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A senate is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature. Politics is a process by which decisions are made within groups. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... Political science is an academic and research discipline that deals with the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behavior. ... Political history is what most people refer to simply as history. ... This is a list of notable political scientists. ... Comparative government or more correctly comparative politics is the field in political science that focuses on comparing the varying forms of government in the world, and the states they govern, though it may also compare governments across different periods of history. ... International relations (IR), a branch of political science, is the study of foreign affairs of and relations among states within the international system, including the roles of states, inter-governmental organizations (IGOs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and multinational corporations (MNCs). ... Political economy was the original term for the study of production, the acts of buying and selling, and their relationships to laws, customs and government. ... Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, property, rights, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it... Political psychology is an interdisciplinary academic field dedicated to the study of the psychology behind political behavior by voters, lawmakers, local and national governments and administrations, international organizations, political parties and associations. ... A form of government is a colloquial term that refers to the set of political institutions by which a state is organized in order to exert its powers over a political community [1] Note that this definition holds valid even if the government is illegitimate or if it is unsuccessful... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme political (e. ... It has been suggested that public management be merged into this article or section. ... In some theories of government, all people are considered equal: in their right to govern themselves, and in their contributions to the rules of their society. ... The psychodynamics of decision-making form a basis to understand institutional functioning. ... Politics is a process by which decisions are made within groups. ... A form of government (also referred to as a system of government or a political system) is a system composed of various people, institutions and their relations in regard to the governance of a state. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... -1... An Autocracy is a form of government in which unlimited power is held by a single individual. ... Despotism is a form of government by a single authority, either a single person (ie. ... Dictatorship, in contemporary usage, refers to absolute rule by leadership unrestricted by law, constitutions, or other social and political factors within the state. ... Places where monarchies maintain rule appear in blue. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Oligarchy is a form of government where most or all political power effectively rests with a small segment of society (typically the most powerful, whether by wealth, family, military strength, ruthlessness, or political influence). ... States in which a single party is constitutionally linked to power (or the provisions of its constitution are currently suspended while a single party rules) are coloured in brown. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... An election is a decision making process whereby people vote for preferred political candidates or parties to act as representatives in government. ... It has been suggested that ballot be merged into this article or section. ... An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... A political party is an organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ... A deliberative body (or deliberative assembly) is an organization which collectively makes decisions after debate and discussion. ... An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the lower house. ... A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ...

Contents


Overview

The word senate is derived from the Latin word senex for "old man", via the Latin word senatus (senate). The members or legislators of a senate are called senators. The Latin word senator was adopted into English with no change in spelling. Its meaning comes from a very ancient form of even simple social organization in which decision-making powers are reserved for the eldest men. For the same reason, the word senate is correctly used when referring to any powerful authority characteristically composed by the eldest members of a community, as a deliberative body of a faculty in an institution of higher learning is often called a senate. The original senate was the Roman Senate, which lasted until 580. Latin is an ancient Indo-European language. ... The Roman Senate (Latin, Senatus) was a deliberative body which was important in the government of both the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire. ... Events Around this time, the historian Jordanes writes several books. ...


Modern democratic states with bicameral parliamentary systems are sometimes equipped with a senate, often distinguished by an ordinary parallel lower house, known variously as the "House of Representatives", "House of Commons", "Chamber of Deputies", "National Assembly" or "House of Assembly", by electoral rules. This may include minimum age required for voters and candidates, proportional or majoritarian or plurality system, and an electoral basis or collegium. Typically, the senate is referred to as the upper house and has a smaller membership than the lower house. In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house. ... House of Representatives is a name used for legislative bodies in many countries. ... British House of Commons Canadian House of Commons In some bicameral parliaments of a Westminster System, the House of Commons has historically been the name of the elected lower house. ... Chamber of Deputies is the name given to a legislative body, which may either be the lower house of a bicameral legislature, or the name of a unicameral one. ... The National Assembly is the name of either a legislature, or the lower house of a bicameral legislature in some countries. ... House of Assembly is a name given to the legislature or lower house of a bicameral legislature, in some countries, often at subnational level. ... Majoritarianism is a political philosophy or agenda which asserts that a majority (sometimes categorized by religion, language or some other identifying factor) of the population is entitled to a certain degree of primacy in society, and has the right to make decisions that affect the society. ... A plurality (or relative majority) is the largest share of something, which may or may not be a majority. ...


Senate membership can be determined either through elections or appointments. For example, elections are held every 3 years for half the membership of the Australian Senate, the term of a senator being 6 years. In contrast, members of the Canadian Senate are appointed by the Governor General upon the recommendation of the prime minister of Canada. Some states have a combination of these two approaches, such as the Jamaican Senate, where thirteen are appointed by the prime minister and eight by the leader of the opposition. Australian Senate chamber Entrance to the Senate The Senate is the upper of the two houses of the Parliament of Australia. ... The Senate of Canada (French: Le Sénat du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the House of Commons. ... The Governor General of Canada (French: Gouverneure générale du Canada or Gouverneur général du Canada) is the representative of the Canadian monarch. ... Stephen Harper is the current Prime Minister of Canada. ... Parliament is the legislative branch of the government of Jamaica. ... The Leader of the Opposition is a title traditionally held by the leader of the largest party not in government in a Westminster System of parliamentary government. ...


In a federal system, the senate often serves a balancing effect by giving a larger share of power to regions and groups which would otherwise be overwhelmed in a purely representative system. In the legislatures of U.S. states, senates were also used for this purpose until the 1963 case of Baker v. Carr, in which the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that state legislatures must apportion seats in both houses according to population. However, there are still typically fewer members of a state Senate than there are members of the lower house. A state of the United States (a U.S. state) is any one of the fifty states (four of which officially favor the term commonwealth) which, along with the District of Columbia, form the United States of America. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... Holding The reapportionment of state legislative districts is not a political question, and is justiciable by the federal courts. ... The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the judicial branch of the United States federal government. ...


A senate can also be the name of an executive branch of government. Until 1919, the Senate of Finland was the executive branch and supreme court. The Senate of Finland combined the functions of cabinet and supreme court in the Grand Duchy of Finland between 1816 to 1917. ...


In Germany, the term Senate also has different meanings, referring to the executive branch of government rather than the legislature, and to the judiciary. In the city states of Berlin, Bremen and Hamburg, the executive is called the Senate ("Senat" in German), with Senators ("Senatoren") holding ministerial portfolios. Also in Germany, bodies of usually five judges in higher courts of appeal hearing and deciding cases are called "senates", although the judges are not called "senators". However, in the Free State of Bavaria, the Senate was the upper house of parliament until its abolition in 1999. Germany is a Federal Republic made up of 16 States, known in German as Länder (transliterated as Laender in English, singular Land). ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... The Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (official name; German: Freie Hansestadt Bremen) is the smallest of Germanys 16 Federal States (Bundesländer). ... Hamburgs motto: May the posterity endeavour with dignity to conserve the freedom, which the forefathers acquired. ... Judges may refer to the Book of Judges in the Bible more than one judge. ... Court of Appeals is the title of certain appellate courts in various jurisdictions. ... The Free State of Bavaria  (German: Freistaat Bayern), with an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ...


The title of senator can also be used for certain members of other legislative bodies, for example, some elected members of the States of Jersey, and nominated members of Dominica's House of Assembly and St. Kitts and Nevis's National Assembly, are known as 'Senators'. The Government of the Bailiwick of Jersey, the nation being a crown dependency of the United Kingdom, is composed of the Queen of the United Kingdom, the Lieutenant Governor, the Bailiff, the Assembly of the States, and since December 2005, the Chief Minister of Jersey and his cabinet. ...


In Scotland, judges of the High Court of Justiciary are called Senators of the College of Justice. Motto: (Latin for No one provokes me with impunity)1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots2 Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by Kenneth I 843  Area    - Total 78... Seal of the High Court of Justiciary © Crown Copyright The High Court of Justiciary is Scotlands supreme criminal court. ...


Senates around the world

Defunct senates

1. Senate abolished, unicameral system adopted.
2. Legislature disbanded.
3. New Constitution adopted.
4. Replaced by National Council of Provinces.
The Free State of Bavaria  (German: Freistaat Bayern), with an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Congress of the Confederate States was the legislative body of the Confederate States of America, existing during the American Civil War between 1861 and 1865. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Legislative power of Guyana rests in a unicameral National Assembly, with 53 members chosen on the basis of proportional representation from national lists named by the political parties. ... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... This page refers to the year 1979. ... 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ... 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... This page refers to the year 1979. ... The Parliament of Northern Ireland was the home rule legislature created under the Government of Ireland Act 1920, which existed from June 7, 1921 to March 30, 1972, when it was suspended. ... 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal. // Events January Bill Clinton January 1 : North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) goes into effect. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Official language Vietnamese Capital Saigon Last President Duong Van Minh Last Prime Minister Vu Van Mau Area  - Total  - % water 173,809 km² N/A Population  - Total  - Density 19,370,000 (1973 est. ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... Politics of Sri Lanka takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Sri Lanka is both head of state and head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1971 calendar). ... 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... The 1980s decade refers to the years from 1980 to 1989, inclusive, informally sometimes including the years 1979, 1990 and 1991. ... This article is about the year 2000. ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
U.S. Senate (538 words)
Vice presidents cannot vote in the Senate, except to break a tie, nor may they formally address the Senate, except with the senators' permission.
Initially vice presidents appointed senators to standing committees, regulated access to the galleries and supervised the keeping of the Senate Journal, but these duties were later removed.
Junior senators fill in as presiding officer when neither the vice president nor president pro tempore is on the Senate Floor.
Encyclopedia4U - United States Senate - Encyclopedia Article (695 words)
The United States Senate is the upper house of the Congress of the United States, the lower house of which is the U.S. House of Representatives.
Senators serve for terms of six years; the terms are staggered so that approximately one-third of the Senate is up for election every two years: each time there are elections in about 33 states for one of the two seats.
The first session of Senate to be open to the public was held on February 11, 1794 and on February 27, 1986 the Senate allowed its debates to be televised on a trial basis (which was later made permanent).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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