANTE is also a digital audio network. ... Dante shown holding a copy of The Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory and the city of Florence, in Michelinos fresco. ... This article is about the theological concept. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Seneca the younger also makes an appearance as a character in Monteverdi's opera L'incoronazione di Poppea. For the composer see Claudio Monteverdi For the Swiss automobile brand created by Peter Monteverdi, see Monteverdi (car) Monteverde Monte Verde Category: ... Lincoronazione di Poppea (The Coronation of Poppea) is an opera seria in three acts by Claudio Monteverdi to an Italian libretto by Giovanni Francesco Busenello, based on historical incidents described in the Annals of Tacitus. ...


See also

The Loeb Classical Library is a series of books, today published by the Harvard University Press, which present important works of ancient Greek and Latin Literature in a way designed to make the text accessible to the broadest possible audience, by presenting the original Greek or Latin text on each... Lucius, or Marcus, Annaeus Seneca, known as Seneca the Elder and Seneca the Rhetorician (c. ... This article is about theatrical performance in ancient Rome. ...

External links

Wikisource
Wikisource has original works written by or about:
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Seneca the Younger
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Lucius Annaeus Seneca
  • Original texts of Seneca's works at 'The Latin Library' [3]
  • Works by Seneca the Younger at Project Gutenberg
  • John Cunnally, Nero, Seneca, and the Medallist of the Roman Emperors, Art Bulletin, Vol. 68, No. 2 (June., 1986) , pp. 314-317
  • Works by Seneca: text, concordances and frequency list
  • 70 Quotes for 'Seneca (Lucius Annaeus Seneca)' in the Database.
  • List of commentaries of Seneca's Letters [4]

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Seneca, the younger, c.3 B.C.-A.D. 65, Roman philosopher, dramatist, and statesman. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth ... (472 words)
Seneca, the younger, c.3 B.C.-A.D. 65, Roman philosopher, dramatist, and statesman.
Seneca, the younger, c.3 B.C.–A.D. 65, Roman philosopher, dramatist, and statesman
He was the son of Seneca the elder.
Seneca - Crystalinks (1164 words)
Seneca was also the author of a lost historical work, containing the history of Rome from the beginning of the civil wars almost down to his own death, after which it was published by his son.
Born in Cordoba, Hispania (in modern Spain), Seneca was the second son of Helvia and Marcus (Lucius) Annaeus Seneca, a wealthy rhetorician known as Seneca the Elder.
In 65, Seneca was accused of being involved in a plot to murder Nero, the Pisonian conspiracy.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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