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Encyclopedia > Senate
The seat of Roman Senate in the Roman Forum, Rome
The seat of Roman Senate in the Roman Forum, Rome
Legislature

This series is part of
the Politics series Senate is a Canadian melodic death metal/blackened death metal band. ... The HSV Senator Signature is a luxury sports sedan version of the Holden Commodore full-size car, produced by Holden Special Vehicles in co-operation with Australian automaker Holden. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Curia_Iulia. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Curia_Iulia. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... Part of the Roman Forum. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... A legislatureis a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to ratify laws. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ...

Politics Portal · edit

A senate is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature. There have been many such bodies in history, the first of which was the Roman Senate. A legislatureis a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to ratify laws. ... This is a list of legislatures by country, whether parliamentary or congressional, that act as a plenary general assembly of representatives with the power to legislate. ... The House of Representatives Chamber of the Parliament of Australia in Canberra. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... Parliamentary group and parliamentary party are terms used to refer to the representation of a political party or electoral fusion of parties in a legislative assembly such as a parliament or in a city council. ... The leader or chairperson of a parliamentary group holds an influential political post in a parliamentary system with strong party discipline. ... Look up Congress in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A Congressman or Congresswoman (generically, Congressperson) is a politician who is a member of a Congress. ... For unicameral alphabets, see the article letter case. Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... Image:WashingtonDC Capitol USA2. ... Tricameralism is the practice of having three legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... Many parliaments or other legislatures consist of two chambers: an elected lower house, and an upper house or Senate which may be appointed or elected by a different mechanism from the lower house. ... For the demesne in The Keys to the Kingdom series, see The House An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the lower house. ... A senate is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature. ... A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house. ... States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, and the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... A city council is the most common style of legislative government in a city or town. ... A councillor is a member of a council (such as a city council), particularly in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and other parts of the Commonwealth. ... A deliberative body (or deliberative assembly) is an organization which collectively makes decisions after debate and discussion. ... For the demesne in The Keys to the Kingdom series, see The House An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the lower house. ... A legislatureis a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to ratify laws. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ...

Contents

Overview

The word senatorial is derived from the Latin word senatus (senate), which comes from senex, "old man". The members or legislators of a senate are called senators. The Latin word senator was adopted into English with no change in spelling. Its meaning comes from a very ancient form of even simple social organization in which decision-making powers are reserved for the eldest men. For the same reason, the word senate is correctly used when referring to any powerful authority characteristically composed by the eldest members of a community, as a deliberative body of a faculty in an institution of higher learning is often called a senate. The original senate was the Roman Senate, which lasted until 580. In the Eastern Roman Empire, the Byzantine Senate continued until the Fourth Crusade. For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... Ethelbert becomes king of Kent. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Byzantine Empire. ... The Byzantine Senate was a nominal continuation of the Roman Senate, established in the 4th century by Constantine I. It survived for centuries but was increasingly irrelevant until its eventual disappearance in the 13th century. ... The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople (Eugène Delacroix, 1840). ...


Modern democratic states with bicameral parliamentary systems are sometimes equipped with a senate, often distinguished from an ordinary parallel lower house, known variously as the "House of Representatives", "House of Commons", "Chamber of Deputies", "National Assembly" or "House of Assembly", by electoral rules. This may include minimum age required for voters and candidates, proportional or majoritarian or plurality system, and an electoral basis or collegium. Typically, the senate is referred to as the upper house and has a smaller membership than the lower house. In some federal states senates also exist at the subnational level. In the United States all states other than Nebraska have a state senate. In Australia all states other than Queensland have an upper house known as a legislative council. Several Canadian provinces also once had legislative councils, but these have all been abolished. In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, and the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      House of Representatives is a name used for legislative bodies in many countries. ... British House of Commons Canadian House of Commons The House of Commons is the elected lower house of the bicameral parliament in the United Kingdom and Canada. ... Chamber of Deputies is the name given to a legislative body, which may either be the lower house of a bicameral legislature, or the name of a unicameral one. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The National Assembly is either a legislature, or the lower house of a bicameral legislature in some countries. ... House of Assembly is a name given to the legislature or lower house of a bicameral legislature, in some countries, often at subnational level. ... Majoritarianism is a political philosophy or agenda which asserts that a majority (sometimes categorized by religion, language or some other identifying factor) of the population is entitled to a certain degree of primacy in society, and has the right to make decisions that affect the society. ... For the use of the term in political theory, see Pluralism (political theory). ... A federal state is one that brings together a number of different political communities with a common government for common purposes, and separate state or provincial or cantonal governments for the particular purposes of each community. ... Official language(s) English Capital Lincoln Largest city Omaha Largest metro area Omaha Area  Ranked 16th  - Total 77,421 sq mi (200,520 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 0. ... Slogan or Nickname: Sunshine State, Smart State Motto(s): Audax at Fidelis (Bold but Faithful) Other Australian states and territories Capital Brisbane Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Quentin Bryce Premier Anna Bligh (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 28  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $158,506 (3rd... A Legislative Council in British constitutional thought is the second-to-top tier of a government led by a Governor-General, Governor or a Lieutenant-Governor, inferior to an Executive Council and equal to or superior to a Legislative Assembly. ...


Senate membership can be determined either through elections or appointments. For example, elections are held every three years for half the membership of the Australian Senate, the term of a senator being six years. In contrast, members of the Canadian Senate are appointed by the Governor General upon the recommendation of the Prime Minister of Canada, holding the office until they resign, are removed, or retire at the mandatory age of 75. Some states have a combination of these two approaches, such as the Jamaican Senate, where thirteen are appointed by the prime minister and eight by the leader of the opposition. In larger countries, the senate often serves a balancing effect by giving a larger share of power to regions or groups which would otherwise be overwhelmed under strictly popular apportionment. Australian Senate chamber Entrance to the Senate The Senate is the upper of the two houses of the Parliament of Australia. ... The Senate of Canada (French: Le Sénat du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the House of Commons. ... The Governor General of Canada (French (feminine): Gouverneure générale du Canada or (masculine) Gouverneur général du Canada) is the vice-regal representative in Canada of the Canadian monarch, who is the head of state; Canada is one of sixteen Commonwealth realms, all of which share the... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ... Parliament is the legislative branch of the government of Jamaica. ... Parliamentary opposition is a form of political opposition to a designated government, particularly in a Westminster-based parliamentary system. ... The membership of the United States House of Representatives changes each decade following the decennial United States Census. ...

The interior of the Canadian Senate

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 884 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 884 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation... The Senate of Canada (French: Le Sénat du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the House of Commons. ...

Alternate meanings

The terms Senate and Senator, however, do not necessarily refer to a second chamber of a legislature:

  • In Finland, until 1919, the Senate was the executive branch and the supreme court.
  • In the German Bundesl√§nder of Berlin, Bremen and Hamburg, the Senates (or Senat in German) are the executive branch, with Senator (Senator) being the holders of ministerial portfolios. Moreover, also in Germany, bodies of usually five judges in higher courts of appeal hearing and deciding cases are called "senates", although the judges are not called "senators". However, in the Land of Bavaria, the Senate was the upper house of parliament until its abolition in 1999.
  • In Scotland, judges of the High Court of Justiciary are called Senators of the College of Justice.
  • In some, mostly federal countries with a unicameral legislature, some of the legislators are elected differently from the others and are called Senators. In federal countries, such Senators represent the territories, while the other members represent the people at large (this device is used to allow a federal representation without having to establish a bicameral legislature); this is the case with St. Kitts and Nevis, Comoros and Micronesia. In other, non-federal countries, the use of the term Senator marks some other difference between such members and the rest of the legislators (such as the method of selection); this is the case of Jersey and Dominica.
  • The Senate can be the ruling body of a university.

The Senate of Finland combined the functions of cabinet and supreme court in the Grand Duchy of Finland between 1816 to 1917. ... Germany is a Federal Republic made up of 16 States, known in German as Länder (singular Land). ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE5 State subdivisions 2 urban districts Capital Bremen Senate President Jens Böhrnsen (SPD) Governing parties SPD / Alliance 90/The Greens Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  408 km² (158 sq mi) Population 664,000... This article is about the city in Germany. ... Judges may refer to the Book of Judges in the Bible more than one judge. ... Court of Appeals is the title of certain appellate courts in various jurisdictions. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... This article is about the year. ... This article is about the country. ... Seal of the High Court of Justiciary © Crown Copyright The High Court of Justiciary is Scotlands supreme criminal court. ... The Senators of the College of Justice, and the Chairman of the Scottish Land Court (who ranks as a Senator), in order of appointment: The Rt Hon. ...

National senates in the world

Defunct senates

Abolished in favor of
unicameral system Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ...

Legislature disbanded Politics of Sri Lanka takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Sri Lanka is both head of state and head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ...

New constitution adopted The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... The Congress of the Confederate States was the legislative body of the Confederate States of America, existing during the American Civil War between 1861 and 1865. ... Politics of Guyana takes place in a framework of a semi-presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Guyana is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... The Parliament of Northern Ireland was the home rule legislature created under the Government of Ireland Act 1920, which existed from June 7, 1921 to March 30, 1972, when it was suspended. ... Anthem Thanh niên Hành Khúc (Call to the Citizens) Capital Saigon Language(s) Vietnamese Government Republic Last President¹ Duong Van Minh Last Prime minister Vu Van Mau Historical era Cold War  - Regime change June 14, 1955  - Dissolution April 30, 1975 Area  - 1973 173,809 km² 67,108...

* A Greek Senate was reestablished in 1927, and abolished again in 1935.
** A South African Senate was reconvened between 1994 and 1997, before being replaced by the National Council of Provinces.
The National Council of Provinces (NCOP) is the upper house of the Parliament of South Africa under the (post-apartheid) constitution which came into full effect in 1997. ...


Fictional senates

- Senator Palpatine Form of Government Federal Republic Official language Basic Capital Coruscant Head of Government Chancellor Establishment c. ... This article is about the series. ... The Galactic Empire is one of the main factions in the Star Wars universe. ... The New Republic (officially The New Galactic Republic) is a fictional government in Star Wars. ... Categories: Star Wars stubs | Star Wars governments ... Introduction The Romulans, a fictional race in the Star Trek universe, are descended from Vulcans and are characterized as being deceitful, cunning, and treacherous. ... This article is about the entire Star Trek franchise. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
U.S. Senate (538 words)
Vice presidents cannot vote in the Senate, except to break a tie, nor may they formally address the Senate, except with the senators' permission.
Initially vice presidents appointed senators to standing committees, regulated access to the galleries and supervised the keeping of the Senate Journal, but these duties were later removed.
Junior senators fill in as presiding officer when neither the vice president nor president pro tempore is on the Senate Floor.
Encyclopedia4U - United States Senate - Encyclopedia Article (695 words)
The United States Senate is the upper house of the Congress of the United States, the lower house of which is the U.S. House of Representatives.
Senators serve for terms of six years; the terms are staggered so that approximately one-third of the Senate is up for election every two years: each time there are elections in about 33 states for one of the two seats.
The first session of Senate to be open to the public was held on February 11, 1794 and on February 27, 1986 the Senate allowed its debates to be televised on a trial basis (which was later made permanent).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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