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Encyclopedia > Senate of Brazil
Brazil

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Brazil
Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_Brazil. ... Brazil is a federal republic with 26 states and a federal district (see: States of Brazil). ...



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In its present configuration, the Brazilian Senate (Portuguese: Senado Federal) is a federal legislative body and the upper house of the National Congress of Brazil. Brazils bicameral National Congress (Portuguese: Congresso Nacional) consists of the Federal Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. ... Brazils bicameral National Congress (Portuguese: Congresso Nacional) consists of the Federal Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. ... National Congress of Brazil - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... See also List of Presidents of Brazil The President of the Federal Republic of Brazil is the head of state and head of government of Brazil. ... Category: ... The Supreme Federal Tribunal (in Portuguese Supremo Tribunal Federal, or simply STF) is the highest court of law of the Federative Republic of Brazil. ... This article lists political parties in Brazil. ... Brazil elects on the national level a head of state – the president – and a legislature. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Since 1994, as a result of a constitutional amendment which reduced the presidential term to four years, all federal and state elections in Brazil have coincided. ... Brazil is divided into 26 estados (states, singular: estado) and one district, the Distrito Federal (Brazilian Federal District) which contains the capital city, Brasília. ... There are serious issues in regard to abuses of human rights in Brazil. ... Traditionally, Brazil has been a leader in the inter-American community and has played an important role in collective security efforts, as well as in economic cooperation in the Western Hemisphere. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the lower house. ... Brazils bicameral National Congress (Portuguese: Congresso Nacional) consists of the Federal Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. ...


The Senate comprises 81 seats. Three senators from each state and three from the Federal District, elected on a majority basis to serve eight-year terms. Elections are staggered so that two-thirds of the upper house is up for election at one time and the remaining one-third four years later.


History

As an institution, the Senate in Brazil has existed for 180 years.


The Empire: Origin

In Brazil, the Senate was first established by the 1824 Consitution, the first Constitution of the independent Brazil.


Following the independence, in 1822, Emperor Pedro I ordered that a National Assembly be convened to write the country's first Constitution. Following several disagreements with the elected deputies (which included representatives from present-day Uruguay, then part of the Brazilian Empire under the name of Provícia Cisplatina), the Emperor dissolved the Assembly and, in 1824, implemented the first Constitution, in which it was established that the Legislative branch would comprise a lower house, the Chamber of Deputies, and an upper house, inspired in the United Kingdom's House of Lords. Pedro I of Brazil (pron. ... This is the History of Uruguay. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ...


The first configuration of the Senate was a consulting body to the Emperor. Membership was for life and it was a place of prestige, to which only a small morcel of the population could apply. A senator for life is a member of the Italian Senate appointed by the President of the Italian Republic for outstanding merits in the social, scientific, artistic or literary field. Former Presidents of the Republic are ex officio life senators. ...


Members of the Senate were elected, but they had to be at least 40 years old and, which was more significant as a limitating factor, an annual income of 800 thousand contos-de-réis was necessary in order to run. Furthermore, electors were selected by income as well. In order to be able to vote in the election, any man (women did not vote in the Brazilian Empire) was required to have an annual income of at least 200 thousand contos-de-réis. But those who qualified to vote with this income would not vote directly for the senators; instead, they voted on other people, who were candidates to senator electors. In order to run for this position, a minimal annual income of 400 thousand contos-de-réis was required. Once elected, those electors would vote for senator. The election itself would not turn out a winner automatically. The three highest-voted candidates in each circumscription would make up what was called a "triple list", from which the Emperor would select one individual that would be considered "elected". The Emperor usually picked the highest-voted individual, but it was within his discretion to select whichever of the three individuals listed. The only exception for these rules were the Princes of the Brazilian Imperial House, who were senators by right and would take a seat in the Senate upon completing 25 years of age. The real (symbol: R$, ISO 4217 code: BRL, plural: reais) is the currency of Brazil. ... On September 7, 1822, Prince Pedro of Portugal, heir apparent to the Portuguese throne and the Kings representative in Brazil, declared the countrys independence from Portugal and proclaimed himself Emperor of Brazil. ...


The original Senate had 50 members, representing all of the Empire's Provinces, each with a number of senators proportional to its population.


The first session of the original Senate took place in May of 1826, following repeated delays from the Emperor in calling the first election after the inception of the 1824 Constitution — which had led to repeated accusations that the Emperor would be attempting to establish an absolutist government for himself. The term absolutism can mean: A belief in absolute truth moral absolutism, the belief that there is some absolute standard of right and wrong political absolutism, a political system where one person holds absolute power, also called apolytarchy from Gr. ...


External links

  • pt:Lista de senadores do Brasil (1826-1889)

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Brazil is thought to have been inhabited for at least 10,000 years by semi-nomadic populations before the first Portuguese explorers, led by Pedro Álvares Cabral, disembarked in 1500.
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Commissions of inquiry may be set up by the Federal Senate or by the Chamber of Deputies alone, or by both chambers acting in concert, at the request of one third of the members, to investigate a specific matter within a specific time-period.
The Senate chaired by the President of the Supreme Federal Tribunal has the sole right to institute legal proceedings against, and try, the President and Vice-President of the Republic in cases of allegations of failing to fulfil statutory duties, and Ministers of State in the case of similar offences in which they may be involved.
At the request of the Senate (or of the Chamber of Deputies, a commission of inquiry or a technical committee, or on its own initiative), the Tribunal of Accounts of the Union may conduct accounting, financial, budgetary, operational and assets-related inspections and audits in administrative departments of the three houses.
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