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Encyclopedia > Senate of Canada
Senate of Canada

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Type Upper House
Speaker Noël Kinsella, Conservative
since February 8, 2006
Leader of the Government in the Senate Marjory LeBreton, Conservative
since February 6, 2006
Leader of the Opposition in the Senate Céline Hervieux-Payette, Liberal
since January 18, 2007
Members 105
Political groups Conservative Party
Liberal Party
Progressive Conservative Party
New Democratic Party1
Last elections January 18, 2007
Meeting place Senate chamber, Centre Block, Parliament Hill, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
Web site Parliament of Canada
Canada

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Canada
For the demesne in The Keys to the Kingdom series, see The House An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the lower house. ... The Speaker of the Canadian Senate (French: Président du Sénat) is the presiding officer of the Canadian Senate. ... Noël Kinsella Noël A. Kinsella, BA, PhD, STD (born November 28, 1939) is Speaker of the Canadian Senate. ... The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a conservative political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ... The Leader of the Government in the Senate is a Canadian cabinet minister who leads the government side in the Canadian Senate and is chiefly responsible for promoting and defending the governments program in the Upper House. ... Marjory LeBreton, P.C. (born July 4, 1940) is a Canadian Senator and vice-chair of Mothers Against Drunk Driving in Canada. ... The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a conservative political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ... In Canada, the Leader of the Official Opposition in the Senate is the leader of the largest party in the Senate that is not in government. ... Céline Hervieux-Payette The Honourable Senator Céline Hervieux-Payette, PC, LL.L. (born April 22, 1941, LAssomption, Quebec) is a Canadian politician. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a conservative political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the Canadian political party. ... The Centre Block is the main building of the three on Parliament Hill in Ottawa, Ontario. ... For the hill in London, see Parliament Hill, London. ... This article is about the capital city of Canada. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 107 Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... The politics of Canada function within a framework of constitutional monarchy and a federal system of parliamentary government with strong democratic traditions. ...


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The Senate of Canada (French: Le Sénat du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the House of Commons. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Senate Chamber of Parliament Hill in Ottawa. ... Canada is a constitutional monarchy and a Commonwealth Realm with Queen Elizabeth II as its reigning monarch and head of state. ... The Governor General of Canada (French (feminine): Gouverneure générale du Canada, or (masculine): Gouverneur général du Canada) is the vice-regal representative in Canada of the Canadian monarch, who is the head of state. ... Type Lower House Speaker Peter Milliken, Liberal since January 29, 2001 Leader of the Government in the House of Commons Peter Van Loan, Conservative since January 4, 2007 Opposition House Leader Ralph Goodale, Liberal since January 23, 2006 Members 308 Political groups Conservative Party Liberal Party Bloc Québécois...

Contents

Composition

The Senate consists of 105 members appointed by the Governor General on the advice of the Prime Minister.[1] Seats are assigned on a regional basis, with each of the four major regions receiving twenty-four seats, and the remainder of the available seats being assigned to smaller regions. The four major regions are: Ontario, Quebec, the Maritime provinces, and the Western provinces. The seats for Newfoundland and Labrador, the Northwest Territories, Yukon, and Nunavut are assigned apart from these regional divisions. Senators may serve until they reach the age of 75. In constitutional law, Advice is formal, usually binding instruction given by a constitutional officer of state to another. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 107 Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... This article is about the Canadian province. ... The Maritimes or Maritime provinces are a region of Canada on the Atlantic coast, consisting of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. ... This article is about the region in Canada. ... This article is about the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... For the former United States territory, see Northwest Territory. ... This article is about Yukon Territory in Canada. ... For the Canadian federal electoral district, see Nunavut (electoral district). ...


The Senate is referred to as the "upper house" of Parliament, and the House of Commons is sometimes referred to as the "lower house". This does not, however, imply that the Senate is more powerful than the House of Commons, merely that its members and officers outrank the members and officers of the House of Commons in the order of precedence for the purposes of protocol. Indeed, as a matter of practice and custom, the Commons is by far the dominant chamber and is more intimately referred to as "the other place". Although the approval of both Houses is necessary for legislation, the Senate rarely rejects bills passed by the directly elected Commons. Moreover, the government is responsible solely to the House of Commons; the Prime Minister and Cabinet stay in office only as long as he or she retains the support of the lower house. The Senate does not exercise any such control. Although legislation can normally be introduced in either house, the majority of government bills originate in the House of Commons. Under the constitution, money bills must always originate in the House of Commons. For the demesne in The Keys to the Kingdom series, see The House An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the lower house. ... A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house. ... Denmark France Germany India Isle of Man Italy Jamaica New Zealand Norway Poland Romania Spain Sri Lanka Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States The Canadian order of precedence is a nominal and symbolic hierarchy of important positions within the Government of Canada. ... A bill is a proposed new law introduced within a legislature that has not been ratified, adopted, or received assent. ... A money bill is a bill that solely concerns taxation or government spending, as opposed to changes in public law. ...


Site

The Senate and the House of Commons sit in separate chambers in the Centre Block on Parliament Hill, which is located in Ottawa, Ontario. The Centre Block is the main building of the three on Parliament Hill in Ottawa, Ontario. ... For the hill in London, see Parliament Hill, London. ... This article is about the capital city of Canada. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 107 Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area...


The chamber in which the Senate sits is sometimes called the red chamber, due to the red cloth that adorns the chamber (and notably, the Throne); it is a contrast to the green used in the House of Commons. This is inherited from the British Houses of Parliament, where the Lords chamber is a lavish room with red benches, whereas the Commons chamber is a sparsely-decorated room with green benches. “Houses of Parliament” redirects here. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin...


Like the House of Commons, the Senate meets on Parliament Hill in Ottawa. The Senate Chamber is lavishly decorated and coloured red, in contrast with the more modest green Commons Chamber. There are benches on two sides of the Chamber, divided by a centre aisle. The Speaker's chair is at one end of the Chamber; in front of it is the Clerk's table. Various clerks sit at the table, ready to advise the Speaker and the senators on procedure when necessary. Members of the Government sit on the benches on the Speaker's right, while members of the Opposition occupy the benches on the Speaker's left (however, due to the large number of opposition senators, a number also occupy seats on the Speaker's right).


History

The Senate came into existence in 1867, when the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed the British North America Act, uniting the Province of Canada (which was separated into Quebec and Ontario) with Nova Scotia and New Brunswick into a single federation, a Dominion called Canada. The Canadian Parliament was based on the Westminster model (that is, the model of the Parliament of the United Kingdom). The Senate was intended to mirror the British House of Lords, in that it was meant to represent the social and economic élite. Canada's first Prime Minister, Sir John A. Macdonald, described it as a body of "sober second thought" that would curb the "democratic excesses" of the elected House of Commons and provide regional representation. As an upper house on the British parliamentary model, it was not meant to be more than a revising body, or a brake on the House of Commons. Therefore, it was deliberately made an appointed house, since an elected Senate might prove too popular and too powerful, and be able to block the will of the House of Commons. Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Speaker of the House of Lords Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist... The British North America Act of 1867 was the act that established the Dominion of Canada, by the fusion of the North American British colonies of the Province of Canada, Province of New Brunswick, Province of Nova Scotia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 107 Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 11 Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... This article is about the Canadian province. ... This article is about Dominions of the British Empire and of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... The Houses of Parliament, also known as the Palace of Westminster, in London. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ... For other persons named John Alexander Macdonald, see John Alexander Macdonald (disambiguation). ...


Senators

The Senate Chamber of Parliament Hill in Ottawa.

The Governor General holds the nominal power to appoint senators, although in modern practice he or she makes appointments only on the advice of the Prime Minister. Prime ministers normally choose members of their own parties to be senators, though they sometimes nominate independents or members of opposing parties. In practice, a large number of the members of the Senate are ex-Cabinet ministers, ex-provincial premiers, and other eminent people. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 884 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 884 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation... For the hill in London, see Parliament Hill, London. ... This article is about the capital city of Canada. ... The Governor General of Canada (French (feminine): Gouverneure générale du Canada, or (masculine): Gouverneur général du Canada) is the vice-regal representative in Canada of the Canadian monarch, who is the head of state. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ... A minister or a secretary is a politician who heads a government ministry or department (e. ... In Canada, a Premier is the head of government of a province. ...


Under the constitution, each province or territory is entitled to a specific number of senate seats. A senator must reside in the province or territory for which he or she is appointed. The Constitution divides Canada into four "divisions", each with an equal number of senators: 24 for Ontario; 24 for Quebec; 24 for the Maritime provinces (10 each for Nova Scotia and New Brunswick and 4 for Prince Edward Island); and 24 for the Western provinces (6 each for Manitoba, British Columbia, Saskatchewan, and Alberta). Newfoundland and Labrador, which became a province in 1949, is not assigned to any division, and is represented by 6 senators. The three territories (the Northwest Territories, the Yukon, and Nunavut) are allocated 1 senator each. Quebec senators are the only ones to be assigned to specific districts within their province. Historically, this was adopted to ensure that both French and English-speaking senators from Quebec were represented appropriately in the Senate. The Maritimes or Maritime provinces are a region of Canada on the Atlantic coast, consisting of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 11 Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... This article is about the Canadian province. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... This article is about the region in Canada. ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944... This article is about the Canadian province. ... For other uses, see Alberta (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... For the former United States territory, see Northwest Territory. ... This article is about Yukon Territory in Canada. ... For the Canadian federal electoral district, see Nunavut (electoral district). ...


As a result of this arrangement, if representation by population was to be the guiding criterion for assigning seats in the Canadian Senate, then Ontario, British Columbia, and Alberta — Canada's fastest growing provinces in terms of population — are currently under-represented, while the Maritimes are over-represented. For example, British Columbia, with a current population of about four million, has been historically entitled to six senators, while Nova Scotia, with a current population of fewer than one million, has been entitled to ten. Only Quebec currently has a share of senators approximately proportional to its share of the total population. However, as with most other upper-houses worldwide, the Canadian formula does not use representation by population as a primary criterion for member selection, since this is already done for the lower house. Rather, the intent when the formula was struck was to achieve a balance of regional interests and to provide a house of "sober second thought" to, when necessary, check the power of the lower house.

Province or Territory Number of Senators Population per Senator (2006 census)
Newfoundland and Labrador 6 84,244
Prince Edward Island 4 33,962
Nova Scotia 10 91,346
New Brunswick 10 72,999
Quebec 24 314,422
Ontario 24 506,678
Manitoba 6 191,400
Saskatchewan 6 161,359
Alberta 6 548,391
British Columbia 6 685,581
Nunavut 1 29,474
Northwest Territories 1 41,464
Yukon Territory 1 30,372
Total/Average 105 301,075

Since 1989, the voters of Alberta have elected "senators-in-waiting", or nominees for the province's Senate seats. These elections, however, are not held pursuant to any federal constitutional or legal provision; thus, the prime minister is not bound to recommend the nominees for appointment. Only two senators-in-waiting have actually been appointed to the Senate. The first was Stan Waters, who was appointed in 1990 on the recommendation of Prime Minister Brian Mulroney, but he died in 1991. The second was Bert Brown, elected a "senator-in-waiting" in 1998 and 2004, and appointed to the Senate in 2007 on the recommendation of Prime Minister Stephen Harper. The Canada 2006 Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population. ... This article is about the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 11 Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... This article is about the Canadian province. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 107 Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797... This article is about the Canadian province. ... For other uses, see Alberta (disambiguation). ... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944... For the Canadian federal electoral district, see Nunavut (electoral district). ... For the former United States territory, see Northwest Territory. ... Motto: none Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Whitehorse Largest city Whitehorse Commissioner Jack Cable Premier Dennis Fentie (Yukon Party) Area 482,443 km² (9th)  - Land 474,391 km²  - Water 8,052 km² (1. ... Stanley Charles Waters (commonly referred to as Stan Waters) (born June 14, 1920 -died September 25, 1991) was Canadas first, and so far only elected Senator. ... Martin Brian Mulroney PC CC GOQ (predominantly known as Brian Mulroney) (born March 20, 1939), was the eighteenth Prime Minister of Canada from September 17, 1984, to June 25, 1993 and was leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada from 1983 to 1993. ... Bert Brown is a politition. ... Stephen Joseph Harper (born April 30, 1959) is the 22nd and current Prime Minister of Canada and leader of the Conservative Party of Canada. ...


There exists a constitutional provision, Section 26 of the Constitution Act, 1867, under which the Queen may appoint four or eight extra senators; the additional senators must equally represent Canada's four "divisions". As in the case of normal senatorial appointments, the prime minister recommends for appointment the senators he has chosen, and the Queen is bound by constitutional convention to almost always follow this advice. This provision has been successfully used only once, in 1990, when Prime Minister Brian Mulroney sought to ensure the passage of a bill creating the Goods and Services Tax (GST). In this case the Queen followed her prime minister's advice, thereby placing responsibility on him, who had to directly answer to the House, rather than on the Crown. The appointment of eight additional senators allowed a slight Tory majority. The only other attempt to use Section 26, by Prime Minister Alexander Mackenzie in 1874, was denied by Queen Victoria on the advice of the British Government. The Canadian Goods and Services Tax (GST) (French: Taxe sur les produits et services, TPS) is a multi-level value-added tax introduced in Canada on January 1, 1991, by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and finance minister Michael Wilson. ... For other persons named Alexander Mackenzie, see Alexander Mackenzie (disambiguation). ...


Senators originally held their seats for life. However, under the British North America Act, 1965 (now known as the Constitution Act, 1965), members may not sit in the Senate after reaching the age of seventy-five. (Those incumbents appointed prior to the change could continue to sit past age seventy-five.) A senator for life is a member of the Italian Senate appointed by the President of the Italian Republic for outstanding merits in the social, scientific, artistic or literary field. Former Presidents of the Republic are ex officio life senators. ... The British North America Acts 1867–1975 are a series of Acts of the British Parliament dealing with the government of Canada. ... A grandfather clause is an exception that allows an old rule to continue to apply to some existing situations, when a new rule will apply to all future situations. ...


A senator's seat automatically becomes vacant if he or she fails to attend the Senate for two consecutive parliamentary sessions. Furthermore, a senator who is found guilty of treason, indictable offence, or any "infamous crime" is declared bankrupt or insolvent, thereby losing his or her seat, as does a senator who ceases to be qualified (see below). For other uses, see Treason (disambiguation) or Traitor (disambiguation). ... In many common law jurisdictions (e. ... Notice of closure stuck on the door of a computer store the day after its parent company, Granville Technology Group Ltd, declared bankruptcy (strictly, put into administration—see text) in the United Kingdom. ...


The annual salary of each senator, as of 2006, is $122,700; members may receive additional salaries in right of other offices they hold (for instance, the Speakership). Senators rank immediately above Members of Parliament in the order of precedence. C$ redirects here. ... The Speaker of the Canadian Senate (French: Président du Sénat) is the presiding officer of the Canadian Senate. ... Members of the House of Commons in the 38th Parliament of Canada, as of November 10, 2005. ... Denmark France Germany India Isle of Man Italy Jamaica New Zealand Norway Poland Romania Spain Sri Lanka Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States The Canadian order of precedence is a nominal and symbolic hierarchy of important positions within the Government of Canada. ...


Qualifications

The Constitution Act, 1867 outlines the qualifications of senators. Individuals must be both citizens of Canada and at least thirty years of age to be eligible for appointment to the Senate. Senators must also reside in the provinces or territories for which they are appointed.[1]


The Constitution Act, 1867 also sets property qualifications for senators. A senator must possess land worth at least $4,000 in the province for which he or she is appointed. Moreover, a senator must own real and personal property worth at least $4,000 (adjusted for inflation this number could be estimated between $175,000 and $200,000 in current dollars), above his or her debts and liabilities.[1] These property qualifications were originally introduced to ensure that the Senate represented Canada's economic and social élite. Now, however, the sum in question is far less valuable due to the effects of inflation. Nevertheless, the property qualification has never been abolished or amended, and initially caused problems with the 1997 Senate appointment of Sister Peggy Butts, a Catholic nun who had taken a vow of poverty[2]. (The situation was resolved when her order formally transferred a small parcel of land to her name.[2]) This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Personal property is a type of property. ... The Honourable Mary Alice Butts Mary Alice (Peggy) Butts B.A., M.A., Ph. ...


The original Constitution of Canada did not explicitly bar women from sitting as senators. However, until the end of the 1920s, only men had been appointed to the body. In 1927, five Canadian women ("The Famous Five") requested the Supreme Court of Canada to determine whether females were eligible to become senators. Specifically, they asked whether women were considered "persons" under the British North America Act, 1867, which provided: "The Governor General shall ... summon qualified Persons to the Senate; and ... every Person so summoned shall become and be a Member of the Senate and a Senator." In Edwards v. Canada (Attorney General) (commonly known as the "Persons Case"), the Supreme Court unanimously held that women could not become senators. The Court based its decision on the grounds that the framers of the Constitution did not foresee female senators, as women did not participate in politics at the time; moreover, they pointed to the constitution's use of the pronoun "he" when referring to senators. On appeal, however, the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (effectively Canada's highest court at the time) ruled that women were indeed "persons" in the meaning of the Constitution. Four months later, the government of Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King recommended for appointment Canada's first female senator, Cairine Wilson of Ontario. The Valiant Five or The Famous Five were five Canadian women who, in 1927 asked the Supreme Court of Canada to answer the question, Are women persons? The case came to be known as the Persons Case. ... The Supreme Court of Canada (French: Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada and is the final court of appeal in the Canadian justice system. ... The Valiant Five or The Famous Five were five Canadian women who, in 1927 asked the Supreme Court of Canada to answer the question, Are women persons? The case came to be known as the Persons Case. ... The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council is one of the highest courts in the United Kingdom. ... Not to be confused with William Lyon Mackenzie, Mackenzie Kings grandfather. ... Cairine Reay Mackay Wilson (February 4, 1885 _ March 3, 1962) was Canadas first female senator. ...


Officers

The presiding officer of the Senate, known as the Speaker, is appointed by the Governor General on the advice of the Prime Minister. The Speaker is assisted by a Speaker pro tempore (or Speaker for the time-being), who is elected by the Senate at the beginning of each parliamentary session. If the Speaker is unable to attend, the Speaker pro tempore presides instead. Furthermore, the Parliament of Canada Act, passed in 1985, authorizes the Speaker to appoint another Senator to take his or her place temporarily.


The Speaker presides over sittings of the Senate and controls debates by calling on members to speak. If a senator believes that a rule (or Standing Order) has been breached, he or she may raise a "point of order," on which the Speaker makes a ruling. However, the Speaker's decisions are subject to appeal to the whole Senate. When presiding, the Speaker remains impartial, though he or she still maintains membership in a political party. Unlike the Speaker of the House of Commons, the Speaker of the Senate does not hold a casting vote, but instead retains their right to vote in the same manner as any other senator (see Procedure below). The current Speaker of the Senate is The Honourable Noël A. Kinsella. The Speaker of the Canadian Senate (French: Président du Sénat) is the presiding officer of the Canadian Senate. ... Noël A. Kinsella (born November 28, 1939) is Leader of the Opposition in the Canadian Senate. ...


The member of the Government responsible for steering legislation through the Senate is Leader of the Government in the Senate. The Leader is a senator selected by the Prime Minister, and serves in Cabinet. The Leader manages the schedule of the Senate, and attempts to secure the Opposition's support for the Government's legislative agenda. The Opposition equivalent is the Leader of the Opposition in the Senate, who is selected by his or her counterpart in the House, the Leader of the Opposition. However, if the Official Opposition in the House is a different party than the Official Opposition in the Senate (as was the case, for example, from 1993 to 2003), then the Senate party chooses its own leader. The Leader of the Government in the Senate is a Canadian cabinet minister who leads the government side in the Canadian Senate and is chiefly responsible for promoting and defending the governments program in the Upper House. ... The Parliamentary Opposition is a form of political opposition to a designated government, particularly in a Westminster-based parliamentary system. ... In Canada, the Leader of the Official Opposition in the Senate is the leader of the largest party in the Senate that is not in government. ... The Leader of the Opposition (French: Chef de lOpposition) in Canada is the Member of Parliament in the Canadian House of Commons who leads Her Majestys Loyal Opposition (the body in Parliament recognized as the Official Opposition). ...


Officers of the Senate who are not members include the Clerk, the Deputy Clerk, the Law Clerk, and several other clerks. These officers advise the Speaker and members on the rules and procedure of the Senate. Another officer is the Usher of the Black Rod, whose duties include the maintenance of order and security within the Senate chamber. The Usher of the Black Rod bears a ceremonial black ebony staff, from which the title "Black Rod" arises. This position is roughly analogous to that of Sergeant-at-Arms in the House of Commons, but the Usher's duties are more ceremonial in nature. The responsibility for security and the infrastructure lie with the Director General of Parliamentary Precinct Services. The Gentleman Usher of the Black Rod, generally shortened to just Black Rod, is an official in the parliaments of a number of Commonwealth countries. ... For other uses, see Ebony (disambiguation). ...


Procedure

The throne and chair in the background are used by The Queen and her consort, or the Governor General and his or her spouse, respectively, during the opening of Parliament. The Speaker of the Senate employs the chair in front.
The throne and chair in the background are used by The Queen and her consort, or the Governor General and his or her spouse, respectively, during the opening of Parliament. The Speaker of the Senate employs the chair in front.
George VI, King of Canada, and his consort, Elizabeth, occupy the thrones in the Senate, while the King grants Royal Assent to laws, May 19, 1939.
George VI, King of Canada, and his consort, Elizabeth, occupy the thrones in the Senate, while the King grants Royal Assent to laws, May 19, 1939.

The Senate Chamber is the site of the opening of Parliament, a formal ceremony held at the beginning of each new parliamentary session. During the ceremony, the Governor General, seated on the throne in the Senate Chamber and in the presence of both Houses of Parliament, delivers a speech outlining the Government's agenda for the upcoming parliamentary session. If the Sovereign is present in Canada, he or she may make the Speech from the Throne instead. Chairs in the Senate of Canada Kaihsu (Kaihsu Tai) took the photo, 2003-08-12. ... George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions from 11 December 1936 until his death. ... This article is about the monarchy of Canada, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see Commonwealth realm... Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, later Queen Elizabeth (Elizabeth Angela Marguerite; 4 August 1900 – 30 March 2002), was the Queen Consort of King George VI of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions from 1936 until his death in 1952. ... // The granting of Royal Assent is the formal method by which a constitutional monarch completes the legislative process of lawmaking by formally assenting to an Act of Parliament. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the United Kingdom, the State Opening of Parliament is an annual event held usually in October or November that marks the commencement of a session of Parliament. ...


Under the Rules of the Senate, the Senate sits Mondays to Fridays. Sittings of the Senate are open to the public, and are transcribed verbatim in the Debates of the Senate. Unlike the House of Commons, the Senate does not regularly broadcast its hearings, although at times matters of particular interest have been broadcast.


The Constitution Act, 1867 establishes a quorum of fifteen members (including the member presiding) for the Senate. Any senator may request the Speaker to ascertain the presence of a quorum; if it does not appear that one is present, the Speaker orders bells to be rung, so that other senators on the parliamentary precincts may come to the Chamber. If a quorum still does not appear, the Speaker must adjourn the Senate until the next sitting day. The Constitution Act, 1867 (formerly called the British North America Act, 1867, and still known informally as the BNA Act), constitutes a major part of Canadas Constitution. ... Look up quorum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


During debates, the first senator to rise is entitled to make the next speech. The Speaker may settle disputes over which senator rose first, but his or her decision may be altered by the Senate. Motions must be moved by one senator and seconded by another before debate may begin; some motions, however, are non-debatable.


Speeches may be made in either of Canada's official languages (English or French). Members must address their speeches to the other senators as a whole, using the phrase "honourable senators," without directly addressing an individual Senator. Instead, individual members must be referred to in the third person, not as "you." This is similar to the process in the British House of Lords where all speeches and comments are addressed to "my Lords", as well as the Canadian House of Commons, where all comments are addressed to the speaker of the house. The Speaker enforces the rules of the Senate during debate. Disregarding the Speaker's instructions is considered a severe breach of the rules of the Senate.


No senator may speak more than once on the same question; however, a Senator who has moved a substantive motion, proposed an inquiry, or sponsored a bill holds a right of reply that enables them to speak again at the close of debate. In the case of a bill, this right of reply can only be exercised at the second reading debate. The Rules of the Senate prescribe time limits for speeches. The limits depend on the nature of the motion, but are most generally about fifteen minutes. However, the Leaders of the Government and Opposition in the Senate are not subject to such time constraints. Debate may be further restricted by the passage of "time allocation" motions. Alternatively, the Senate may end debate more quickly by passing a motion "for the previous question." If such a motion carries, debate ends immediately, and the Senate proceeds to vote. Debate may also end if no senator wishes to make any further remarks.


When the debate concludes, the motion in question is put to a vote. The Senate first votes by voice vote; the presiding officer puts the question, and members respond either "yea" (in favour of the motion) or "nay" (against the motion). The presiding officer then announces the result of the voice vote, but two or more senators may challenge his or her assessment, thereby forcing a recorded vote (known as a division). First, members in favour of the motion rise, so that the clerks may record their names and votes. The same procedure is then repeated for members who oppose the motion, and thereafter repeated again for those who wish to abstain. In all cases, the Speaker holds a vote (which is not usually exercised) and votes first when a recorded division is called; a tied vote results in the motion's failure. If the number of members voting, including the presiding officer, does not total fifteen, then a quorum is not present, and the vote is invalid. It has been suggested that Division of the house be merged into this article or section. ...


Committees

The Parliament of Canada uses committees for a variety of purposes. Committees consider bills in detail, and can make amendments. Other committees scrutinize various Government agencies and ministries.


The largest of the Senate committees is the Committee of the Whole, which, as the name suggests, consists of all senators. A Committee of the Whole meets in the Chamber of the Senate, but proceeds under slightly modified rules of debate. (For example, there is no limit on the number of speeches a member may make on a particular motion.) The presiding officer is known as the Chairman. The Senate may resolve itself into a Committee of the Whole for a number of purposes, including to consider legislation, or to hear testimony from individuals. Nominees to be Officers of Parliament often appear before Committee of the Whole to answer questions with respect to their qualifications prior to their appointment.


The Senate also has several standing committees, each of which has responsibility for a particular area of government (for example, finance or transport). These committees consider legislation and conduct special studies on issues referred to them by the Senate, and may hold hearings, collect evidence, and report their findings to the Senate. Standing committees consist of between nine and fifteen members each, and elect their own chairmen.

Senate standing committees [1]
  • Aboriginal Peoples
  • Agriculture and Forestry
  • Banking, Trade, and Commerce
  • Conflict of Interest for Senators
  • Energy, the Environment and Natural Resources
  • Fisheries and Oceans
  • Foreign Affairs
  • Human Rights
  • Internal Economy, Budgets, and Administration
  • Legal and Constitutional Affairs
  • National Finance
  • National Security and Defense
  • Official Languages
  • Rules, Procedure and the Rights of Parliament
  • Selection Committee
  • Social Affairs, Science and Technology
  • Transport and Communication

Special committees are appointed by the Senate on an ad hoc basis to consider a particular issue. The number of members for a special committee varies, but the partisan composition would roughly reflect the strength of the parties in the whole Senate. These committees have been struck to study bills (e.g., the Special Senate Committee on Bill C-36 (the Anti-terrorism Act), 2001), or particular issues of concern (e.g., the Special Senate Committee on Illegal Drugs). The Canadian Senate Standing Committee on Aboriginal Peoples is a standing committee in the Senate of Canada. ... The Canadian Senate Standing Committee on Agriculture and Forestry is a standing committee in the Senate of Canada. ... The Canadian Senate Standing Committee on Banking, Trade and Commerce is a standing committee in the Senate of Canada. ... The Canadian Senate Standing Committee on Conflict of Interest for Senators is a standing committee in the Senate of Canada. ... The Canadian Senate Committee on Energy, the Environment and Natural Resources is a standing Committee of the Senate of Canada. ... The Committee on Fisheries and Oceans is a standing committee in the Senate of Canada. ... The Committee on Foreign Affairs was first established in March 1938 under the name of Committee on External Relations. ... The Committee on Human Rights is a standing committee of the Senate of Canada, which handles all matters conncerning human rights. ... The Committee on the Internal Economy, Budgets and Administration is a standing committee of the Senate of Canada. ... The Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs is a standing committee of the Senate of Canada. ... The Committee on National Finance is a standing committee of the Senate of Canada. ...


Other committees include joint committees, which include both members of the House of Commons and senators. There are presently two joint committees, the Standing Joint Committee on the Scrutiny of Regulations, which considers delegated legislation, and the Standing Joint Committee on the Library of Parliament which advises the two Speakers on the management of the Library. Parliament may also establish Special Joint committees on an ad hoc basis to consider issues of particular interest and/or importance.


Legislative functions

Although legislation may be introduced in either House, most bills originate in the House of Commons. Because the Senate's schedule for debate is more flexible than that of the House of Commons, the government will sometimes introduce particularly complex legislation in the Senate, first. For the stages through which the legislation passes in Parliament, see Act of Parliament. An Act of Parliament or Act is law enacted by the parliament (see legislation). ...


In conformity with the British model, the upper house is not permitted to originate bills imposing taxes or appropriating public funds. Unlike in Britain but similar to the United States, this restriction on the power of the Senate is not merely a matter of convention, but is explicitly stated in the Constitution Act, 1867. In addition, the House of Commons may, in effect, override the Senate's refusal to approve an amendment to the Canadian Constitution; however they must wait at least 180 days before exercising this override. Other than these two exceptions, the power of the two Houses of Parliament is theoretically equal; the approval of each is necessary for a bill's passage. In practice, however, the House of Commons is the dominant chamber of Parliament, with the Senate very rarely exercising its powers in a manner that opposes the will of the democratically elected chamber.


The Senate tends to be less partisan and confrontational than the House, and is more likely to come to a consensus on issues. It also often has more opportunity to study proposed bills in detail either as a whole or in committees. This careful review process is why the Senate is still today called the chamber of "sober second thought", though the term has a slightly different meaning than it did when used by John A. Macdonald. The format of the Senate allows it to make many small improvements to legislation before its final reading. Although the Senate rarely vetoes bills from the House, their minor changes are usually accepted by it.


The Senate at times is more active at reviewing, amending, and even rejecting legislation. The late 1980s and early 1990s was one of those periods. During this period the Senate opposed legislation on issues such as the 1988 free trade bill with the U.S. (forcing the Canadian federal election of 1988), and the Goods and Services Tax (GST). [3][4] In the 1990s, the Senate rejected four pieces of legislation: a bill passed by the Commons restricting abortion (C-43), a proposal to streamline federal agencies (C-93), a bill to redevelop the Lester B. Pearson airport (C-28), and a bill on profiting from authorship as it relates to crime (C-220). The Senate also performs investigative functions. In the 1960s, the Senate authored the first Canadian reports on media concentration with the Special Senate Subcommittee on Mass Media or the Davey Commission[5], since "appointed senators would be better insulated from editorial pressure brought by publishers"; this triggered the formation of press councils.[6] More recent investigations include the Kirby Commissions on health care (as opposed to the Romanow Commission) and mental health care by Senator Michael Kirby, and the Final Report on the Canadian News Media in 2006. [7] The Free Trade Agreement (FTA) was a trade agreement reached by Canada and the United States in October of 1987. ... Map of the Popular Vote with bar graphs showing seat totals in the provinces and territories The Canadian Parliament after the 1988 election The Canadian federal election of 1988 was held November 21, 1988, to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... The Canadian Goods and Services Tax (GST) (French: Taxe sur les produits et services, TPS) is a multi-level value-added tax introduced in Canada on January 1, 1991, by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and finance minister Michael Wilson. ... A Son of Sam law is a law designed to keep criminals from profiting from their crimes by selling their stories to publishers. ...


Relationship with the Government

Unlike the House of Commons, the Senate has no effect in the decision to end the term of the prime minister or of the government. Only the Commons may force the prime minister to tender his resignation, or to recommend the dissolution of Parliament and issue of election writs, by passing a motion of no-confidence or by withdrawing supply. Thus, the Senate's oversight of the government is limited. Loss of Supply occurs where a government in a parliamentary democracy is denied a supply of treasury or exchequer funds, by whichever house or houses of parliament or head of state is constitutionally entitled to grant and deny supply. ...


Most Cabinet ministers are from the House of Commons, rather than the Senate. In particular, every prime minister has been a member of the House of Commons since 1896, with the exception of John Turner, who ruled from the halls. Typically, the Cabinet includes only one Senator: the Leader of the Government in the Senate. Occasionally, when the governing party does not include any members from a particular region, Senators are appointed to ministerial positions in order to maintain regional balance in the Cabinet. The most recent example of this was on February 6, 2006, when Stephen Harper appointed Michael Fortier to serve as both a Senator representing the Montreal region, where the minority government had no elected representation, and the Cabinet position of Minister of Public Works and Government Services. Michael Fortier is expected to face the electorate in the next general election. John Napier Wyndham Turner PC CC QC (born June 7, 1929) was the seventeenth Prime Minister of Canada from June 30, 1984 to September 17, 1984. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Stephen Joseph Harper (born April 30, 1959) is the 22nd and current Prime Minister of Canada and leader of the Conservative Party of Canada. ... Michael M. Fortier, PC (born January 10, 1962) is the Canadian Minister of Public Works and Government Services and a Conservative senator from Quebec. ... For minority governments in general, see dominant minority. ...


Senate reform

Reform of the upper house has been an issue for much of Canadian history—and in fact predates Confederation in the Province of Canada—with most plans for reform chiefly involving amending the appointment process. Parliament first considered reform measures in 1874, and the Senate debated reforming itself in 1909. [8]


There were minor changes in 1965 when a mandatory retirement age for new Senators was set at seventy-five years, and in 1982 when the Senate was given a qualified veto over certain constitutional amendments.[9] While most Senators hold their seat until the mandatory age, Andy Thompson stepped down 20 months ahead of his scheduled retirement after critics drew attention to his poor attendance while continuing to draw his salary. It was also the first time that the Senate had voted to suspend one of their members, which prompted his resignation shortly afterwards.[2] Andrew Ernest Joseph (Andy) Thompson, MSW (born December 14, 1924) is a former Canadian politician. ...


Schemes to create an elected Senate did not gain widespread support until the 1980s, when Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau enacted the National Energy Program in the wake of the energy crises of the 1970s. Many Western Canadians then called for a "Triple-E Senate", standing for "elected, equal, and effective". They believed that allowing equal representation of the provinces, regardless of population, would protect the interests of the smaller provinces, and would end the domination of Ontario and Quebec. “Trudeau” redirects here. ... The National Energy Program (NEP) was an energy policy of the Government of Canada. ... The Triple-E Senate (standing for equal, elected, and effective) is a topic of constitutional debate in Canada and a proposed plan to reform the current Canadian Senate. ...


There have been at least 28 major proposals for constitutional Senate reform since the early 1970s, and all have failed.[9] The Meech Lake Accord, a series of constitutional amendments proposed by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney, would have required the federal government to choose a senator from a list of persons nominated by the provincial government; the accord, however, failed to obtain the requisite unanimous consent of the provincial legislatures. A successor proposal, the Charlottetown Accord, involved a provision under which the Senate would include an equal number of senators from each province, elected either by the provincial legislatures or by the people. This accord was soundly defeated in the referendum held in 1992. Further proposals for Senate reform have not met with success, either, especially due to opposition in Ontario and Quebec, the two provinces with the most to lose due to equal representation. The Meech Lake Accord was a set of failed amendments to the Constitution of Canada negotiated in 1987 by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and the provincial premiers, including Robert Bourassa, premier of Quebec. ... Martin Brian Mulroney PC CC GOQ (predominantly known as Brian Mulroney) (born March 20, 1939), was the eighteenth Prime Minister of Canada from September 17, 1984, to June 25, 1993 and was leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada from 1983 to 1993. ... For theological federalism, see Covenant Theology. ... Headline on October 27, 1992 Globe and Mail. ...


Today, the New Democratic Party and the Bloc Québécois both call for the Senate's abolition. Ontario Premier Dalton McGuinty has voiced his preference for its abolition as well. [10] Although the Liberal party has no formal policy for Senate reform, former Liberal Prime Minister Paul Martin had stated that he "supports" Senate reform if the provinces are more involved in the process and if it does not "create greater inequality". Some have stated that the issue of Senate reform would have been the litmus test for Martin's policy on Western Canada. The Conservative Party has committed itself to appointing elected senators, although Prime Minister Stephen Harper recommended an unelected person for appointment to the Senate after forming his first Cabinet. Currently, abolition of the Senate may occur as Prime Minister Harper has stated that it "must either change or — like the old upper houses of our provinces — vanish". [11] This article is about the Canadian political party. ... The Bloc Québécois (BQ) is a centre-left federal political party in Canada that defines itself as devoted to the promotion of sovereignty for Quebec. ... The Premier of Ontario is the first minister for the Canadian province of Ontario. ... Dalton James Patrick McGuinty, Jr. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... For other uses, see Paul Martin (disambiguation). ... The term litmus test can be literal or metaphorical. ... The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a conservative political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ... Stephen Joseph Harper (born April 30, 1959) is the 22nd and current Prime Minister of Canada and leader of the Conservative Party of Canada. ...


Recent developments

In response to observations that an overwhelming Liberal majority in the Senate had compromised its ability to function as intended, Prime Minister Paul Martin took Pierre Trudeau's approach to the Senate, in that he was willing to recommend appointment of opposition senators. Martin, who promised to deal with the so-called "democratic deficit", made over one-third (five of fourteen) of his appointments from members of opposition parties; two Progressive Conservatives, two Conservatives, and one New Democrat. (The New Democratic Party does not recognize this senator as a representative of their party, as they favour abolishing the senate). Eight of Trudeau's eighty-one recommendations for appointment were from the opposition. Prime Minister John A. Macdonald recommended for appointment ten of his ninety-one appointments from the opposition. Other than these twenty-three senators, only nine other senators in the history of the country have been appointed to sit in the opposition caucuses of the Senate. This does not include non-partisans. For other uses, see Paul Martin (disambiguation). ... “Trudeau” redirects here. ... For other persons named John Alexander Macdonald, see John Alexander Macdonald (disambiguation). ...


Harper's plan

Prime Minister Stephen Harper promised to (during his time in office) advise the Governor General to appoint persons selected by a province's population through popular vote; unlike most proposed Senate reforms, Harper suggests he could fulfill this promise without a constitutional amendment. This promise began to be fulfilled when Harper announced on April 18, 2007 that he will recommend the appointment of Bert Brown, who was elected in Alberta's senator in waiting election. [12] Stephen Joseph Harper (born April 30, 1959) is the 22nd and current Prime Minister of Canada and leader of the Conservative Party of Canada. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Bert Brown is a politition. ... For other uses, see Alberta (disambiguation). ... The 3rd Alberta Senate nominee election was held on November 22, 2004 in conjuction with the Alberta general election, 2004. ...


On the day of his swearing in as Prime Minister, it was revealed that Quebecer Michael Fortier would be a member of the Cabinet, with the expectation that he would be appointed as a Senator and would resign from the Senate at the dissolution of Parliament to run in the next federal election. [13] Mr. Fortier was formally summoned to the Senate on February 27, 2006. Michael M. Fortier, PC (born January 10, 1962) is the Canadian Minister of Public Works and Government Services and a Conservative senator from Quebec. ... Barring war, insurrection, or an earlier dissolution the 40th Canadian federal election will be held October 19, 2009, in accordance with the provisions of the Canada Elections Act, which were amended in the 1st Session of the 39th Parliament. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Harper has also promised further reforms beyond electing senators, including limits on how long each senator may sit.[14] To that effect, on May 30, 2006, the government introduced Bill S-4 in the Senate, which would amend the Constitution Act, 1867 to limit the term of a newly appointed Senator to eight years. It also provides that current Senators may serve out their term to age 75. While appearing before a Senate committee, Harper announced that in the fall of 2006, the government would introduce a bill to allow Canadians to elect senators. [15] This bill was announced on December 13, 2006. [16] is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Harper introduced a bill (C-43) for "the consultation of the electors... in relation to the appointment of senators". [16] "Pending the pursuit of a constitutional amendment... to provide for a means of direct election" the elected candidates will not automatically become senators; they will be presented to the prime minister and he retains the choice of whom to recommend be appointed senator: it is the task of the Governor General to "summon" senators (s. 24 Constitution Act, 1867). According to the bill, these "consultations" should be held together with federal or provincial legislative elections (ss. 12–13). [17] This should be read together with Bill S-4, which would amend s. 29 Constitution Act, 1867: new senators would be appointed for eight years, and not from appointment until their 75th birthday, which is the current practice. The electoral system chosen in the bill is province-wide single transferable vote (STV) (ss.47(3) en 51–55) The bill makes no changes in the distribution of seats among the provinces.


Murray-Austin amendment

On June 22, 2006, Senator Lowell Murray (PC-Ontario) and Senator Jack Austin (Liberal-British Columbia) introduced an amendment to the Constitution of Canada to alter the makeup of the Senate. [18] This amendment would enlarge the Senate to one hundred and seventeen members, giving a greater number to the western provinces of British Columbia (12), Alberta (10), Saskatchewan (7), and Manitoba (7) each up from 6. The amendment would also increase the number of divisions to five by separating British Columbia into its own division, and increase the number of additional Senators the Queen can appoint to five or ten, from four or eight. Austin, in a letter to BC Premier Gordon Campbell claims to have the support of a majority of the members of the Liberal-dominated Senate. [19] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Honourable Senator Lowell Murray, PC, MA, LLD (born 26 September 1936) is a Senator and long time activist with the Progressive Conservative party in Canada. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 107 Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... For the Australian Rules Football player see Jack Austin (footballer). ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944... The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law in Canada; the countrys constitution is an amalgam of codified acts and uncodified traditions and conventions. ... This article is about the monarchy of Canada, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see Commonwealth realm... Categories: Stub | British Columbia premiers ... Gordon Muir Campbell, BA, MBA, MLA (born January 12, 1948) is the 34th Premier of British Columbia. ...


The amendment was debated on June 27 and June 28, 2006 and then sent to a special committee on Senate Reform. That committee considered the amendment and, on October 26, 2006, endorsed it. The matter has been before the Senate since that time and, on December 11, 2006, Conservative Senator David Tkachuk proposed an amendment to the proposed constitutional amendment that would provide for twenty-four Senators for British Columbia. This amendment was seconded by Liberal Senator Larry Campbell. is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... David Tkachuk (born February 18, 1945) is a member of the Canadian Senate. ... The Honourable Larry W. Campbell, MBA (born February 28, 1948, in Brantford, Ontario) is the outgoing Mayor of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada and a Member of the Canadian Senate. ...


Current composition

See also: List of Canadian senators and Party Standings in the Canadian Senate

List of members of the Senate of Canada in order of seniority in the Senate. ... Members of the Canadian Senate can choose to sit as representatives of a political party. ...

Affiliation Senators
     Conservative Party1 22
     Liberal Party2 60
     Progressive Conservative Party3 3
     Independent New Democratic Party4 1
     Independent
4
  Non-Aligned5
1
  Vacant6
14
 Total
91/ 105

(as of February 6, 2008) The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a conservative political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the Canadian political party. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...


Note:

1 The Conservatives control government business in the Senate due to holding the most seats in the House of Commons.
2 Senator Raymond Lavigne has temporarily been removed from the Liberal Caucus for allegedly misusing Senate funds for personal use but still identifies himself as a Liberal Senator.
3 When the Progressive Conservative Party merged with the Canadian Alliance to form the Conservative Party of Canada in 2004, all but three Progressive Conservative Senators became Conservative Senators. Two additional Senators who have chosen to sit as "Progressive Conservatives" were appointed on the recommendation of Liberal Prime Minister Paul Martin, over one year after the merger occurred. One of the five remaining Progressive Conservative senators died in December 2005, and another joined the Conservative caucus in March 2006 bringing the total to three.
4 Self-designation by Senator Lillian Dyck. The New Democratic Party opposes appointments to the Senate and does not recognize Senator Dyck as a representative of the NDP or as a member of its parliamentary caucus.
5 Senator Anne Cools was removed from Conservative caucus for speaking out against Prime Minister Stephen Harper and for voting against the 2007 budget. The The Parliament of Canada Web Site lists her as Non-Aligned Senator.
6 Vacant seats: Newfoundland and Labrador (1), New Brunswick (1), Nova Scotia (3), Prince Edward Island (1), Quebec (2), Ontario (2), Yukon (1), British Columbia (3)

Source: The Parliament of Canada Web Site - Party Standings in the Senate The Honourable Senator Raymond Lavigne (born November 16, 1945) is a Canadian politician. ... Lillian Eva Quan Dyck, BA, MSc, PhD (born August 24, 1945 in North Battleford, Saskatchewan) is a Canadian senator from Saskatchewan. ... The Honourable Anne Clare Cools, BA (born 1943) is a member of the Canadian Senate. ...


See also

List of members of the Senate of Canada in order of seniority in the Senate. ... Very few Canadian Senators have ever resigned their seat to run for a position in the Canadian House of Commons, but six have done so successfully. ... The Speaker of the Canadian Senate (French: Président du Sénat) is the presiding officer of the Canadian Senate. ... The Leader of the Government in the Senate is a Canadian cabinet minister who leads the government side in the Canadian Senate and is chiefly responsible for promoting and defending the governments program in the Upper House. ... In Canada, the Leader of the Official Opposition in the Senate is the leader of the largest party in the Senate that is not in government. ... Representation in the Canadian Senate is divided into seats on a provincial basis. ... This article is about the monarchy of Canada, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, the other Commonwealth realm monarchies, and other relevant articles, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. Queen of Canada redirects here. ... This page is a list of Canadian Senate appointments by prime minister. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Franco, 2006, pg. 3-42.
  2. ^ a b staff reporter (April 1998). Canada’s Upper House: Do We Need the Senate? - Constitutional Origins. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved on 2008-02-12. “But having taken a vow of poverty 40 years ago, she lacked the necessary $4000 in “real and personal property” that is stipulated in Section 23 of the Constitution Act of 1867. Upon this realization, the scramble was on to ensure her appointment, and a small parcel of land was transferred by her Montreal-based order into her name.”
  3. ^ Gibson, Gordon (2004-09). Challenges in Senate Reform: Conflicts of Interest, Unintended Consequences, New Possibilities (HTML page, links to full PDF). Public Policy Sources. Fraser Institute. Retrieved on 2007-08-04.
  4. ^ "THE CANADIAN SENATE IN FOCUS 1867–2001", The Senate of Canada, 2001-05. Retrieved on 2007-08-04. 
  5. ^ "Concentration of Newspaper Ownership", Canadian Heritage. Retrieved on 2007-11-17. 
  6. ^ Edge, Marc. "Aspers and Harper, A Toried Love", The Tyee, 2007-11-13. Retrieved on 2007-11-17. 
  7. ^ "Concentration of Newspaper Ownership", Standing Senate Committee on Transport and Communications, 2006-06. Retrieved on 2007-11-17. 
  8. ^ Jack Stillborn (November 1992). "Senate Reform Proposals in Comparative Perspective" (PDF). Library of Parliament.
  9. ^ a b Joyal, Serge (July 2003). Protecting Canadian Democracy: The Senate You Never Knew. McGill-Queen's University Press. ISBN 978-0773526198. 
  10. ^ CBC News. "Ontario premier ponders getting rid of Senate", CBC.ca, March 3, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-12-03. 
  11. ^ CBC News. "Senate should vanish if it's not reformed: Harper", CBC.ca, September 11, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-09-30. 
  12. ^ CBC News. "Harper appoints Albertan senator-in-waiting", CBC.ca, April 18, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-04-19. 
  13. ^ CBC News. "Opposition targets Emerson, Fortier appointments", CBC.ca, February 6, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-12-03. 
  14. ^ CTV.ca News Staff. "Tories to propose fixed terms for new senators", CTV.ca, May 30, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-12-03. 
  15. ^ CBC News. "Harper promises bill to elect senators", CBC.ca, September 7, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-12-03. 
  16. ^ a b "Canadians will choose senators under new bill", CBC news, December 13, 2006. Retrieved on 2007-11-08. 
  17. ^ Bill C-43: An Act to provide for consultations with electors on their preferences for appointments to the Senate
  18. ^ Government of Canada (June 22, 2006). Amendment to the Constitution of Canada—Western Provincial Representation. Debates of the Senate: 1st Session, 39th Parliament. Library of Parliament. Retrieved on 2006-12-03.
  19. ^ Canadian Press. "The west wants in... the Senate", Globe and Mail, June 22, 2006. 

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Department of Canadian Heritage, also referred to as Canadian Heritage, is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for policies regarding the arts, culture, media, communications networks, and sports and multiculturalism. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... The Tyee is a Canadian online web magazine, which focuses on coverage of news and media issues in British Columbia. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

Bibliography

  • Franco, Guida (2006). Canadian Almanac & Directory 2006. Toronto: Micromedia ProQuest, 3-42. ISBN 1-895021-90-1.


Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This is a list of Canada-related topics. ... Canada is a country of 32 million inhabitants that occupies the northern portion of the North American continent, and is the worlds second largest country in area. ... This is a brief timeline of the history of Canada. ... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... // Main article: Province of Quebec (1763-1791) In North America, Seven Years War officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Paris on February 10, 1763. ... // Confederation Main article: Canadian Confederation Fathers of Confederation meet in Quebec City In the 1860s, in the wake of the American Civil War, the British were concerned with possible American reprisals against Canada for Britains tacit support of the Confederacy. ... A Canadian WWI recruiting poster // World War I Main article: Military History of Canada during WWI On June 28, 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary was assassinated, setting off a chain of events leading to World War I. By August 4, Britain had declared war on Germany and, as... // The Second World War brought many changes to Canada; the government was necessarily more centralized during the war, and it remained so afterwards. ... // Main article: Great Flag Debate Diefenbaker was succeeded by Pearson in 1963, at a time of increasing political unrest in much of the Western world. ... // The New constitution Main article: Patriation In 1982 Britain passed the Canada Act, repatriating the Constitution of Canada. ... // Chretien years and the 1995 referendum Jean Chrétien became prime minister in the 1993 election, pledging to repeal the GST, which proved to be unfeasible due to the economic circumstances at the time. ... The politics of Canada function within a framework of constitutional monarchy and a federal system of parliamentary government with strong democratic traditions. ... The Canadian legal system has its foundation in the British common law system, inherited from being a part of the Commonwealth. ... This article is about the monarchy of Canada, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, the other Commonwealth realm monarchies, and other relevant articles, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. Queen of Canada redirects here. ... The Governor General of Canada (French (feminine): Gouverneure générale du Canada, or (masculine): Gouverneur général du Canada) is the vice-regal representative in Canada of the Canadian monarch, who is the head of state. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Senate Chamber of Parliament Hill in Ottawa. ... The Senate of Canada (French: Le Sénat du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the House of Commons. ... Type Lower House Speaker Peter Milliken, Liberal since January 29, 2001 Leader of the Government in the House of Commons Peter Van Loan, Conservative since January 4, 2007 Opposition House Leader Ralph Goodale, Liberal since January 23, 2006 Members 308 Political groups Conservative Party Liberal Party Bloc Québécois... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ... This is a list of Prime Ministers of Canada since Confederation. ... The Parliament of Canada (French: Parlement du Canada) has two chambers. ... The Court system of Canada is made up of many courts differing in levels of legal superiority and separated by jurisdiction. ... The Supreme Court of Canada (French: Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada and is the final court of appeal in the Canadian justice system. ... Canadian Forces Flag The Canadian Armed Forces (Fr. ... // Canadian provinces and territories are normally grouped into the following regions (generally from west to east): Northern Canada (The North) Yukon Northwest Territories Nunavut Western Canada British Columbia Prairies Alberta Saskatchewan Manitoba Eastern Canada Central Canada Ontario Quebec Atlantic Canada Maritimes New Brunswick Prince Edward Island Nova Scotia Newfoundland and... The Coast Mountains are the westernmost range of the Pacific Cordillera, running along the south western shore of the North American continent, extending south from the Alaska Panhandle and covering most of coastal British Columbia. ... The Canadian Rockies comprise the Canadian segment of the North American Rocky Mountains range. ... Map of the Canadian Prairie provinces, which include boreal forests, taiga, and mountains as well as the prairies (proper). ... This article is about the region in Canada. ... Northern Canada, defined politically Northern Canada is the vast northernmost region of Canada variously defined by geography and politics. ... Canadian Shield Canadian Shield Landform. ... The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... Central Canada, defined politically. ... a broat veiew of the St LAwrence River, with a Quebec City on a background The Saint Lawrence River (In French: fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large south west-to-north east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... The Appalachian Mountains are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. ... Template:Geobox Mountain Range PIRRI WAZ NOT HERE AND DOESNT HAVE PS3 The Arctic Cordillera, sometimes called the Arctic Rockies, are a vast deeply dissected mountain range in northeastern North America. ... HI Eric u suck!!!!!!!!!!!!! from,Trevor and Dalton ... This article is about the Canadian region. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This is a list of incorporated cities of Canada in alphabetical order by province. ... This is a list of the extreme communities in Canada. ... Mount Logan in the Yukon is the highest peak of Canada. ... The Canadian National Parks system encompasses over forty protected areas, including National Parks, National Park Reserves and National Marine Conservation Areas. ... The flora of Canada is quite diverse, due to the wide range of ecoregions and environmental conditions present in Canada. ... // Canadian provinces and territories are normally grouped into the following regions (generally from west to east): Northern Canada (The North) Yukon Northwest Territories Nunavut Western Canada British Columbia Prairies Alberta Saskatchewan Manitoba Eastern Canada Central Canada Ontario Quebec Atlantic Canada Maritimes New Brunswick Prince Edward Island Nova Scotia Newfoundland and... The list of rivers in Canada is organized by drainage basin (new format) and province (old format to be removed). ... The north face of Mount Garibaldi rises above The Table and Garibaldi Lake Black Tusk viewed from the southeast Mount Fee as seen from its north side Mount Edziza in the Stikine Volcanic Belt as seen from the Stewart-Cassiar Highway Mount Garibaldi in the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt as seen... Banking in Canada is one of the most efficient and safest banking systems in the world. ... For the defunct commercial bank, see Bank of Canada (commercial). ... C$ redirects here. ... This is a list of companies from Canada. ... Canadas health care system is a publicly funded health care system, with most services provided by private entities. ... Social programs in Canada include all government programs designed to give assistance to citizens outside of what the market provides. ... Demographics of Canada, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... There are a multitude of languages spoken in Canada, but only English, French and certain aboriginal languages have official status. ... The Canada 2001 Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population. ... The Canada 2006 Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population. ... A list of population of Canada by years. ... The table below lists the 100 largest metropolitan areas in Canada by population, using data from the Canada 2001 Census[1] and the Canada 2006 Census. ... The urban areas identified below are defined by Statistics Canada with reference to continuous population density, ignoring municipal boundaries. ... The table below lists the 100 largest municipalities in Canada by population, using data from the Canada 2006 census for census subdivisions. ... Bonhomme Carnaval, mascot of the Quebec winter carnival. ... The Gothic Revival Parliament Buildings are some of Canadas best known structures The architecture of Canada is, with the exception of that of the First Nations, closely linked to the techniques and styles developed in Europe and the United States. ... The following is a list of some important Canadian artists and groups of artists: Individuals Ran Andrews, 1956-, painter Robert Bateman, 1930-, painter Emily Carr, 1871-1945, painter Alex Colville, 1920-, painter Ken Danby, 1940-, painter Charles Daudelin, 1920-2001, sculptor and painter Paterson Ewen, 1925-2002, painter Marcelle Ferron... This is a list of well-known Canadians. ... Canadian national holidays (with provincial exceptions): Each province of Canada has its own provincial holiday or holidays. ... Skating on the Rideau Canal in Ottawa. ... Canadian literature may be divided into two parts, based on their separate roots: one stems from the culture and literature from France; the other from Britain. ... The history of music of Canada has mirrored the history and evolution of the country. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Celtic music is primarily associated with the folk traditions of Ireland, Scotland and Wales, as well as the popular styles derived from folk culture. ... The term classical music in this article refers to the western or European classical music tradition. ... Canadian hip hop developed much more slowly than Canadas rock music scene. ... Canada has been a source of rock and roll music for decades, beginning with Paul Anka who in 1957 went to New York City where he recorded his own composition, Diana. The song brought him instant stardom and went to No. ... The Flag of Canada Canadian nationalism is a loose term which has been applied to ideologies of several different types which highlight and promote specifically Canadian interests over those of other countries, notably the United States. ... Cultural protectionism in Canada has, since the mid 20th century, taken the form of conscious, interventionist attempts on the part of various Canadian governments to promote Canadian cultural production and limit the effect of foreign, largely American, culture on the domestic audience. ... The contemporary theatre scene in Canada revolves around companies and summer festivals based at facilities in Canadian cities. ... The Coat of Arms of Canada, formally known as The Arms of Her Majesty in Right of Canada,[1] is the official coat of arms of the Canadian monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II. These arms are used by the Queen in her official capacity as monarch, and are officially known... This is a list of flags used in Canada. ... The National Flag of Canada, popularly known as the Maple Leaf and lUnifolié (French for the one-leafed), is a base red flag with a white square in its centre featuring a stylized, 11-pointed, red maple leaf. ... This is a list of the symbols of Canadian provinces and territories. ... There are many symbols reflecting Canadas status as a constitutional monarchy, including those of the Monarch, or the vice-regal representatives. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Canadian Senate - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3878 words)
Senate seats are divided among the provinces in such a way that Ontario, Quebec, the Maritime provinces, and the Western provinces are equally represented.
The Senate is the upper house of Parliament, whereas the House of Commons is the lower house.
The Senate was intended to mirror the British House of Lords, in that it was meant to represent the social and economic élite.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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