FACTOID # 13: New York has America's lowest percentage of residents who are veterans.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Semantics" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Semantics
Linguistics
Theoretical linguistics
Phonetics
Phonology
Morphology
Syntax
Lexis
Semantics
Lexical semantics
Statistical semantics
Structural semantics
Prototype semantics
Pragmatics
Applied linguistics
Language acquisition
Psycholinguistics
Sociolinguistics
Linguistic anthropology
Generative linguistics
Cognitive linguistics
Computational linguistics
Descriptive linguistics
Historical linguistics
Comparative linguistics
Etymology
Stylistics
Prescription
Corpus linguistics
History of linguistics
List of linguists
Unsolved problems

Semantics (Ancient σημαντικός semantikos significant, from semainein to signify, mean, from sema sign, token), is the study of meaning in communication. In linguistics it is the study of interpretation of signs as used by agents or communities within particular circumstances and contexts.[1] It has related meanings in several other fields. For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ... For the journal, see Theoretical Linguistics (journal). ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone meaning sound or voice) is the study of the sounds of human speech. ... Phonology (Greek phonÄ“ = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ... For other uses, see Morphology. ... For other uses, see Syntax (disambiguation). ... In linguistics, the lexis of a language is the entire store of its lexical items. ... Lexical semantics is a field in computer science and linguistics which deals mainly with word meaning. ... Statistical Semantics is the study of how the statistical patterns of human word usage can be used to figure out what people mean, at least to a level sufficient for information access (Furnas, 2006). ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Prototype Theory is a model of graded categorization in Cognitive Science, where some members of a category are more central than others. ... Pragmatics is the study of the ability of natural language speakers to communicate more than that which is explicitly stated. ... Applied linguistics is the branch of linguistics concerned with using linguistic theory to address real-world problems. ... Language Acquisition: A Journal of Developmental Linguistics Language acquisition is the process by which the language capability develops in a human. ... Psycholinguistics or psychology of language is the study of the psychological and neurobiological factors that enable humans to acquire, use, and understand language. ... Sociolinguistics is the study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context on the way language is used. ... Linguistic anthropology is that branch of anthropology that brings linguistic methods to bear on anthropological problems, linking the analysis of semiotic and particularly linguistic forms and processes (on both small and large scales) to the interpretation of sociocultural processes (again on small and large scales). ... Generative linguistics is a school of thought within linguistics that makes use of the concept of a generative grammar. ... In linguistics and cognitive science, cognitive linguistics (CL) refers to the currently dominant school of linguistics that views the important essence of language as innately based in evolutionarily-developed and speciated faculties, and seeks explanations that advance or fit well into the current understandings of the human mind. ... Computational linguistics is an interdisciplinary field dealing with the statistical and logical modeling of natural language from a computational perspective. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Historical linguistics (also diachronic linguistics or comparative linguistics) is primarily the study of the ways in which languages change over time. ... Comparative linguistics (originally comparative philology) is a branch of historical linguistics that is concerned with comparing languages in order to establish their historical relatedness. ... Etymologies redirects here. ... Stylistics is the study of style used in literary, and verbal language and the effect the writer/speaker wishes to communicate to the reader/hearer. ... In linguistics, prescription can refer both to the codification and the enforcement of rules governing how a language is to be used. ... Corpus linguistics is the study of language as expressed in samples (corpora) or real world text. ... Efforts to describe and explain the human language faculty have been undertaken throughout recorded history. ... A linguist in the academic sense is a person who studies linguistics. ... Unsolved problems in : Note: Use the unsolved tag: {{unsolved|F|X}}, where F is any field in the sciences: and X is a concise explanation with or without links. ... For the span of recorded history starting roughly 5,000-5,500 years ago, see Ancient history. ... For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ... Look up agent in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Community (disambiguation). ...


Semanticists differ on what constitutes meaning in an expression. For example, in the sentence, "Zackary loves a bagel", the word bagel may refer to the object itself, which is its literal meaning or denotation, but it may also refer to many other figurative associations, such as how it meets Zackary's hunger, etc., which may be its connotation. Traditionally, the formal semantic view restricts semantics to its literal meaning, and relegates all figurative associations to pragmatics, but this distinction is increasingly difficult to defend[2]. The degree to which a theorist subscribes to the literal-figurative distinction decreases as one moves from the formal semantic, semiotic, pragmatic, to the cognitive semantic traditions. In linguistics, meaning is the content carried by the words or signs exchanged by people when communicating through language. ... This word has distinct meanings in other fields: see denotation (semiotics) and connotation and denotation. ... Connotation is a subjective cultural and/or emotional coloration in addition to the explicit or denotative meaning of any specific word or phrase in a language, i. ... The validity conditions of various sentences we may encounter in arguments will depend upon their meaning, and so conscientious logicians cannot completely avoid the need to provide some treatment of the meaning of these sentences. ... Pragmatics is the study of the ability of natural language speakers to communicate more than that which is explicitly stated. ... The validity conditions of various sentences we may encounter in arguments will depend upon their meaning, and so conscientious logicians cannot completely avoid the need to provide some treatment of the meaning of these sentences. ... Semiotics (also spelled Semeiotics) is the study of signs and sign systems. ... Pragmatism is a school of philosophy which originated in the United States in the late 1800s. ...


The word semantic in its modern sense is considered to have first appeared in French as sémantique in Michel Bréal's 1897 book, Essai de sémantique'. In International Scientific Vocabulary semantics is also called semasiology. The discipline of Semantics is distinct from Alfred Korzybsky's General Semantics, which is a system for looking at non-immediate, or abstract meanings. Michel Jules Alfred Bréal (March 26, 1832 - 1915), French philologist, was born at Landau in Rhenish Bavaria, of French parents. ... International Scientific Vocabulary (or ISV) is a form of vocabulary comprising scientific words whose language of origin may or may not be certain, but which are in current use in several modern languages among scientists. ... General Semantics is a school of thought founded by Alfred Korzybski in about 1933 in response to his observations that most people had difficulty defining human and social discussions and problems and could almost never predictably resolve them into elements that were responsive to successful intervention or correction. ...

Contents

Linguistics

In linguistics, semantics is the subfield that is devoted to the study of meaning, as inherent at the levels of words, phrases, sentences, and even larger units of discourse (referred to as texts). The basic area of study is the meaning of signs, and the study of relations between different linguistic units: homonymy, synonymy, antonymy, polysemy, paronyms, hypernymy, hyponymy, meronymy, metonymy, holonymy, exocentricity / endocentricity, linguistic compounds. A key concern is how meaning attaches to larger chunks of text, possibly as a result of the composition from smaller units of meaning. Traditionally, semantics has included the study of connotative sense and denotative reference, truth conditions, argument structure, thematic roles, discourse analysis, and the linkage of all of these to syntax. For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ... Discourse is a term used in semantics as in discourse analysis, but it also refers to a social conception of discourse, often linked with the work of French philosopher Michel Foucault (1926-1984) and Jürgen Habermas The Theory of Communicative Action (1985). ... In semiotics, a sign is generally defined as, ...something that stands for something else, to someone in some capacity. ... For the specialised use of homonym in scientific nomenclature, see Homonym (botany) and Homonym (zoology). ... Synonyms (in ancient Greek, συν (syn) = plus and όνομα (onoma) = name) are different words with similar or identical meanings. ... Look up Antonym in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Polysemy (from the Greek πολυσημεία = multiple meaning) is the capacity for a sign to have multiple meanings. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... A hypernym (in Greek υπερνύμιον, literally meaning extra name) is a word whose extension includes the extension of the word of which it is a hypernym. ... A hyponym (in Greek: υπονύμιον, literally meaning few names) is a word whose extension is included within that of another word. ... Meronymy (from the Greek words meros = part and onoma = name) is a semantic relation. ... In rhetoric, metonymy is the substitution of one word for another word with which it is associated. ... Holonymy (in Greek holon = whole and onoma = name) is a semantic relation. ... Exocentric has a number of meanings. ... Endocentric has a number of meanings. ... In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (a word) that consists of more than one other lexeme. ... A word sense is one of the meanings of a word. ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... In semantics, truth conditions are what obtain precisely when a sentence is true. ... In logic, the argument form or test form of an argument results from replacing the different words, or sentences, that make up the argument with letters, along the lines of algebra; the letters represent logical variables. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Theta role. ... Discourse analysis (DA), or discourse studies, is a general term for a number of approaches to analyzing written, spoken or signed language use. ...


Formal semanticists are concerned with the modeling of meaning in terms of the semantics of logic. Thus the sentence John loves a bagel above can be broken down into its constituents (signs), of which the unit loves may serve as both syntactic and semantic head. The truth conditions of various sentences we may encounter in arguments will depend upon their meaning, and so conscientious logicians cannot completely avoid the need to provide some treatment of the meaning of these sentences. ... In linguistics, the head is the morpheme that determines the category of a compound or the word that determines the syntactic type of the phrase of which it is a member. ...


In the late 1960s, Richard Montague proposed a system for defining semantic entries in the lexicon in terms of lambda calculus. Thus, the syntactic parse of the sentence above would now indicate loves as the head, and its entry in the lexicon would point to the arguments as the agent, John, and the object, bagel, with a special role for the article "a" (which Montague called a quantifier). This resulted in the sentence being associated with the logical predicate loves (John, bagel), thus linking semantics to categorial grammar models of syntax. The logical predicate thus obtained would be elaborated further, e.g. using truth theory models, which ultimately relate meanings to a set of Tarskiian universals, which may lie outside the logic. The notion of such meaning atoms or primitives are basic to the language of thought hypothesis from the 70s. Richard Merett Montague (1930–1971) was an American mathematician and philosopher. ... The lambda calculus is a formal system designed to investigate function definition, function application, and recursion. ... An example of parsing a mathematical expression. ... Categorial grammar is a term used for a family of formalisms in natural language syntax motivated by the principle of compositionality and organized according to the view that syntactic constituents should generally combine as functions or according to a function-argument relationship. ... For other uses, see Syntax (disambiguation). ... Alfred Tarski, original name Alfred Teitelbaum (b. ... Fodors language of thought (LOT) hypothesis states that cognition is a process of computation over compositional mental representations. ...


Despite its elegance, Montague grammar was limited by the context-dependent variability in word sense, and led to several attempts at incorporating context, such as : Montague grammar is an approach to natural language semantics, based on formal logic, especially lambda calculus and set theory. ...

  • situation semantics ('80s): Truth-values are incomplete, they get assigned based on context
  • generative lexicon ('90s): categories (types) are incomplete, and get assigned based on context

Generative Lexicon (GL) is a theory of linguistic semantics which focuses on the distributed nature of compositionality in natural language. ...

The dynamic turn in semantics

In the Chomskian tradition in linguistics there was no mechanism for the learning of semantic relations, and the nativist view considered all semantic notions as inborn. Thus, even novel concepts were proposed to have been dormant in some sense. This traditional view was also unable to address many issues such as metaphor or associative meanings, and semantic change, where meanings within a linguistic community change over time, and qualia or subjective experience. Another issue not addressed by the nativist model was how perceptual cues are combined in thought, e.g. in mental rotation[3]. Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, political activist, author, and lecturer. ... In the field of psychology, nativism is the view that certain skills or abilities are native or hard wired into the brain at birth. ... This article is about metaphor in literature and rhetoric. ... In diachronic (or historical) linguistics, semantic change is a change in one of the meanings of a word. ... Redness is the canonical quale. ... Mental rotation is the ability to rotate mental representations of two dimensional and three dimensional objects. ...


This traditional view of semantics, as an innate finite meaning inherent in a lexical unit that can be composed to generate meanings for larger chunks of discourse, is now being fiercely debated in the emerging domain of cognitive linguistics[4] and also in the non-Fodorian camp in Philosophy of Language[5]. The challenge is motivated by The lexical items in a language are both the single words (vocabulary) and sets of words organized into groups, units or chunks. Some examples of lexical items from English are cat, traffic light, take care of, by the way, and dont count your chickens before they hatch. The entire... In linguistics and cognitive science, cognitive linguistics (CL) refers to the currently dominant school of linguistics that views the important essence of language as innately based in evolutionarily-developed and speciated faculties, and seeks explanations that advance or fit well into the current understandings of the human mind. ... Jerry Alan Fodor (born 1935) is a philosopher at Rutgers University, New Jersey. ... Philosophy of language is the reasoned inquiry into the nature, origins, and usage of language. ...

  • factors internal to language, such as the problem of resolving indexical or anaphora (e.g. this x, him, last week). In these situations "context" serves as the input, but the interpreted utterance also modifies the context, so it is also the output. Thus, the interpretation is necessarily dynamic and the meaning of sentences is viewed as context-change potentials instead of propositions.
  • factors external to language, i.e. language is not a set of labels stuck on things, but "a toolbox, the importance of whose elements lie in the way they function rather than their attachments to things."[5] This view reflects the position of the later Wittgenstein and his famous game example, and is related to the positions of Quine, Davidson, and others.


A concrete example of the latter phenomenon is semantic underspecification — meanings are not complete without some elements of context. To take an example of a single word, "red", its meaning in a phrase such as red book is similar to many other usages, and can be viewed as compositional[6]. However, the colours implied in phrases such as "red wine" (very dark), and "red hair" (coppery), or "red soil", or "red skin" are very different. Indeed, these colours by themselves would not be called "red" by native speakers. These instances are contrastive, so "red wine" is so called only in comparison with the other kind of wine (which also is not "white" for the same reasons). This view goes back to de Saussure: An indexical behavior or utterance is one whose meaning varies according to context. ... This article is about the rhetorical term. ... In modern philosophy, logic and linguistics, a proposition is what is asserted as the result of uttering a declarative sentence. ... Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951), pictured here in 1930, made influential contributions to Logic and the philosophy of language, critically examining the task of conventional philosophy and its relation to the nature of language. ... For people named Quine, see Quine (surname). ... Donald Davidson (March 6, 1917 – August 30, 2003) was an American philosopher and the Willis S. and Marion Slusser Professor Emeritus of Philosophy at the University of California, Berkeley. ... Underspecification is a phenomenon in theoretical linguistics where certain features are omitted in underlying representations. ... Saussure Ferdinand de Saussure (pronounced ) (November 26, 1857 – February 22, 1913) was a Geneva-born Swiss linguist whose ideas laid the foundation for many of the significant developments in linguistics in the 20th century. ...

Each of a set of synonyms like redouter ('to dread'), craindre ('to fear'), avoir peur ('to be afraid') has its particular value only because they stand in contrast with one another. No word has a value that can be identified independently of what else is in its vicinity.[7]

and may go back to earlier Indian views on language, especially the Nyaya view of words as indicators and not carriers of meaning[8]. (Sanskrit ni-āyá, literally recursion, used in the sense of syllogism, inference)) is the name given to one of the six orthodox or astika schools of Hindu philosophy—specifically the school of logic. ...


An attempt to defend a system based on propositional meaning for semantic underspecification can be found in the Generative Lexicon model of James Pustejovsky, who extends contextual operations (based on type shifting) into the lexicon. Thus meanings are generated on the fly based on finite context. Generative Lexicon (GL) is a theory of linguistic semantics which focuses on the distributed nature of compositionality in natural language. ... James Pustejovsky is a professor of computer science at Brandeis University in Waltham, Massachusetts. ...


Prototype theory

Another set of concepts related to fuzziness in semantics is based on prototypes. The work of Eleanor Rosch and George Lakoff in the 1970s led to a view that natural categories are not characterizable in terms of necessary and sufficient conditions, but are graded (fuzzy at their boundaries) and inconsistent as to the status of their constituent members. Prototype Theory is a model of graded categorization in Cognitive Science, where some members of a category are more central than others. ... Eleanor Rosch is a professor of psychology at The University of California, Berkeley. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Systems of categories are not objectively "out there" in the world but are rooted in people's experience. These categories evolve as learned concepts of the world — meaning is not an objective truth, but a subjective construct, learned from experience, and language arises out of the "grounding of our conceptual systems in shared embodiment and bodily experience"[2]. A corollary of this is that the conceptual categories (i.e. the lexicon) will not be identical for different cultures, or indeed, for every individual in the same culture. This leads to another debate (see the Whorf-Sapir hypothesis or Eskimo words for snow). In education and psychology, learning theories help us understand the process of learning. ... Embodiment is the way in which human (or any other animals) psychology arises from the brains and bodys physiology. ... In linguistics, the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis (SWH) states that there is a systematic relationship between the grammatical categories of the language a person speaks and how that person both understands the world and behaves in it. ... It is a popular urban legend that the Inuit or Eskimo have an unusually high number of words for snow. ...


Computer science

In computer science, considered in part as an application of mathematical logic, semantics reflects the meaning of programs or functions. Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... Mathematical logic is a major area of mathematics, which grew out of symbolic logic. ...


In this regard, semantics permits programs to be separated into their syntactical part (grammatical structure) and their semantic part (meaning). For instance, the following statements use different syntaxes (languages), but result in the same semantic:

  • x += y; (C, Java, etc.)
  • x := x + y; (Pascal)
  • Let x = x + y;
  • x = x + y (various BASIC languages)

Generally these operations would all perform an arithmetical addition of 'y' to 'x'. C is a general-purpose, block structured, procedural, imperative computer programming language developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie at the Bell Telephone Laboratories for use with the Unix operating system. ... Java language redirects here. ... Pascal is a structured imperative computer programming language, developed in 1970 by Niklaus Wirth as a language particularly suitable for structured programming. ... This article is about the programming language. ...


Semantics for computer applications falls into three categories[9]:

  • Operational semantics: The meaning of a construct is specified by the computation it induces when it is executed on a machine. In particular, it is of interest how the effect of a computation is produced.
  • Denotational semantics: Meanings are modelled by mathematical objects that represent the effect of executing the constructs. Thus only the effect is of interest, not how it is obtained.
  • Axiomatic semantics: Specific properties of the effect of executing the constructs as expressed as assertions. Thus there may be aspects of the executions that are ignored.

The Semantic Web refers to the extension of the World Wide Web through the embedding of additional semantic metadata. In computer science, operational semantics is a way to give meaning to computer programs in a mathematically rigorous way (See formal semantics of programming languages). ... In computer science, denotational semantics is an approach to formalizing the semantics of computer systems by constructing mathematical objects (called denotations or meanings) which express the semantics of these systems. ... Axiomatic Semantics is an approach based on mathematical logic to proving the correctness of computer programs. ... W3Cs Semantic Web logo The Semantic Web is an evolving extension of the World Wide Web in which web content can be expressed not only in natural language, but also in a format that can be read and used by software agents, thus permitting them to find, share and... WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. ... Metadata is data about data. ...


Psychology

In psychology, semantic memory is memory for meaning, in other words, the aspect of memory that preserves only the gist, the general significance, of remembered experience, while episodic memory is memory for the ephemeral details, the individual features, or the unique particulars of experience. Word meaning is measured by the company they keep; the relationships among words themselves in a semantic network. In a network created by people analyzing their understanding of the word (such as Wordnet) the links and decomposition structures of the network are few in number and kind; and include "part of", "kind of", and similar links. In automated ontologies the links are computed vectors without explicit meaning. Various automated technologies are being developed to compute the meaning of words: latent semantic indexing and support vector machines as well as natural language processing, neural networks and predicate calculus techniques. Psychological science redirects here. ... Semantic memory refers to the memory of meanings, understandings, and other factual knowledge; in contrast to episodic memory. ... Episodic memory, or autobiographical memory, a sub-category of declarative memory, is the recollection of events. ... A semantic network is often used as a form of knowledge representation. ... WordNet is a semantic lexicon for the English language. ... This article is about the philosophical meaning of ontology. ... Latent semantic analysis (LSA) is a technique in information retrieval invented in 1990 [1]. It is sometimes called latent semantic indexing (LSI). ... Support vector machines (SVMs) are a set of related supervised learning methods, applicable to both classification and regression. ... Natural language processing (NLP) is a subfield of artificial intelligence and computational linguistics. ... A neural network is an interconnected group of neurons. ... First-order predicate calculus or first-order logic (FOL) permits the formulation of quantified statements such as there exists an x such that. ...


References

  1. ^ Otto Neurath (Editor), Rudolf Carnap (Editor), Charles F. W. Morris (Editor) (1955). International Encyclopedia of Unified Science. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. 
  2. ^ a b George Lakoff and Mark Johnson (1999). Philosophy in the Flesh: The embodied mind and its challenge to Western thought. Chapter 1.. New York: Basic Books.. 
  3. ^ Barsalou, L. (1999). Perceptual Symbol Systems. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22(4)
  4. ^ Ronald W. Langacker (1999). Grammar and Conceptualization. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyer. ISBN ISBN 3110166038. 
  5. ^ a b Jaroslav Peregrin (2003). Meaning: The Dynamic Turn. Current Research in the Semantics/Pragmatics Interface. London: Elsevier. 
  6. ^ P. Gardenfors (2000). Conceptual Spaces. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press/Bradford Books. 
  7. ^ Ferdinand de Saussure (1916). The Course of General Linguistics (Cours de linguistique générale). 
  8. ^ Bimal Krishna Matilal (1990). The word and the world: India's contribution to the study of language. Oxford.  The Nyaya and Mimamsa schools in Indian vyakarana tradition conducted a centuries-long debate on whether sentence meaning arises through composition on word meanings, which are primary; or whether word meanings are obtained through analysis of sentences where they appear. (Chapter 8).
  9. ^ Nielson, Hanne Riis & Nielson, Flemming (1995), Semantics with Applications , A Formal Introduction (1st ed.), Chicester, England: John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 0-471-92980-8.

Bimal Krishna Matilal is regaded as one of the foremost Indian philosophers of modern times. ... (Sanskrit ni-āyá, literally recursion, used in the sense of syllogism, inference)) is the name given to one of the six orthodox or astika schools of Hindu philosophy—specifically the school of logic. ... The main objective of the Purva (earlier) Mimamsa school was to establish the authority of the Vedas. ... The Sanskrit grammatical tradition of , is one of the six Vedanga disciplines. ...

See also

Major philosophers and theorists

// Alfred Tarski (January 14, 1902, Warsaw, Russian-ruled Poland – October 26, 1983, Berkeley, California) was a logician and mathematician who spent four decades as a professor of mathematics at the University of California, Berkeley. ... Rudolf Carnap (May 18, 1891, Ronsdorf, Germany – September 14, 1970, Santa Monica, California) was an influential philosopher who was active in central Europe before 1935 and in the United States thereafter. ... Peter Frederick Strawson (born November 23, 1919 in London) is a philosopher associated with the ordinary language philosophy movement within analytical philosophy. ... Herbert Paul Grice (1913 - 1988), often writing under the name Paul Grice, was a philosopher remembered mainly for his substantial contribution to the study of meaning within language, particularly his cooperative principle, the maxims of conversation derived from the cooperative principle, and his theory of implicatures. ... John Langshaw Austin (March 28, 1911 - February 8, 1960) was a philosopher of language, who developed much of the current theory of speech acts. ... Keith Donnellan (born 1931) is a contemporary philosopher and Professor Emeritus at the University of California, Los Angeles. ... Charles E. Osgood is a distinguished psychologist who developed a technique for measurement of connotative meaning of concepts known as the semantic differential. ... Saul Aaron Kripke (born in November 13, 1940 in Bay Shore, New York) is an American philosopher and logician now emeritus from Princeton and teaches as distinguished professor of philosophy at CUNY Graduate Center. ... See also John Perry (musician). ... Nathan U. Salmon (né Nathan Salmon Ucuzoglu, 1951-) is an American philosopher in the analytic tradition, specializing in philosophy of language, metaphysics, and philosophy of logic. ... Scott Soames (born 1946) is a professor of philosophy at the University of Southern California. ... Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, political activist, author, and lecturer. ... There are many people named David Kaplan. ... Nelson Goodman (7 August 1906, Somerville, Maryland – 25 November 1998) was an American philosopher, known for his work on counterfactuals, mereology, the problem of induction, and aesthetics. ... Jürgen Habermas (IPA: ; born June 18, 1929) is a German philosopher and sociologist in the tradition of critical theory and American pragmatism. ... Ray Jackendoff (born 1945) is an influential contemporary linguist who has always straddled the boundary between generative linguistics and cognitive linguistics, committed as he is both to the existence of an innate Universal Grammar (an all-important thesis of generative linguistics) and to giving an account of language that meshes... For the recipient of the Victoria Cross see John Lyons (VC). ... Richard Merett Montague (1930–1971) was an American mathematician and philosopher. ... Charles Sanders Peirce Charles Sanders Peirce (September 10, 1839 – April 19, 1914) was an American logician, philosopher, scientist, and mathematician. ... Charles Kay Ogden (June 1, 1889 Fleetwood, Lancashire - March 21, 1957 London) was an English linguist, philosopher, and writer, now mostly remembered as the inventor and propagator of Basic English, a constructed language, his primary activity from 1925 until his death. ... Ivor Armstrong Richards (February 26, 1893-1979) was an influential literary critic and rhetorician. ... Photo of Benjamin Lee Whorf as a young man. ... Anna Wierzbicka (b. ... Samuel Ichiye Hayakawa (July 18, 1906–February 27, 1992) was an English professor and academic who served as a United States Senator from California from 1977 to 1983. ... Alfred Habdank Skarbek Korzybski is a philosopher and scientist born on July 3, 1879 in Warsaw, Congress Poland, Russian Empire and died on March 1, 1950, in Lakeville, Connecticut, USA. He is probably best-remembered for developing the theory of general semantics. ...

Linguistics and semiotics

Asemic writing is an open semantic form of writing. ... Approximate X-Bar representation of Colorless green ideas sleep furiously. ... Discourse Representation Theory (DRT) is an extension of First-order predicate calculus that was created by Hans Kamp in 1981 in order to examine the contextually dependent meaning of a discourse. ... General Semantics is a school of thought founded by Alfred Korzybski in about 1933 in response to his observations that most people had difficulty defining human and social discussions and problems and could almost never predictably resolve them into elements that were responsive to successful intervention or correction. ... The Natural Semantic Metalanguage (NSM) is an approach to semantic analysis based on reductive paraphrase (that is, breaking concepts/words down into combinations of simpler concepts/words, see oligosynthetic) using a small collection of semantic primes. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The pragmatic maxim, also known as the maxim of pragmatism or the maxim of pragmaticism, is a maxim of logic formulated by Charles Sanders Peirce. ... Pragmaticism was a term used by Charles Sanders Peirce for his philosophy, in order to distance himself from pragmatism of William James ... Pragmatism is a philosophic school that originated in the late nineteenth century with Charles Sanders Peirce, who first stated the pragmatic maxim. ... In diachronic (or historical) linguistics, semantic change is a change in one of the meanings of a word. ... A semantic class contains words that share a semantic property. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The semantic field of a word is the sum of the sememes expressed by it. ... A semantic lexicon is dictionary of words labeled with semantic classes so associations can be drawn between words that have not been encountered before. ... Semantic progression describes the evolution of word usage — usually to the point that the modern meaning is radically different from the original usage. ... A semantic property consists of the components of meaning of a word. ... Semeiotic is a term used by Charles Sanders Peirce to distinguish his theory of sign relations from other approaches to the same subject matter. ... A Sememe is a proposed unit of transmitted or intended meaning; it is atomic or indivisible. ... Semiosis is any form of activity, conduct, or process that involves signs, including the production of meaning. ... Semiotics, semiotic studies, or semiology is the study of signs and symbols, both individually and grouped into sign systems. ...

Logic and mathematics

Logic (from ancient Greek λόγος (logos), meaning reason) is the study of arguments. ... Game semantics (German: dialogische Logik) is an approach to the semantics of logic that grounds the concepts of truth or validity on game-theoretic concepts, such as the existence of a winning strategy for a player. ... In mathematics, model theory is the study of the representation of mathematical concepts in terms of set theory, or the study of the structures that underlie mathematical systems. ... Proof-theoretic semantics is an approach to the semantics of logic that attempts to locate the meaning of propositions and logical connectives not in terms of interpretations, as in Tarskian approaches to semantics, but in the role that the proposition or logical connective plays within the system of inference. ... The truth conditions of various sentences we may encounter in arguments will depend upon their meaning, and so conscientious logicians cannot completely avoid the need to provide some treatment of the meaning of these sentences. ... The semantic theory of truth holds that any assertion that a sentence is true can be made only as a formal requirement regarding the language in which the proposition itself is expressed. ... In the semantics of logic, truth-value semantics is an alternative to Tarskian semantics. ...

Computer science

In theoretical computer science formal semantics is the field concerned with the rigorous mathematical study of the meaning of programming languages and models of computation. ... HTML, short for Hypertext Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for the creation of web pages. ... In Enterprise Application Integration, semantic integration is the process of using business semantics to automate the communication between computer systems. ... This article may be confusing for some readers, and should be edited to enhance clarity. ... A Semantic Service Oriented Architecture (SSOA) is an computer architecture that allows for scalable and controlled Enterprise Application Integration solutions. ... The semantic spectrum describes a series of technologies for creating increasingly precise definitions for Data elements. ... In computer science, semantic analysis is a pass by a compiler that adds semantical information to the parse tree and performs certain checks based on this information. ... A semantic reasoner, reasoning engine, rules engine, or simply a reasoner, is a piece of software able to infer logical consequences from a set of asserted facts or axioms. ...

External links

Look up semantics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Semantics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (438 words)
Semantics is distinguished from ontology (study of existence) in being about the use of a word more than the nature of the entity referenced by the word.
Semantic memory is a term used in neuropsychology to refer to memory for facts, or "knowledge", as opposed to memory for events (episodic memory).
Semantics is a subfield of linguistics that is traditionally defined as the study of meaning of (parts of) words, phrases, sentences, and texts.
Encyclopedia4U - Denotational semantics - Encyclopedia Article (154 words)
In computer science, denotational semantics is one of the approaches to formalize the meaning of computer programs, which is semantics using knowledge of mathematics.
Denotational semantics generally makes use of the techniques of functional programming to describe computer languages, architectures and programs.
The mathematics of denotational semantics is usually now formulated within domain theory.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m