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Encyclopedia > Senate of South Africa

The Senate (Senaat in Afrikaans) was the upper house of the Parliament of South Africa between 1910 and 1981, and between 1994 and 1997. Afrikaans is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in South Africa and Namibia with smaller numbers of speakers in Botswana, Lesotho, Swaziland, Zimbabwe and Zambia. ... An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the lower house. ... The Parliament of South Africa, has undergone many transformations, as a result of the countrys tumultuous history. ... -1... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


1910-1981

Under white minority rule in the Union of South Africa, most of the Senators were chosen by an electoral college consisting of Members of each of the four Provincial Councils and Members of the House of Assembly (the lower house of Parliament, directly elected). The remaining Senators were appointed by the Governor General of the Union on the advice of the Prime Minister. The Senate's presiding officer was called the President, whereas his counterpart in the House of Assembly was the Speaker. National motto: Ex Unitate Vires (Latin: From Unity, strength} Official languages Afrikaans, English. ... An electoral college is a set of electors who are empowered as a deliberative body to elect someone to a particular office. ... House of Assembly is a name given to the legislature or lower house of a bicameral legislature, in some countries, often at subnational level. ... A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house. ... The Governor General of the Union of South Africa was the representative of the British Crown in South Africa between May 31, 1910 and May 31, 1961. ... This is a list of South African Prime Ministers. ...


In 1958, Nationalist Prime Minister Hendrik Verwoerd wanted to amend one of the entrenched clauses in the Constitution, and remove voting rights from Coloureds, but his party did not have a two-thirds majority in the Senate enabling him to do this. Consequently, he nominated large numbers of party supporters to be appointed as Senators, thereby ensuring a majority in the upper house, and the change to the Constitution. 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Party (Afrikaans: Nasionale Party) (with its members sometimes known as Nationalists or Nats) was the governing party of South Africa from June 4th 1948 until May 9th 1994, and was disbanded in 2005. ... Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd (8 September 1901 - 6 September 1966) was Prime Minister of South Africa from 1958 to 1966, when he was assassinated. ... An entrenched clause of a constitution is a provision which makes certain amendments either more difficult than others or impossible. ... In the South African and Namibian context, the term Coloured (also known as Bruinmense, Kleurlinge or Bruine Afrikaners) refers to a rather heterogeneous group of people of mixed Khoisan, white European descent, Malay, Malagasy, Black (Bantu), and South Indian ancestry, especially in the Western Cape. ...


The Senate reverted to its original size, and its composition remained unchanged by the declaration of the Republic of South Africa in 1961, except that the State President took the role of the Governor-General in appointing Senators. The President of the Senate was able to serve as acting State President. 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... From 1961 to 1994, South Africas head of state was called the State President or Staatspresident in Afrikaans. ...


In 1980, Prime Minister P.W Botha began a process of constitutional reform, and the Senate was abolished with effect from 1981. Some former Senators became members of an enlarged House of Assembly, chosen by the elected members. The President's Council, an advisory body consisting of white, coloured and Asian members only, occupied the former Senate chamber. In 1984, the chamber was converted for use as the House of Representatives, reserved for coloureds under the tricameral system. Black South Africans remained excluded from the political process. 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... P.W. Botha Pieter Willem Botha, (born January 12, 1916) commonly known as P.W. and Die Groot Krokodil (Afrikaans: The Big Crocodile) was Prime Minister of South Africa from 1978 to 1984 and State President from 1984 to 1989. ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... House of Representatives is a name used for legislative bodies in many countries. ... The Tricameral Parliament was the name given to the South African parliament and its structure from 1984 to 1994. ...


1994-1997

Under the country's first non-racial Constitution in 1994, the Senate was once again the upper house of a bicameral parliament, the lower house being the National Assembly. It was indirectly elected by members of each of the nine Provincial Legislatures, with each province having ten Senators. In 1997, the Senate was replaced by a National Council of Provinces (NCoP), which retained the former Senate's membership, although changed its legislative and constitutional role. 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... The National Assembly is the lower house of the Parliament of South Africa, located in Cape Town, Western Cape Province. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Council of Provinces (NCOP) (Afrikaans; Nasionale Raad van Provinsies) is the upper house of the Parliament of South Africa under the (post-apartheid) constitution which came into full effect in 1997. ...


Presidents of the Senate of South Africa (1910-1980) and (1994-1997)

  • 1910-1921 Francis William Reitz
  • 1921-1929 H.C. van Heerden
  • 1929-1930 R.A. Kerr
  • 1930-1940 Christiaan Andries van Niekerk( 1st time)
  • 1940-1941 François Stephanus Malan
  • 1942-1945 Philippus Arnoldus Myburgh
  • 1946-1948 P.J. Wessels
  • 1948-1961 Christiaan Andries van Niekerk (2nd time)
  • 1961-1969 Jozua François Naudé
  • 1969-1976 Johannes de Klerk
  • 1976-1979 Marais Viljoen
  • 1979-1980 Jimmy Kruger
  • 1994-1997 Kobie Coetsee

  Results from FactBites:
 
Politics of South Africa - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1260 words)
The present Constitution of South Africa was certified by the Constitutional Court on 4 December 1996, was signed by then President Mandela on 10 December 1996, and entered into effect on 3 February 1997; it is being implemented in phases.
The bicameral Parliament of South Africa consists of the National Assembly (400 seats; members are elected by popular vote under a system of proportional representation to serve five-year terms) and the National Council of Provinces (90 seats, 10 members elected by each of the nine provincial legislatures for five-year terms).
Although South Africa's economy is in many areas highly developed, the exclusionary nature of apartheid and distortions caused in part by the country's international isolation until the 1990s have left major weaknesses.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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