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Encyclopedia > Senate of Poland
The Polish Senate
The Polish Senate

The Senate (Senat) is the upper house of the Polish parliament. It consists of 100 senators elected by universal ballot and is headed by the speaker of Senate (Marszałek Senatu). Coat of Arms of the Polish Senate, based on the Coat of Arms of Poland from the times of kings Stefan Batory and Sigismund the Old. ... Image File history File links Polski_Senat. ... Image File history File links Polski_Senat. ... States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, and the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ...

Contents

History

The Senate can be traced back to a council of royal advisors. In the Nobles' Democracy, the Senate was the upper chamber of the Sejm, and consisted of members of the royal cabinet and the royal court, together with voivods, prefects and castellans (all appointed by the king), and Catholic bishops (see Senatorial offices for details). Main article: Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth The Nihil novi act adopted by the Polish Diet in 1505 transferred all legislative power from the king to the Diet. ... The Sejm building in Warsaw. ... Voivod or (more common) voivoda is a Slavic term initially denoting first in command of a military unit. ... Offices in Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth article presents the organizational structure and administrative system of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ...


In the so-called Second Polish Republic, senators were elected by universal ballot. After a referendum organized in 1946 by the Communist regime, the Senate was abolished in the post-Second World War People's Republic of Poland. It was only re-established after the fall of communism in 1989. Second Polish Republic 1921-1939 The Second Polish Republic is an unofficial name applied to the Republic of Poland between World War I and World War II. When the borders of the state were fixed in 1921, it had an area of 388. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... The Peoples Republic of Poland or Polish Peoples Republic (Polish: Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL) was the official name of Poland from 1952 to 1989, during its period of rule by the Communist party, officially called the Polish United Workers Party (Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza, or PZPR). ... In the 1970s and 1980s the whole system in Poland was deeper and deeper in the crisis and was beginning to crumble as was the whole Eastern bloc with the USSR as the fading superpower. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Poland

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Poland
Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1932x2407, 4465 KB) [edit] Summary Coat of arms of the Republic of Poland Made by Aotaearoa, based on the official specifications in Coat of arms, Colors and Anthem of the Republic of Poland, and State Seals Act (Dz. ... Politics of Poland takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ...







Voivodeships Flag of the President of Poland The President of the Republic of Poland (Polish: Prezydent Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej) is directly elected by the people to serve a term of five years. ...  , (born June 18, 1949) is the President of the Republic of Poland and a politician of the conservative party Prawo i Sprawiedliwość (Law and Justice, PiS.) KaczyÅ„ski served as President of Warsaw from 2002 until December 22, 2005, the day before his presidential inauguration. ... The Prime Minister of the Republic of Poland represents the Council of Ministers (the Cabinet) and directs their work, supervises territorial self-government within the guidelines and in ways described in the Constitution and other legislation, and acts as the superior for all government administration workers (heading the public service...   (born June 18, 1949) has been the Prime Minister of Poland since July 2006 and is the chairman of Law and Justice (Polish: ), a party which he co-founded in 2001. ... The National Assembly (Zgromadzenie Narodowe) is the name of both chambers of the Polish parliament, the Sejm and the Senate, when sitting in joint session. ... The Sejm building in Warsaw. ... The Council of Ministers (cabinet), or Polish government, consists of ministers, heads of departments of ministerial rank, and heads of central institutions. ... // Existing ministries Ministerstwo Finansów (Ministry of Finances) Ministerstwo Spraw Zagranicznych (Ministry of Foreign Affairs) Ministerstwo Spraw WewnÄ™trznych i Administracji (Ministry of Internal Affairs and Administration) Ministerstwo SprawiedliwoÅ›ci (Ministry of Justice) Ministerstwo Obrony Narodowej (Ministry of National Defence) Ministerstwo Rolnictwa i Rozwoju Wsi ( Ministry of Agriculture and Rural... Polish law is a legal system in Poland. ... The Supreme Court of Poland supervises the adjudication in: General courts - these are district, voivodeship, and appeal courts. ... The Constitutional Tribunal of Poland is a judicial body established to resolve disputes on the constitutionality of the activities of state institutions; its main task is to supervise the compliance of statutory law with the Constitution of the Republic of Poland. ... The State Tribunal of Poland is the judicial body, which rules on the constitutional liability of people holding the highest offices of state. ... The Supreme Administrative Court of Poland (Polish: ) is the court of last resort in administrative cases i. ... The Supreme Chamber of Control (Polish: Najwyższa Izba Kontroli, short: NIK) is one of the oldest state institutions in Poland, created under the Second Republic on February 7, 1919, barely 3 months after the restoration of Polands independence. ... The Attorney General of Poland (Polish: Prokurator Generalny) is the top prosecuting officer in Poland. ... List of the Polish Ombudsmen: Ewa Łętowska - November 19, 1987 - February 12, 1992 Tadeusz ZieliÅ„ski - February 13, 1992 - May 7, 1996 Adam ZieliÅ„ski - May 8, 1996 - June 29, 2000 Andrzej Zoll - from June 30, 2000 Official site Categories: Poland-related stubs | Politics of Poland ... Political parties in Poland lists political parties in Poland. ... The League of Polish Families (Liga Polskich Rodzin, or LPR) is a conservative extremist political party within the Polish Parliament, and a coalition partner in Polands current ruling government. ... Unia Polityki Realnej (Real Politics Union) is a conservative free-market party in Poland. ... The Democratic Party () is a social liberal party in Poland, publicly announced on February 28 and formally established on May 9, 2005 as an enlargement of the Freedom Union (Unia WolnoÅ›ci), which it legally succeeds. ... Then-Prime Minister Marcinkiewicz, Lech KaczyÅ„ski, and Maria KaczyÅ„ska during KaczyÅ„skis swearing in as President of Poland, December 23, 2005. ... The Civic Platform (Platforma Obywatelska, also called the Citizens Platform) is a liberal conservative political party in Poland. ... The Polish Peoples Party (Polish: Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe, also known in English as Polish Peasant Party) is a political party in Poland. ... The Social Democratic Party of Poland (Socjaldemokracja Polska, SDPL) is a new leftist political party in Poland founded in April 2004 as a splinter group from Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej (it should not be confused with a former party Social Democracy of the Republic of Poland - SdRP). ... Democratic Left Alliance (Polish: Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej, SLD) is one of the main Polish social democratic political parties. ... Self-Defence of the Republic of Poland (Polish: Samoobrona Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej, SRP) is a left wing political party and trade union in Poland. ... Labor Union (Unia Pracy) is a Polish political party. ... Elections in Poland gives information on election and election results in Poland. ... Presidential elections were held in Poland on Sunday November 25 (1st round), and Sunday December 9, 1990 (2n round). ... Presidential elections were held in Poland on Sunday November 5 (1st round), and Sunday November 19, 1990 (2n round). ... Presidential elections were held in Poland on Sunday October 8. ... Presidential elections were held in Poland on October 9 and October 23, 2005. ... Contract Sejm (Polish: ) is a term commonly applied to the Polish Parliament elected in the Polish parliamentary elections of 1989. ... Sejm election Senat election Categories: Politics of Poland | 1991 elections | Elections in Poland | 1991 in Poland ... Sejm election German Minority - 4 MPs Senat election Categories: Politics of Poland | 1993 elections | Elections in Poland | 1993 in Poland ... Sejm election German Minority - 2 MPs Senat election Categories: Politics of Poland | 1997 elections | Elections in Poland ... Sejm election German Minority - 2 MPs Senat election Categories: Politics of Poland | 2001 elections | Elections in Poland ... Parliamentary elections for both houses of the Parliament of Poland were held on September 25, 2005. ... Elections to the European Parliament were held in Poland on June 13, 2004. ... Local elections in Poland SLD-UP - 6644 (14,19%) PSL - 4986 (10,65%) Samoobrona - 1530 (3,27%) LPR - 1065 (2,27%) PiS - 217 (0,46%) PO - 213 (0,45%) PO-PiS - 85 (0,18%) Unia SamorzÄ…dowa - 4 (0,01%) Alternatywa - 1 (0,00%) UPR - 0 (0,00%) other comitets... Local elections were held in Poland in 1990. ... Local elections were held in Poland in 1994. ... Local elections were held in Poland in 1998. ... SLD-UP - 6644 (14,19%) PSL - 4986 (10,65%) Samoobrona - 1530 (3,27%) LPR - 1065 (2,27%) PiS - 217 (0,46%) PO - 213 (0,45%) PO-PiS - 85 (0,18%) Unia SamorzÄ…dowa - 4 (0,01%) Alternatywa - 1 (0,00%) UPR - 0 (0,00%) other comitets - 32088 (68,52%) sum... Polish local elections 2006 schedule: November 12 - first round November 26 - second round Civic Platform (Platforma Obywatelska) Law and Justice (Prawo i Sprawiedliwość) Categories: | ... There have been several referenda in history of Poland. ... The voivodeship or province (Polish: województwo) has been a second-level administrative unit in Poland since the 14th century. ...


See also: Economy, Foreign relations
History, Military
Poland became a full member of NATO in March 1999, and of the European Union in May 2004. ... In the period following its emergence in the 10th century, the Polish nation was led by a series of strong rulers who converted the Poles to Christianity, created a strong Central European state and integrated Poland into European culture. ...


EU Politics The European Union or EU is a supranational and international organization of 27 member states. ...


Other countries · Politics Portal
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Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ...

The Senate of Poland Today

The term of office of a senator is four years. The Senate may reject or amend the bills passed by the Sejm but any rejection or amendment may still be overruled by an absolute majority vote in the Sejm. A joint session of the Senate and the Sejm is known as a National Assembly. Traditionally, the Senate takes particular care of Polonia, Polish communities outside Poland. The National Assembly (Zgromadzenie Narodowe) is the name of both chambers of the Polish parliament, the Sejm and the Senate, when sitting in joint session. ... Polonia is the Latin name for Poland. ...


Senators are elected by a plurality bloc voting method (rare internationally), where several candidates with the highest support are elected from each electorate, and each voter selects their whole preferred set. The exact number of senators from each electorate is dependent on its population and varies from two to four. Bloc voting (or block voting) (also called Plurality-at-large) refers to a class of voting systems which can be used to elect several representatives from a single constituency. ... In politics, an electorate is the group of people entitled to vote in an election. ...


2005 election

[discuss] – [edit]
Summary of the 25 September 2005 National Assembly (Sejm and Senat) election results
Parties Votes % Seats Sejm +/- Seats Senat
Law and Justice (Prawo i Sprawiedliwość, PiS) 3,185,714 27.0 155 +111 49
Civic Platform (Platforma Obywatelska, PO) 2,849,259 24.1 133 +68 34
Self-Defense of the Republic of Poland (Samoobrona RP) 1,347,355 11.4 56 +3 3
Democratic Left Alliance (Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej, SLD) 1,335,257 11.3 55 -161 -
League of Polish Families (Liga Polskich Rodzin, LPR) 940,726 8.0 34 -4 7
Polish Peasant Party (Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe, PSL) 821,656 7.0 25 -17 2
Social Democracy of Poland (Socjaldemokracja Polska, SDPL)   3.9 -   -
Democratic Party (Partia Demokratyczna)   2.5 -   -
Janusz Korwin-Mikke Platform (Platforma Janusza Korwin-Mikke, PJKM)   1.6 -   -
Patriotic Movement (Ruch Patriotyczny)   1.1 -   -
Polish Labour Party (Polska Partia Pracy, PPP)   0.8 -   -
German Minority Electoral Committee (Komitet Wyborczy Mniejszość Niemiecka) 34,469 0.3 2    
Independents         5
Total (turnout 40.6 %) 11,804,676   460   100
*Registered voters: 30,338,316
  • Votes counted: 12,255,875
  • Invalid votes: 451,199
  • Valid votes: 11,804,676

The National Assembly (Zgromadzenie Narodowe) is the name of both chambers of the Polish parliament, the Sejm and the Senate, when sitting in joint session. ... Then-Prime Minister Marcinkiewicz, Lech Kaczyński, and Maria Kaczyńska during Kaczyńskis swearing in as President of Poland, December 23, 2005. ... The Civic Platform (Platforma Obywatelska, also called the Citizens Platform) is a liberal conservative political party in Poland. ... Self-Defence of the Republic of Poland (Polish: Samoobrona Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej, SRP) is a left wing political party and trade union in Poland. ... Democratic Left Alliance (Polish: Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej, SLD) is one of the main Polish social democratic political parties. ... The League of Polish Families (Liga Polskich Rodzin, or LPR) is a conservative extremist political party within the Polish Parliament, and a coalition partner in Polands current ruling government. ... The Polish Peoples Party (Polish: Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe, also known in English as Polish Peasant Party) is a political party in Poland. ... Social Democracy of Poland (Socjaldemokracja Polska, SDPL) is a new leftist political party in Poland founded in April 2004 as a splinter group from Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej (it should not be confused with a former party Socialdemocracy of the Republic of Poland - SdRP). ... The Democratic Party () is a liberal party in Poland, publicly announced on February 28 and formally established on May 9, 2005 as an enlargement of the Freedom Union (Unia Wolności), which it legally succeeds. ... ... The Polish Labour Party (Polska Partia Parcy) is a minor political party in Poland which describes itself as social democratic. ... Parliamentary elections for both houses of the Parliament of Poland were held on September 25, 2005. ... Wojciech Trąmpczyński Wojciech Trąmpczyński (b. ... Term of Office from September 30, 1939 until June 6, 1947 Profession Lawyer Political Party none (BBWR) First Lady not married Date of Birth January 28, 1885 Place of Birth Kutaisi, Georgia Date of Death June 6, 1947 Place of Death Wales, United Kingdom Władysław Raczkiewicz (January 28... Aleksander Prystor (1874-1941) was a Polish politician who served as Prime Minister of Poland from 1931 to 1933. ... Longin Hieronim Pastusiak (b. ... Office Marshal of the Senate of Poland Term of office from October 20, 2005 until present Profession Historian Political party independent Spouse widowed Date of birth January 11, 1949 Place of birth Lidzbark Warmiński, Poland Date of death Place of death Bogdan Michał Borusewicz, (born January 11, 1949 in...

Polish Senators (2001-2005 term)

  1. Jerzy Adamski
  2. Andrzej Anulewicz
  3. Franciszek Bachleda-Księdzularz
  4. Marek Balicki
  5. Janusz Lucjan Bargieł
  6. Tadeusz Bartos
  7. Maria Berny
  8. Adam Biela
  9. Janusz Stefan Bielawski
  10. January Bronisław Bień
  11. Franciszek Bogdan Bobrowski
  12. Krystyna Maria Bochenek (since September 2004)
  13. Krzysztof Wawrzyniec Borkowski
  14. Władysław Bułka
  15. Czesława Christowa
  16. Andrzej Chronowski
  17. Zygmunt Alojzy Cybulski
  18. Gerard Czaja
  19. Jolanta Ryszarda Danielak
  20. Krystyna Doktorowicz
  21. Kazimierz Drożdż
  22. Bernard Drzęźla
  23. Henryk Dzido
  24. Józef Dziemdziela
  25. Genowefa Maria Ferenc
  26. Witold Feliks Gładkowski
  27. Zbigniew Gołąbek
  28. Stanisław Huskowski (since April 2004)
  29. Sławomir Izdebski
  30. Andrzej Jaeschke
  31. Zdzisława Janowska
  32. Zdzisław Jarmużek
  33. Ryszard Jarzembowski
  34. Kazimierz Jaworski (since 29 September 2004)
  35. Krzysztof Jurgiel (since 22 October 2003)
  36. Dorota Maria Kempka
  37. Apolonia Klepacz
  38. Janusz Konieczny
  39. Aleksandra Koszada
  40. Marian Kozłowski
  41. Zbigniew Kruszewski
  42. Olga Teresa Krzyżanowska
  43. Zbigniew Jerzy Kulak
  44. Anna Maria Kurska
  45. Irena Kurzępa
  46. Kazimierz Kutz
  47. Grzegorz Lato
  48. Marian Piotr Lewicki
  49. Grzegorz Marek Lipowski
  50. Teresa Liszcz
  51. Bogusław Litwiniec
  52. Janusz Józef Lorenz
  53. Mirosław Lubiński (since 7 May 2003)
  54. Włodzimierz Łęcki
  55. Władysław Mańkut
  56. Jerzy Markowski
  57. Ryszard Matusiak (since 28 July 2004)
  58. Grzegorz Jan Matuszak
  59. Bogusław Mąsior
  60. Mieczysław Mietła
  61. Stanisław Nicieja
  62. Grzegorz Andrzej Niski
  63. Longin Hieronim Pastusiak
  64. Kazimierz Pawełek
  65. Wojciech Jerzy Pawłowski
  66. Jerzy Pieniążek
  67. Krzysztof Marek Piesiewicz
  68. Wiesław Michał Pietrzak
  69. Zbyszko Piwoński
  70. Sergiusz Plewa
  71. Bogdan Leszek Podgórski
  72. Lesław Paweł Podkański
  73. Jolanta Popiołek
  74. Zbigniew Religa
  75. Zbigniew Romaszewski
  76. Tadeusz Rzemykowski
  77. Wiesława Regina Sadowska
  78. Janina Sagatowska
  79. Wojciech Paweł Saługa (since 29 September 2004)
  80. Ewa Aleksandra Serocka
  81. Krystyna Helena Sienkiewicz
  82. Dorota Simonides
  83. Zofia Maria Skrzypek-Mrowiec (since29 September 2004)
  84. Ryszard Józef Sławiński
  85. Robert Maciej Smoktunowicz
  86. Jerzy Kazimierz Smorawiński
  87. Andrzej Kazimierz Spychalski
  88. Henryk Tadeusz Stokłosa
  89. Alicja Stradomska
  90. Jerzy Zdzisław Suchański
  91. Jan Szafraniec
  92. Józef Sztorc
  93. Krzysztof Szydłowski
  94. Maria Szyszkowska
  95. Andrzej Jan Wielowieyski
  96. Edmund Kazimierz Wittbrodt
  97. Tadeusz Wnuk
  98. Zbigniew Stanisław Zychowicz
  99. Marian Żenkiewicz

Krystyna Bochenek is a Polish politician, representing Platforma Obywatelska. ... September 29 is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Krzysztof Jurgiel (born November 18, 1953 in Ogrodniki) is a Polish politician. ... October 22 is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 70 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Kazimierz Julian Kutz (b. ... Grzegorz Lato Grzegorz Lato (born April 8, 1950 in Malbork, Poland) is a former Polish football (soccer) striker, the all-time cap leader for the Polish national team and the leading scorer at the 1974 World Cup. ... May 7 is the 127th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (128th in leap years). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 28 is the 209th day (210th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 156 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Longin Hieronim Pastusiak (b. ... Krzysztof Marek Piesiewicz (born on October 25, 1945 in Warsaw, Poland) is a Polish lawyer, screenwriter, and politician, who is currently a member of the Polish Parliament and head of the Ruch Społeczny (RS) or Social Movement Party. ... Zbigniew Religa (born December 16, 1938 in Miedniewice, Poland) is a prominent cardiologist and politician. ... September 29 is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 29 is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Robert Smoktunowicz is a Polish politician, representing Platforma Obywatelska. ... Maria Szyszkowska (born October 7, 1937 in Warsaw) is a Polish Senator, academic, and writer. ... Edmund Wittbrodt is a Polish politician, representing Platforma Obywatelska. ...

Former senators

  1. Jerzy Edmund Cieślak (died 25.04.2004 r.)
  2. Henryk Gołębiewski (till 31 January 2003)
  3. Genowefa Grabowska - elected MEP on 13.06.2004
  4. Adam Graczyński (died 26.08.2004)
  5. Adam Gierek - elected MEP on 13.06.2004
  6. Adam Jamróz (till 10 July 2003)
  7. Mieczysław Janowski - elected MEP on 13.06.2004 r.
  8. Jan Józef Lipski (died 10. 09. 1991)
  9. Marian Noga (till 14 January 2004 )
  10. Grażyna Ewa Staniszewska - elected MEP on 13.06.2004

January 31 is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Genowefa Grabowska Genowefa Grabowska (born on 1 January 1944 in Przystań) is a Polish politician and Member of the European Parliament for the Silesian Voivodship with the Socjaldemokracja Polska, part of the Socialist Group and sits on the European Parliaments Committee on Constitutional Affairs. ... Adam Gierek Adam Gierek (born on 17 April 1938 in Zwartberg) is a Polish politician and Member of the European Parliament for the Silesian Voivodship with the Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej - Unia Pracy, part of the Socialist Group and sits on the European Parliaments Committee on Industry, Research and Energy. ... July 10 is the 191st day (192nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 174 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mieczysław Edmund Janowski Mieczysław Edmund Janowski (born on 16 November 1947 in Zduńska Wola) is a Polish politician and Member of the European Parliament for the Subcarpathian Voivodship with the Prawo i Sprawiedliwosc, part of the Union for a Europe of Nations and sits... Jan Józef Lipski (born 26 May 1926 Warsaw, died 10 September 1991 Kraków) Polish critic and literature historian, socialist politician, freemason (for a long time Master of the Copernicus Lodge). ... January 14 is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Grażyna Staniszewska Grażyna Staniszewska (born on 2 November 1949 in Bielsko-Biała) is a Polish politician and Member of the European Parliament for the Silesian Voivodship with the Unia Wolnosci, part of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe and sits on the...

See also

The Sejm building in Warsaw. ... Politics of Poland takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... A senate is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature. ...

External links

  • official website

  Results from FactBites:
 
Encyclopedia: Senate of Poland (312 words)
The Senate (Senat) is the upper house of the Polish parliament.
Until 1919, the Senate of Finland was the executive branch and supreme court.
In the Nobles' Democracy, the Senate was the upper chamber of the Sejm, and consisted of members of the royal cabinet and the royal court, together with voivods, prefects and castellans (all appointed by the king), and Catholic bishops (see Senatorial offices for details).
Poland - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3576 words)
The Republic of Poland (Polish: Rzeczpospolita Polska) is a country located in Central Europe, between Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and the Baltic Sea, Lithuania, and Russia (in the form of the Kaliningrad Oblast exclave) to the north.
Poland's first historically documented ruler, Mieszko I, was baptized in 966, adopting Catholic Christianity as the country's new official religion, to which the bulk of the population converted in the course of the next century.
Poland has a large agricultural sector of private farms, that could be a leading producer of food in the European Union now that Poland is a member.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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