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Encyclopedia > Semaphore (communication)
A Chappe semaphore tower near Saverne, France
A Chappe semaphore tower near Saverne, France

Contents

The semaphore or optical telegraph is an apparatus for conveying information by means of visual signals, with towers with pivoting blades or paddles, shutters, in a matrix, or hand-held flags etc. Information is encoded by the position of the mechanical elements; it is read when the blade or flag is in a fixed position. In modern usage it refers to a system of signaling using two handheld flags. Other forms of optical telegraphy include ship flags, Aldis lamps, and Heliographs Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 2390 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 2390 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Saverne (German Zabern), a town of France in the région of Alsace, situated on the Rhine-Marne canal at the foot of a pass over the Vosges Mountains, and 45 km (27 m. ... The system of international maritime signal flags is a way of representing individual letters of the alphabet on ships or in nautical situations. ... An Aldis lamp is a visual signalling device, essentially a focussed lamp which can produce a pulse of light. ... Signaling with heliograph, 1910 A heliograph uses a mirror to reflect sunlight to a distant observer. ...


Semaphore lines preceded the electrical telegraph. They were faster than post riders for bringing a message over long distances, but far more expensive and less private than the electrical telegraph lines which would replace them. The distance that an optical telegraph can bridge is limited by geography and weather, thus in practical use, most optical telegraphs used lines of relay stations to bridge longer distances. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Telegraphy. ... This article is under construction and will be completed by the editor within 24 hours. ... Microwave radio relay is a technology for transmitting digital and analog signals, such as long distance telephone calls and the relay of television programs to transmitters, between two locations on a line of sight radio path. ...


History

Although passing mention of this idea had been made at many points in history, it was apparently the English scientist Robert Hooke who first gave a vivid and comprehensive outline of visual telegraphy to the Royal Society in a submission dated 1684; in it he outlined many practical details, but his system was never put into practice. Over a hundred years later a French engineer, Claude Chappe and his brothers took up the challenge again and succeeded to cover France with a network of 556 stations stretching a total distance of 4,800 kilometres. It was used for military and national communications until the 1850s. A portrait, claimed by historian Lisa Jardine to be of Robert Hooke Robert Hooke, FRS (July 18, 1635 - March 3, 1703) was an English polymath who played an important role in the scientific revolution, through both experimental and theoretical work. ... The premises of the Royal Society in London (first four properties only). ... Claude Chappe Claude Chappe (December 25, 1763 – January 23, 1805) was a French inventor who in 1792 demonstrated a practical semaphore system that eventually spanned all of France. ...


France

There was a desperate need for swift and reliable communications in France during the period of 1790-1795. It was the height of the French revolution, and France was surrounded by the allied forces of England, Holland, Prussia, Austria, and Spain. The cities of Marseilles and Lyons were in revolt, and the English Fleet held Toulon. In this situation the only advantage France held was the lack of cooperation between the allied forces due to their inadequate lines of communications. Liberty Leading the People, a painting by Delacroix commemorating the July Revolution of 1830 but which has come to be generally accepted as symbolic of French popular uprisings against the monarchy in general and the French Revolution in particular. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location (dark green) within the United Kingdom (light green), with the Republic of Ireland (blue) to its west Languages None official English de facto Capital None official London de facto Largest city London Area – Total Ranked... Holland is a region in the central-western part of the Netherlands. ... The coat of arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 Prussia (German: ; Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Lithuanian: ; Old Prussian: PrÅ«sa; Polish: ) was, most recently, a historic state originating in East Prussia, an area which for centuries had a substantial influence on German and European history. ... Marseilles redirects here. ... Lyons), see Lyons (disambiguation). ... The British Royal Navy does not have a well-defined moment of formation; it started out as a motley assortment of Kings ships during the Middle Ages, assembled only as needed and then dispersed, began to take shape as a standing navy during the 16th century, and became a... Location within France Coat of Arms of Toulon Toulon (Tolon in Provençal) is a city in southern France and a large military harbor on the Mediterranean coast, with a major French naval base. ...


The Chappe brothers in the summer of 1790 set about to devise a system of communication that would allow the central government to receive intelligence and to transmit orders in the shortest possible time. The Chappes carried out experiments during the next two years, and on two occasions their apparatus at Place de l'Étoile, Paris was destroyed by mobs who thought they were communicating with royalist forces. However in the summer of 1792 Claude was appointed Ingénier-Télégraphiste and charged with establishing a line of stations between Paris and Lille, a distance of 230 kilometres. It was used to carry dispatches for the war between France and Austria. In 1794, it brought news of a French capture of Condé-sur-l'Escaut from the Austrians less than an hour after it occurred. The first symbol of a message to Lille would pass through 15 stations in only nine minutes. The speed of the line varied with the weather, but the line to Lille typically transferred 36 symbols, a complete message, in about 32 minutes. The Place de lÉtoile is a large Place in Paris, France, the meeting point of twelve avenues (hence the name Star Square) including the Champs-Élysées which continues to the east. ... The Eiffel Tower, the international symbol of the city, with the skyscrapers of La Défense business district 5 km/ 3 mi behind. ... Look up Royalist in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... City motto: – City proper (commune) Région Nord-Pas de Calais Département Nord (59) Mayor Martine Aubry (PS) (since 2001) Area 39. ...

Paris to Strasbourg with 50 stations was the next line and others followed soon after. By 1824, the Chappe brothers were promoting the semaphore lines for commercial use, especially to transmit the costs of commodities. Napoleon Bonaparte saw the military advantage in being able to transmit information between locations, and carried a portable semaphore with his headquarters. This allowed him to coordinate forces and logistics over longer distances than any other army of his time. However because stations had to be within sight of each other, and because the efficient operation of the network required well trained and disciplined operators, the costs of administration and wages were a continuous source of financial difficulties. Only when the system was funded by the proceeds of its own lottery did costs come under control. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (748x1024, 208 KB) Subject: Claude Chappe Source: http://www-phase. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (748x1024, 208 KB) Subject: Claude Chappe Source: http://www-phase. ... Claude Chappe Claude Chappe (December 25, 1763 – January 23, 1805) was a French inventor who in 1792 demonstrated a practical semaphore system that eventually spanned all of France. ... Image File history File links Chapperégulateur. ... City motto: – City proper (commune) Région Alsace Département Bas-Rhin (67) Mayor Fabienne Keller (UMP) (since 2001) Land area 78. ... Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des Français...


Relative Costs

The semaphore system was cleverly designed, and provided a strategic advantage for France in a difficult time. However, it was almost 30 times more expensive per message than the electric telegraph. Here's a brief breakdown using $US:


Semaphore line, 120 miles (Paris to Lille)

  • 15 towers ($1,500,000)
  • At least 15 full-time operators ($450,000/year).
  • Operates at most ten hours a day.
  • Sends roughly 2 words per minute (1 symbol per minute, at 2 symbols per phrase, using the efficient directors' codebook).
  • Cost to send one word one mile, at 10% interest: $0.0114

Electric Telegraph line, 120 miles

  • At least six full-time operators ($180,000/year)
  • Poles, right-of-way, wires, installation: $15,000/mile, ($1,800,000)
  • Operates 24 hours a day.
  • Sends 15 words per minute (includes breaks for the operators).
  • Cost to send one word one mile, at 10% interest: $0.0003809

Description

The Chappe brothers determined by experiment that it was easier to see the angle of a rod than to see the presence or absence of a panel. Their semaphore was composed of black movable wooden arms, the position of which indicated alphabetic letters. The Chappe system was controlled by only two handles and was mechanically simple and reasonably rugged. Each of the two arms showed seven positions, and the cross bar connecting the two arms had four different angles, for a total of 196 symbols (7x7x4). Night operation with lamps on the arms was unsuccessful.


To speed transmission and to provide some semblance of security a code book was developed for use with semaphore lines. The Chappes' corporation used a code that took 92 of the basic symbols two at a time to yield 8,464 coded words and phrases. In communications, a code is a rule for converting a piece of information (for example, a letter, word, or phrase) into another form or representation, not necessarily of the same sort. ...


Sweden

At the same time as Chappe, the Swede Abraham Niclas Edelcrantz experimented with the optical telegraph in Sweden. In 1794 he inaugurated his telegraph with a poem dedicated to the Swedish King on his birthday. The message went from the Palace in Stockholm to the King at Drottningholm. The Old town in Stockholm from the air is the capital of Sweden, located on the south east coast of Sweden. ... Drottningholm, or literally Queens Islet, is a village on the island Lovön in lake Mälaren on the outskirts of Stockholm, Sweden. ...


Edelcrantz eventually developed his own system which was quite different from its French counterpart and nearly twice as fast. The system was based on ten collapsible iron shutters. The various positions of the shutters formed combinations of numbers which were translated into letters, words or phrases via codebooks. The telegraph network consisted of telegraph stations positioned at about 10 kilometres from one another.


Soon telegraph circuits linking castles and fortresses in the neighbourhood of Stockholm were set up and the system was extended to Grisslehamn and Åland. Subsequently telegraph circuits were introduced between Gothenburg and Marstrand, at Helsingborg and between Karlskrona and its fortresses. Sweden was the second country in the world, after France, to introduce an optical telegraph network. The Swedish optical telegraph network was restricted to the archipelagoes of Stockholm, Gothenburg and Karlskrona. Like its French counterpart, it was mainly used for military purposes. The Old town in Stockholm from the air is the capital of Sweden, located on the south east coast of Sweden. ... Gothenburg (Swedish: ) ) is a city and municipality on the west-coast of Sweden, in the County of Västra Götaland. ... Karlskrona is a city in south-eastern Sweden. ...


Other countries

The system was widely copied by other European states, especially after it was used by Napoleon to coordinate his empire and army. In most states, the postal authorities ran the semaphores lines. Small-town post office and town hall in Lockhart, Alabama A post office is a facility (in most countries, a government one) where the public can purchase postage stamps for mailing correspondence or merchandise, and also drop off or pick up packages or other special-delivery items. ...


Bishop of Saint David's Lord George Murray, stimulated by reports of the Chappe semaphore, proposed a system of visual telegraphy to the British Admiralty. He employed a large wooden boards on his towers with six large holes which could be closed by shutters. A chain of 15 of these stations was built between London and Deal in 1795 and others followed to Portsmouth, Yarmouth, and Plymouth. Many of the prominences on which the towers were built are known as 'Telegraph Hill' to this day. One restored tower sits on a hill at Chatley Heath in Surrey. As in France the network required lavish amounts of money and manpower to operate and could only be justified as a defence need. The Bishop of Saint Davids is the Ordinary of the Church in Wales Diocese of Saint Davids. ... The Right Reverend Lord George Murray (January 30, 1761–June 3, 1803) was an Anglican cleric best remembered for his work developing Britains first optical telegraph, which began relaying messages from London to Deal in 1796, a few years after Claude Chappes system began operation in France. ... For the international law of the sea, see Admiralty law. ... London is the capital city of the United Kingdom and of England and is the most populous city in the European Union. ... Deal can refer to: an agreement reached after negotiation, for example a contract to sell as a dealer or dealership a bargain a situation, as in whats the deal with the Johnson account ?. a problem, as in whats your deal ?. Deal$, a U.S. dollar store a Deal... Portsmouth is a city of about 196,000 people located in the county of Hampshire on the southern coast of Great Britain. ... Yarmouth may refer to one of the following places. ... Plymouth is a city in the South West of England, or alternatively the Westcountry, and is situated within the traditional county of Devon. ... Surrey is a county in southern England, part of the South East England region and one of the Home Counties. ...


Richard Lovell Edgeworth (1744-1817) proposed a telegraph for Ireland when a French invasion was anticipated in 1794, and again in 1796, but it was not taken up. Richard Lovell Edgeworth was born on May 31, 1744 in Bath, England -- though he lived in Ireland, he was the father of Maria Edgeworth and 21 other children. ...

Once it had proved its success the optical telegraph was imitated in many other countries. Germany began with a line 750 kilometres long between Berlin and Coblenz in 1833, and in Russia, Tsar Nicolas I inaugurated the line between Moscow and Warsaw in 1833; this needed 220 stations maned by 1320 operators. In the United States the first optical telegraph was built by Jonathan Grout. It was a 104 kilometre line connecting Martha's Vineyard with Boston, and its purpose was transmit news about shipping. Image File history File links Chappetouranimation. ... This article is about the capital city of Germany. ... This article is about the German city Koblenz. ... Nikolai I Pavlovich (Russian: Николай I Павлович), July 6 (June 25, Old Style), 1796–March 2 (February 18, Old Style), 1855), also Nicholas, was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855 and king of Poland from 1825 until 1831. ... Moscow (Russian: Москва́, Moskva, IPA: ) is the capital of Russia and the countrys principal political, economic, financial, educational and transportation center, located on the river Moskva. ... Warsaw (Polish: , (?), in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto Stołeczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... Jonathan Grout (July 23, 1737–September 8, 1807) was a United States Representative from Massachusetts for the First United States Congress. ... Map of Marthas Vineyard. ... Boston is a town and small port c. ...


Many national services adopted signaling systems different from the Chappe system. For example, Britain and Sweden adopted systems of shuttered panels (in contradiction to the Chappe brothers' contention that angled rods are more visible). In Spain, the engineer Agustín de Betancourt developed his own system which was adopted by that state. This system was considered by many experts in Europe better than Chappe's, even in France.


The semaphores were successful enough that Samuel Morse failed to sell the electrical telegraph to the French government. However, France finally committed to replace semaphores with electric telegraphs in 1846. Note that electric telegraphs are both more private and unaffected by weather. Many contemporaries predicted the failure of electric telegraphs because "they are so easy to cut." The last stationary semaphore link in regular service was in Sweden, connecting an island with a mainland telegraph line. It went out of service in 1880. Portrait of Samuel F. B. Morse by Mathew Brady, between 1855 and 1865 Samuel Finley Breese Morse (April 27, 1791 – April 2, 1872) was an American inventor, and painter of portraits and historic scenes; he is most famous for inventing the electric telegraph and Morse code. ...


Flag semaphore system

Semaphores were adopted and widely used (with hand-held flags replacing the mechanical arms) in the maritime world in the early 1800s. Semaphore signals were used, for example, at the Battle of Trafalgar. This was the period in which the modern naval semaphore system was invented. This system uses hand-held flags. It is still accepted for emergency communication in daylight or, using lighted wands instead of flags, at night. Combatants United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland First French Empire, Spain Commanders The Viscount Nelson † Pierre Charles Silvestre de Villeneuve Strength 27 ships of the line, 4 frigates, 2 others France: 18 ships of the line, 8 others Spain: 15 ships of the line Casualties 449 killed; 1,214... The tricolour flag of France A flag is a piece of coloured cloth flown from a pole or mast, usually for purposes of signalling or identification. ...


Wig-wag flags

In the 1850s, U.S. Army Major Albert J. Myer, a surgeon by training, developed a system using left or right movements of a flag (or torch or lantern at night), similar to the Morse code of dots and dashes. This is sometimes called the wig-wag method of signaling. More mobile than previous means of optical telegraphy, this code was used extensively by Signal Corps troops on both sides in the American Civil War. (Its first use in battle was by Confederate Lieutenant Edward Porter Alexander at the First Battle of Bull Run in 1861.) The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... Major is a military rank denoting an officer of mid-level command status. ... Albert James Myer Albert James Myer (September 20, 1828 – August 24, 1880) was a surgeon and U.S. Army officer. ... 1922 Chart of the Morse Code Letters and Numerals Morse code is a method for transmitting information, using standardized sequences of short and long marks or pulses — commonly known as dots and dashes — for the letters, numerals and special characters of a message. ... The Signal Corps is a military branch, usually subordinate to a countrys army. ... Combatants Union (remaining U.S. states) Confederate States of America Commanders Abraham Lincoln† Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties KIA: 110,000 Total dead: 360,000 Wounded: 275,200 KIA: 94,000 Total dead: 258,000 Wounded: 137,000+  The... Some Confederate soldiers The Confederate States Army (CSA) was formed in February 1861 to defend the Confederate States of America, which had itself been formed that same year when seven southern states seceded from the United States (with four more to follow). ... A Lieutenant is a military, paramilitary or police officer. ... Edward Porter Alexander Edward Porter Alexander (May 26, 1835 – April 28, 1910) was an engineer, an officer in the U.S. Army and Confederate States Army, an author, and a railroad executive. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Irvin McDowell Joseph E. Johnston P.G.T. Beauregard Strength 28,450 32,230 Casualties 2,896 (460 killed, 1,124 wounded, 1,312 captured/missing) 1,982 (387 killed, 1,582 wounded, 13 missing) The Battle of Bull Run...


In this code, alphabet letters were equated with three positions of the flag, disk, or light. The flags measured two, four, or six feet square and were generally either red or black banners with white square centers or white banners with red square centers. The disks were 12 to 18 inches in diameter and were made of metal or wood frames with canvas surfaces. Somewhat easier to handle than the flags, they provided a different method for daylight communications. The lights were kerosene lanterns attached to a staff. A second "foot torch" was placed on the ground before the signalman as a fixed point of reference, making it easier for the recipient to follow the lantern's movements.


Each letter consisted of a combination of three basic motions. All began with the flagman holding his device vertically and motionless above his head. The first motion was initiated by bringing the device downward on the signalman's right side and then quickly returning it to its upright position. Motion number 2 involved bringing the device down on the left side and then returning it to the starting position. The third motion required lowering the device in front of the signalman, then restoring it to its vertical position. A flash demo can be found here


Modern semaphore

The newer flag semaphore system uses two short poles with square flags, which a flagperson holds in different positions to signal letters of the alphabet and numbers. The flagperson holds one pole in each hand, and extends each arm in one of seven possible directions. Except for in the rest position, the flags cannot overlap. The flags are coloured differently based on whether the signals are sent by sea or by land. At sea, the flags are coloured red and yellow, while on land, they are red and white.


Characters


Rest position

Numerals

Attention

Cancel

A / 1

B / 2

C / 3 / Ack

D / 4

E / 5 / Error 9x's

F / 6

G / 7

H / 8

I / 9

J / Letters

K / 0

L

M

N

O

P

Q

R

S

T

U

V

W

X

Y

Z

Image File history File links Semaphore_Ready. ... Image File history File links Semaphore_Numeric. ... Image File history File links Semaphore_Error. ... Image File history File links Semaphore_Cancel. ... Image File history File links Semaphore_Alpha. ... Image File history File links Semaphore_Bravo. ... Image File history File links Semaphore_Charlie. ... Image File history File links Semaphore_Delta. ... Image File history File links Semaphore_Echo. ... Image File history File links Semaphore_Foxtrot. ... Image File history File links Semaphore_Golf. ... Image File history File links Semaphore_Hotel. ... Image File history File links Semaphore_India. ... Image File history File links Semaphore_Juliet. ... Image File history File links Semaphore_Kilo. ... Image File history File links Semaphore_Lima. ... Image File history File links Semaphore_Mike. ... Image File history File links Semaphore_November. ... Image File history File links Semaphore_Oscar. ... Image File history File links Semaphore_Papa. ... Image File history File links Semaphore_Quebec. ... Image File history File links Semaphore_Romeo. ... Image File history File links Semaphore_Sierra. ... Image File history File links Semaphore_Tango. ... Image File history File links Semaphore_Uniform. ... Image File history File links Semaphore_Victor. ... Image File history File links Semaphore_Whiskey. ... Image File history File links Semaphore_X-ray. ... Image File history File links Semaphore_Yankee. ... Image File history File links Semaphore_Zulu. ...

Railway semaphores

When the railway systems of England introduced signalling systems, the semaphore design was only one of many design including the cross-bar and disk. However, the semaphore system came to predominate. Railway semaphores operated in two or at most three positions, and were for communication between the signalmen and the train driver.


The first railway semaphore was erected by Charles Hutton Gregory on the London and Croydon Railway (later the Brighton) at New Cross, southeast London, in the winter of 1842-1843 on the newly enlarged layout also accommodating the South Eastern Railway. The semaphore was afterwards rapidly adopted as a fixed signal throughout Britain, superseding all other types in most uses by 1870. The appearance of the first railway semaphore does not seem to have been recorded. Such signals were widely adopted in the USA after 1908.


The first railway semaphores were mounted on the roof the the controlling signalbox, but gradually a system of wires and pulleys was developed to control the signals at a distance. The signals protecting the station itself came to be called home signals, while signals some distance away giving advance warning came to be called distant signals. In railway signalling, a home signal (British English and sometimes in American English as well) or absolute signal (US English) is a signal that protects junctions, points (switches in American terminology), movable bridges platforms, or block sections. ... Overview In railway signalling, a distant signal (British English) or approach signal (US English) is a signal that repeats the aspects of a signal some distance ahead. ...


References in fiction

A dramatic episode in A Ship of the Line (one of C. S. Forester's Horatio Hornblower books) involves the destruction of a Napoleonic semaphore station on the coast of France. This novel follows Horatio Hornblower on his tour during his first tour as captain of a Ship of the Line. ... The cover of the 1974 paperback edition of one of Foresters non-fiction titles: Hunting The Bismarck Cecil Scott Forester was the pen name of Cecil Louis Troughton Smith (August 27, 1899 – April 2, 1966), an English novelist who rose to fame with tales of adventure with military themes. ... Horatio Hornblower is a fictional officer in the British Royal Navy during the Napoleonic Wars, originally the protagonist of a series of novels by C. S. Forester, and later the subject of films and television programs. ...


One of Dudley Pope's Lord Ramage books, Ramage's Signal, has Ramage's crew seize a Napoleonic semaphore station to send a signal directing a French convoy into a trap. The semaphore, however, is depicted as using flapping panels or shutters rather than the arms of the Chappe system. Dudley Pope (29 December 1925 - 25 April 1997) was a British writer of both nautical fiction and history, most notable for his Lord Ramage series of historical novels. ... Lord Nicholas Ramage was the fictional character at the center of a series of sea novels written by Dudley Pope. ...


The Clacks system in Terry Pratchett's Discworld universe is very similar to the Chappe semaphore, and is probably based upon it. In the books, the Clacks system takes the place of the real world Internet and telephone network. The clacks in Terry Pratchetts Discworld novels is a network of semaphore towers stretching along the Sto Plains, into the Ramtops and across the Unnamed Continent to Genua. ... Terence David John Pratchett OBE is an English fantasy author (born April 28, 1948, in Beaconsfield, Buckinghamshire, England), best known for his Discworld series. ... Cover art of The Colour of Magic by Josh Kirby The Discworld is a series of thirty-four satirical fantasy novels and a number of shorter works by Terry Pratchett set on the Discworld. ... The telephone or phone (Greek: tele = far away and phone = voice) is a telecommunications device which is used to transmit and receive sound (most commonly voice and speech) across distance. ...


In Alexandre Dumas' The Count of Monte Cristo the hero uses France's optical telegraph system to trick one of his adversaries into going bankrupt. The Count of Monte Cristo (Le comte de Monte Cristo) is a classic adventure novel by Alexandre Dumas, père. ...


An episode of Monty Python's Flying Circus depicted a supposed dramatic production of Wuthering Heights in flag semaphore. Monty Pythons Flying Circus (also known as Flying Circus, MPFC or just Monty Python during the fourth season) was a popular, surreal BBC sketch comedy show from Monty Python and the groups initial claim to fame. ... Wuthering Heights is Emily Brontës only novel, first published in 1847, under the pseudonym Ellis Bell; a posthumous second edition was edited by her sister Charlotte. ...


In Jack Vance's SF novel The Blue World, islands in the ocean communicate with "wink machines", which display binary arrays of panels, possibly derived from the system Chappe decided was less effective. Jack Vance John Holbrook Vance (b. ...


Keith Roberts's Pavane describes an extensive network of semaphores in Britain; the second "measure" of the book is the story of the training and experience of a "signaller". For the former head of the Grenadian security forces, see Keith Roberts (Grenada). ... Pavane by Keith Roberts is an alternate history science fiction novel first published by Rupert Hart-Davis Ltd in 1968. ...


Ernest Hemingway's The Sun Also Rises references a statue in Paris where "the inventor of the semaphore is engaged in doing same" near the Boulevard Raspail. Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short story writer, and journalist. ... The Sun Also Rises is the first significant novel by Ernest Hemingway, first published in 1926, following a group of expatriate Americans in Europe during the 1920s. ...


In the book Winter Holiday by Arthur Ransome, Nancy sends secret messages to the other children by means of a picture in which the people's arm positions represent semaphore letters. Winter Holiday is the fourth book of Arthur Ransomes Swallows and Amazons series of childrens books. ... Arthur Ransome (January 18, 1884 – June 3, 1967), was a British author and journalist, best known for writing the Swallows and Amazons series of childrens books, which tell of school-holiday adventures of children, mostly in the Lake District and the Norfolk Broads areas of England. ...


See also

Childs Hill, part of the London Borough of Barnet, is a suburban development situated 5 miles (8 km) northwest of Charing Cross. ... It has been suggested that Railway signal be merged into this article or section. ...

External links

  • Semaphore online translator (online animated semaphore translator)
  • Chappe's semaphore (an illustrated history of optical telegraphy)
  • Semaphore Flag Signalling System (shows stick figure waving flags)
  • International Maritime Signal Flags (sometimes confused with semaphore flags; shows alphabetic/numeric maritime flags)
  • International Maritime Signal Flags (shows the meaning of each flag, and two-letter meanings)
  • U. S. Navy Flags (shows the meaning of each flag)
  • Maritime Signal Flags (a brief illustrated history of maritime flags)
  • World War I and II Royal Navy Flags (historical; shows the meaning of each flag)
  • U. S. Storm Signal Flags (pictures and description)
  • Automobile Racing Flags (picture and meaning of each flag)
  • Skin Diving Flags (pictures and laws of use)
  • Albert Myer's 1864 A Manual of Signals: For The Use Of Signal Officers In The Field
  • The telegraph chain to Faversham from the Admiralty
  • The Origin of the Railway Semaphore

  Results from FactBites:
 
Semaphore (communication) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2217 words)
The semaphore or optical telegraph is an apparatus for conveying information by means of visual signals, with towers with pivoting blades or paddles, shutters, in a matrix, or hand-held flags etc. Information is encoded by the position of the mechanical elements; it is read when the blade or flag is in a fixed position.
Semaphores were adopted and widely used (with hand-held flags replacing the mechanical arms) in the maritime world in the early 1800s.
Semaphore signals were used, for example, at the Battle of Trafalgar.
Encyclopedia4U - Semaphore (communication) - Encyclopedia Article (810 words)
Semaphore was originally a flag signalling system devised by the Chappe brothers in France.
By 1824, the Chappe brothers were promoting the semaphore lines for commercial use, especially to transmit the costs of commodities.
The semaphores' crucial disadvantages were that they were affected by weather, especially fog and rain, and they could be read by anyone with the training.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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