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Encyclopedia > Sellafield
The Sellafield facility on the Cumbrian coast, United Kingdom
The Sellafield facility on the Cumbrian coast, United Kingdom

Sellafield is the name of a nuclear site, close to the village and railway station of Seascale, operated by Sellafield Ltd, but owned since 1 April 2005 by the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority. Previously Sellafield was owned and operated by BNFL. Sellafield is located on the coast of the Irish Sea in Cumbria, England. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) is a public body of the United Kingdom formed by the Energy Act, 2004. ... British Nuclear Fuels plc or BNFL manufactures and transports nuclear fuel (notably MOX), runs reactors, generates and sells electricity, reprocesses and manages spent fuel (mainly at Sellafield), and decommissions nuclear plants and other similar facilities. ... Relief map of the Irish Sea. ... Cumbria (IPA: ), is a shire county in the extreme North West of England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


It houses the Thorp nuclear fuel reprocessing plant and the Magnox nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. It is also the site of the remains of Calder Hall Magnox nuclear power station — the world's first commercial nuclear power station, which is now being decomissioned, as well as some other older nuclear facilities. THORP, or Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant, is a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria, England, operated by BNFL. It processes spent nuclear fuel from nuclear reactors and separates the uranium and plutonium, which can be reused in mixed oxide fuel, from the radioactive wastes, which are treated and... Schematic diagram of a Magnox nuclear reactor showing gas flow. ... // Nuclear reprocessing separates any usable elements (e. ... Core of CROCUS, a small nuclear reactor used for research at the EPFL in Switzerland. ...

Contents

History

Looking over the facility out to sea.
Looking over the facility out to sea.

Sellafield was originally a Second World War Royal Ordnance Factory, ROF Sellafield that, with its sister factory, ROF Drigg, at Drigg, produced TNT. After the war, the Ministry of Supply adapted the Sellafield site to produce nuclear weapons materials, principally plutonium. Construction of the nuclear facilities commenced in 1947 and the site was renamed "Windscale" to avoid confusion with the Springfields uranium processing factory near Preston. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Royal Ordnance Factories (ROFs) was the collective name of the UK governments munitions factories in and after World War II. Until privatisation in 1987 they were the responsibility of the Ministry of Supply and later the Ministry of Defence. ... Drigg is a village in the parish of Drigg & Carleton. ... R-phrases S-phrases Related Compounds Related compounds picric acid hexanitrobenzene Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a chemical compound with the formula C6H2(NO2)3CH3. ... The Ministry of Supply (MoS) was a department of the UK Government formed in 1939 to co-ordinate the supplying of equipment to the British armed forces, headed by the Minister of Supply. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight (244) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ...


With the creation of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) in 1954, ownership of Windscale Works passed to the UKAEA. The first of four Magnox reactors went operational in 1956 at Calder Hall, adjacent to Windscale, and the site came to be Windscale and Calder Works. Following the breakup of the UKAEA into research (UKAEA) and production (BNFL) arms in 1971, the major part of the site was transferred to BNFL. In 1981 BNFL's Windscale and Calder Works was renamed "Sellafield" as part of a major reorganisation of the site.[1] The remainder of the site remained in the hands of the UKAEA and is still called Windscale. Two air-cooled, graphite-moderated Windscale reactors constituted the first British weapons grade plutonium-239 production facility, built for the British nuclear weapons program in the late 1940s and the 1950s. The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) was established in 1954 as a statutory corporation to oversee and pioneer the development of nuclear energy within the United Kingdom. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block ?, 7, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass (244) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ...


Windscale was also the site of the prototype British Advanced gas-cooled reactor. Schematic diagram of the Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor. ...


Since its inception Sellafield has also been host to a number of reprocessing facilities, which separate the uranium, plutonium and fission products from spent nuclear fuel. The uranium can then be used in the manufacture of new nuclear fuel, or in applications where its density is an asset. The plutonium can be used in the manufacture of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel for thermal reactors, or as fuel for fast breeder reactors, such as the Prototype Fast Reactor at Dounreay. In the past there has been some efforts to reuse the other fission products: for example, in the mid to late 50s, Caesium137 was extracted to produce kilocurie radiotherapy sources; however, this is now treated as waste. // Nuclear reprocessing separates any usable elements (e. ... General Name, symbol, number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, period, block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Standard atomic weight 238. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight (244) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... A thermal reactor is the most common category of nuclear reactor. ... The fast breeder or fast breeder reactor (FBR) is a type of fast neutron reactor that produces more fissile material than it consumes. ... Dounreay (Ordnance Survey Grid reference NC982669) is the name of a now ruinous castle on the north coast of Caithness, in the Highland area of Scotland. ... General Name, Symbol, Number caesium, Cs, 55 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 6, s Appearance silvery gold Standard atomic weight 132. ...


Major plants

The Windscale Piles

Following the decision taken in January 1947 for the UK to have an independent nuclear deterrent,[2] Sellafield was chosen as the location of the plutonium production plant,[3] with the initial fuel load into the Windscale Piles commencing July 1950.[4] By July of 1952 the separation plant was being used to separate plutonium and uranium from spent fuel.


Unlike the early US reactors at Hanford, which consisted of a graphite core cooled by water, the Windscale Piles consisted of a graphite core cooled by air. Each pile contained almost 2000 tonnes of graphite, and measured over 24 feet high by 50 feet in diameter. Fuel for the reactor consisted of rods of uranium metal, approximately 1-foot long by one inch in diameter, and clad in aluminium Hanford Site plutonium production reactors along the Columbia River during the Manhattan Project. ... On October 10, 1957, the graphite core of a British nuclear reactor at Windscale, Cumbria, caught fire, releasing substantial amounts of radioactive contamination into the surrounding area. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... “Aluminum” redirects here. ...


The Windscale fire

Main article: Windscale fire

The piles were shut down following a fire in Pile 1 on 10 October 1957 which destroyed the core and released an estimated 750 terabecquerels (TBq) (20,000 curies) of radioactive material into the surrounding environment, including Iodine-131, which is taken up in the body by the thyroid. Consequently milk and other produce from the surrounding farming areas had to be destroyed. Following the fire Pile 1 was unservicable, and Pile 2, although undamaged by the fire, was shut down as a precaution. On October 10, 1957, the graphite core of a British nuclear reactor at Windscale, Cumbria, caught fire, releasing substantial amounts of radioactive contamination into the surrounding area. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... The becquerel (symbol Bq) is the SI derived unit of radioactivity, defined as the activity of a quantity of radioactive material in which one nucleus decays per second. ... The curie (symbol Ci) is a former unit of radioactivity, defined as 3. ... For the record label, see Iodine Recordings. ...


In the 1990s, the UKAEA started to implement plans to decommission, disassemble and clean up both piles; the decommissioning is now partially complete. The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority was established in 1954 as a statutory corporation to oversee and pioneer the development of nuclear energy within the United Kingdom. ...


The first generation reprocessing plant

This reprocessing plant was built to extract the plutonium from spent fuel as part of the effort to build the UK's atomic weapons.[5] It operated from 1951 until 1964, with an annual capacity of 300 tonnes of fuel (or 750 tonnes of low burnup fuel). Following the commissioning of the Magnox reprocessing plant, it was itself recycled to become a pre-handling plant to allow oxide fuel to be reprocessed in the new plant, and was closed in 1973.


Calder Hall nuclear power station

Calder Hall unit 1.
Calder Hall unit 1.

Calder Hall was the world's first commercial nuclear power station. The design was codenamed PIPPA (Pressurised Pile Producing Power and Plutonium) by the UKAEA to denote the plant's dual commercial and military role. Construction started in 1953.[6] First connection to the grid was on 27 August 1956, and the plant was officially opened by Queen Elizabeth II on 17 October 1956.[7] When the station closed on 31 March 2003, the first reactor had been in use for nearly 47 years.[8] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Calder Hall had 4 Magnox reactors capable of generating 50 MWe of power each. Schematic diagram of a Magnox nuclear reactor showing gas flow. ... For other uses, see Watt (disambiguation). ...


However, in its early life, it was primarily used to produce weapons-grade plutonium, with two fuel loads per year, and electricity production as a secondary purpose.[9] From 1964 it was mainly used on commercial fuel cycles, but it was not until April 1995 that the UK Government announced that all production of plutonium for weapons purposes had ceased. General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight (244) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Calder Hall cooling towers were demolished on Saturday 29th September 2007[10]


Windscale Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor (WAGR)

The Windscale Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor (WAGR)[11] was a prototype for the UK's second generation of reactors, the Advanced gas-cooled reactor or AGR, which followed on from the Magnox stations. The WAGR golfball is, along with the Pile chimneys, one of the iconic buildings on the Windscale site (Windscale being an independent site within the Sellafield complex). This reactor was shut down in 1981, and is now part of a pilot project to demonstrate techniques for safely decommissioning a nuclear reactor. Schematic diagram of the Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor. ... Schematic diagram of the Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor. ... Schematic diagram of a Magnox nuclear reactor showing gas flow. ...


Magnox reprocessing plant

In 1964 the Magnox reprocessing plant came on stream to reprocess spent nuclear fuel from the Magnox reactors.[12] The plant uses the "plutonium uranium extraction" Purex method for reprocessing spent fuel, with tributyl phosphate as an extraction agent. The Purex process produces uranium, plutonium and fission products as output streams. Over the 30 years from 1971 to 2001 B205 has reprocessed over 35,000 tonnes of Magnox fuel, with 15,000 tonnes of fuel being regenerated.[13] Magnox fuel is reprocessed since it corrodes if stored underwater, and routes for dry storage have not yet been proven.[14] Schematic diagram of a Magnox nuclear reactor showing gas flow. ... The PUREX process is used to reprocess spent nuclear fuel, in order to extract uranium and plutonium, independent of each other, from the fission products. ... Tributyl phosphate (TBP), n-tributyl phosphate, or tri-n-butyl phosphate, is an odorless liquid, colorless to pale yellow in appearance, with applications in industrial and nuclear chemistry. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... B205 is the name of the magnox nuclear reprocessing plant at Windscale in northern England. ...


HALES

Highly Active Liquor Evaporation and Storage (HALES) is a department at Sellafield. It conditions nuclear waste streams from the Thorp and MAGNOX reprocessing plants, prior to transfer to the Waste Vitrification Plant (WVP).


Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant

Between 1977 and 1978 an inquiry was held into an application by BNFL for outline planning permission to build a new plant to reprocess irradiated oxide nuclear fuel from both UK and foreign reactors. The inquiry was to answer three questions: "1. Should oxide fuel from United Kingdom reactors be reprocessed in this country at all; whether at Windscale or elsewhere? 2. If yes, should such reprocessing be carried on at Windscale? 3. If yes, should the reprocessing plant be about double the estimated site required to handle United Kingdom oxide fuels and be used as to the spare capacity, for reprocessing foreign fuels?".[15] The result of the inquiry was that the new plant, the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (Thorp) was given the go ahead in 1978, although it did not go into operation until 1994. THORP, or Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant, is a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria, England, operated by BNFL. It processes spent nuclear fuel from nuclear reactors and separates the uranium and plutonium, which can be reused in mixed oxide fuel, from the radioactive wastes, which are treated and... THORP, or Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant, is a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria, England, operated by BNFL. It processes spent nuclear fuel from nuclear reactors and separates the uranium and plutonium, which can be reused in mixed oxide fuel, from the radioactive wastes, which are treated and... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ...


2005 Thorp plant leak

Wikinews has related news:
Nuclear waste leaks at Sellafield facility on Cumbrian coast, England

On April 19, 2005 83,000 litres of radioactive waste was discovered to have leaked in the Thorp reprocessing plant from a cracked pipe into a huge stainless steel-lined concrete sump chamber built to contain leaks. Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The litre or liter (see spelling differences) is a unit of volume. ... Radioactive waste are waste types containing radioactive chemical elements that do not have a practical purpose. ... The 630 foot high, stainless-clad (type 304L) Gateway Arch defines St. ... This article is about the construction material. ... A sump is a low space that collects an often-undesirable liquid(s) such as water or chemicals. ...


A discrepancy between the amount of material entering and exiting the Thorp processing system had first been noted in August 2004. Documentation of this finding was not passed up to the appropriate administrator. Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Other indicators of a problem included a rise in temperature in the sump chamber and findings of radioactive fluid there, but these were ignored. The spill was recognized only after another audit suggested that further material was missing, prompting plant operators, after several days' delay, to train an automated camera on the faulty pipe and to actually measure the volume of liquid in the sump. For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ...


Responsible administrators have been disciplined. Some 19 tonnes of uranium and 160 kilograms of plutonium dissolved in nitric acid has been pumped from the sump vessel into a holding tank away from the now-closed Thorp plant. Radiation levels in the tank cell preclude entry of humans and robotic repair of the leak may be prohibitively difficult. Officials are considering bypassing the faulty tank to resume operations.[citation needed] A tonne or metric ton (symbol t), sometimes referred to as a metric tonne, is a measurement of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms. ... “Kg” redirects here. ... The chemical compound nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen nitrate (anhydrous nitric acid). ...


The Vitrification Plant

In 1991 the Windscale Vitrification Plant, which seals high-level radioactive waste in glass, was opened. In this plant, liquid wastes are mixed with glass and melted in a furnace, which when cooled forms a solid block of glass. A vitrification experiment for the study of nuclear waste disposal at Pacific Northwest National Labs Vitrification is a process of converting a material into a glass-like amorphous solid which is free of any crystalline structure, either by the quick removal or addition of heat, or by mixing with an...


The plant has three process lines and is based on the French AVM procedure. Principal item is an inductively heated melting furnace, in which the calcined waste is merged with glass frit (glass beads of 1 to 2 mm in diameter). The melt is placed into waste containers, which are welded shut, their outsides decontaminated and then brought into air-cooled storage facilities. This storage consists of 800 vertical storage tubes, each capable of storing ten containers. The total storage capacity is 8000 containers, and 2280 containers have been stored to 2001. Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ...


The Sellafield MOX Plant

Construction of the Sellafield MOX Plant was completed in 1997. Mixed oxide, or MOX fuel, is a blend of plutonium and natural uranium or depleted uranium which behaves similarly (though not identically) to the enriched uranium feed for which most nuclear reactors were designed. MOX fuel is an alternative to Low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel used in the light water reactors which predominate in nuclear power generation. MOX also provides a means of using excess weapons-grade plutonium (from military sources) to produce electricity. Mixed oxide, or MOX fuel, is a blend of plutonium and natural uranium or depleted uranium which behaves similarly (though not identically) to the enriched uranium feed for which most nuclear reactors were designed. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight (244) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... Natural uranium (NU) refers to refined uranium with the same isotopic ratios as found in nature. ... Depleted uranium storage yard. ... These pie-graphs showing the relative proportions of uranium-238 (blue) and uranium-235 (red) at different levels of enrichment. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... A light water reactor or LWR is a thermal nuclear reactor that uses ordinary water, also called light water, as its neutron moderator. ... This article is about applications of nuclear fission reactors as power sources. ...


Sellafield and the local community

Sellafield directly employs around 10,000 people[16] and is one of the two largest, non-governmental, employers in West Cumbria (along with BAE Systems at Barrow-in-Furness),[17] with approximately 90% of the employees coming from West Cumbria.[18] Because of the increase in local unemployment following any run down of Sellafield operations, the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (and HMG) is concerned that this needs to be managed.[19] Barrow-in-Furness is a town in Cumbria, England. ... The Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) is a public body of the United Kingdom formed by the Energy Act, 2004. ... Her Majestys Government, or when the Sovereign is male, His Majestys Government, abbreviated HMG or HM Government, is the formal title used by the Government of the United Kingdom. ...


Sellafield Visitors' Centre

Close to the Sellafield site is the Sellafield Visitors' Centre, which has a number of interactive exhibits, science workshops, and Europe's first immersion cinema. The visitors' centre was given a major update by the Science Museum in London, with the aim of provoking debate about power provision in the 21st century. It has a very popular activities area, where young visitors can try their hand at various experiments revolving around the physics of light, sound and motion. Such examples may be making miniature windmills, helicopters, kaleidoscopes and telephones. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image:Science Museum bernoulli exhibit. ... Pitstone Windmill, believed to be the oldest windmill in the British Isles A windmill is an engine powered by the energy of wind. ... A helicopter is an aircraft which is lifted and propelled by one or more large horizontal rotors (propellers). ... A telephone handset A touch-tone telephone dial Telephone The telephone or phone (Greek: tele = far away and phone = voice) is a telecommunications device that transmits speech by means of electric signals. ...


Adjacent to the visitors' centre is the environmental facility, Yottenfews farm which is often visited by school groups where various workshops such as pond dipping, woodland walks and other environmental activities take place.


Controversy

The site has been the subject of much controversy because of discharges of radioactive material, mainly accidental but some alleged to have been deliberate. Since the early 1970s and the rise of the environmental movement in the US and Europe, there has also been general scepticism of the nuclear industry. In part this has not been helped by the industry's early connections to the nuclear weapons programme. The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... The environmental movement (a term that sometimes includes the conservation and green movements) is a diverse scientific, social, and political movement. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ...


Between 1950 and 2000 there have been 21 serious incidents or accidents involving some off-site radiological releases that merited a rating on the International Nuclear Event Scale, one at level 5, 5 at level 4 and 15 at level 3. Additionally during the 1950s and 1960s there were protracted periods of known, non accidental, discharges to the atmosphere of plutonium and irradiated uranium oxide particulates.[20] These frequent incidents, together with the large 2005 Thorp plant leak which was not detected for nine months, have led some to doubt the effectiveness of the managerial processes and safety culture on the site over the years. The IAEA INES Scale The INES (International Nuclear Events Scale) was introduced by IAEA in order to enable prompt communication of safety significance information in case of nuclear accidents. ... The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ... THORP, or Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant, is a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria, England, operated by BNFL. It processes spent nuclear fuel from nuclear reactors and separates the uranium and plutonium, which can be reused in mixed oxide fuel, from the radioactive wastes, which are treated and...


In the hasty effort to build the 'British Bomb' in the 1940s and 1950s, radioactive waste was diluted and discharged by pipeline into the Irish Sea. Some claim that the Irish Sea remains one of the most heavily contaminated seas in the world because of these discharges, although the relatively small size of the sea will also contribute to this. The OSPAR Commission reports an estimated 200 kg of plutonium has been deposited in the marine sediments of the Irish Sea.[21] Cattle and fish in the area are contaminated with plutonium-239 and caesium-137 from these sediments and from other sources such as the radioactive rain that fell on the area after the Chernobyl disaster and the results of atmospheric atomic weapons tests prior to the partial test ban treaty in 1963. Most of the area's long-lived radioactive technetium comes from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel at the Sellafield facility.[22] . This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ... Relief map of the Irish Sea. ... The official logo of the OSPAR Convention The Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic or OSPAR Convention is the current legislative instrument regulating international cooperation on environmental protection in the North-East Atlantic. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight (244) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight (244) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number caesium, Cs, 55 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 6, s Appearance silvery gold Standard atomic weight 132. ... Chernobyl reactor number four after the disaster, showing the extensive damage to the main reactor hall (image center) and turbine building (image lower left) The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was the worst nuclear accident in history. ... Preparation for an underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site in the 1980s. ... The Treaty Banning poop, in Outer Space, and Under Water, often abbreviated as the Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT), Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT), or Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (NTBT), although the former also refers to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), is a treaty intended to obtain an agreement... General Name, Symbol, Number technetium, Tc, 43 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metal Standard atomic weight [98](0) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Kr] 4d5 5s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 13, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ...


Technetium-99 is a radioactive element which is produced by nuclear fuel reprocessing, and also as a byproduct of medical facilities (for example Ireland discharges approximately 6.78 GBq of Technetium-99 each year despite not having a nuclear industry[23]). Because it is almost uniquely produced by nuclear fuel reprocessing, Technetium-99 is an important element as part of the Oslo Convention for the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR) since it provides a good tracer for discharges into the sea. General Name, Symbol, Number technetium, Tc, 43 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metal Standard atomic weight [98](0) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Kr] 4d5 5s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 13, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ...


In itself, the technetium discharges do not represent a significant radiological hazard,[24] and recent studies have noted "...that in the most recently reported dose estimates for the most exposed Sellafield group of seafood consumers (FSA/SEPA 2000), the contributions from 99Tc and actinide nuclides from Sellafield (<100 µSv) was less than that from 210Po attributable to discharges from the Whitehaven phosphate processing plant and probably less than the dose from naturally occurring background levels of 210Po."[25] Because of the need to comply with OSPAR, British Nuclear Group (the licencing company for Sellafield) have recently commissioned a new process in which Technetium-99 is removed from the waste stream and vitrified in glass blocks.[26] Spaghetti with seafood (Spaghetti allo scoglio). ... The actinide series encompasses the 15 chemical elements that lie between actinium and lawrencium on the periodic table, with atomic numbers 89 - 103[1]. The actinide series is named after actinium. ... ... General Name, Symbol, Number polonium, Po, 84 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 6, p Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight (209) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p4 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 6 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A phosphate, in inorganic chemistry, is a salt of phosphoric acid. ... British Nuclear Group (BNG) is a subsidiary of BNFL. One of it main aims is to manage the decommissioning of many of the UKs nuclear assets under contract to the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority, a government body set up specifically to deal with the nuclear legacy under the Energy Act...


There has been concern that the Sellafield area will become a major dumping ground for unwanted nuclear material, since there are currently no long-term facilities for storing High-Level Waste (HLW), although the UK has current contracts to reprocess spent fuel from all over the world. However, contracts signed since 1976 between BNFL and overseas customers require that all HLW be returned to the country of origin. The UK retains low- and intermediate-level waste resulting from its reprocessing activity, and instead ships out a radiologically equivalent amount of its own HLW. This substitution policy is intended to be environmentally neutral and to speed "return" of overseas material by reducing the number of shipments required, since HLW is far less bulky.[27] Radioactive waste are waste types containing radioactive chemical elements that do not have a practical purpose. ... British Nuclear Fuels plc or BNFL manufactures and transports nuclear fuel (notably MOX), runs reactors, generates and sells electricity, reprocesses and manages spent fuel (mainly at Sellafield), and decommissions nuclear plants and other similar facilities. ...


Organ removal inquiry

In 2007 an inquiry was launched into the removal of tissue from a total of 65 nuclear workers, some of whom worked at Sellafield.[28] It has been alleged that the tissue was removed without seeking permission from the relatives of the deceased workers. Michael Redfern QC has been appointed to lead the investigation.


MOX fuel quality data falsification

The MOX Demonstration Facility was a small-scale plant to produce commercial quality MOX fuel for light water reactors. The plant was commissioned between 1992 and 1994, and until 1999 produced fuel for use in Switzerland, Germany and Japan. Mixed oxide, or MOX fuel, is a blend of plutonium and natural uranium or depleted uranium which behaves similarly (though not identically) to the enriched uranium feed for which most nuclear reactors were designed. ... A light water reactor or LWR is a thermal nuclear reactor that uses ordinary water, also called light water, as its neutron moderator. ...


In 1999 it was discovered that the plant's staff had been falsifying some quality assurance data since 1996. A Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) investigation concluded four of the five work-shifts were involved in the falsification, though only one worker admitted to falsifying data, and that "the level of control and supervision ... had been virtually non existent.". The NII stated that the safety performance of the fuel was not affected as there was also a primary automated check on the fuel. Nevertheless "in a plant with the proper safety culture, the events described in this report could not have happened." and there were systematic failures in management.[29] The Health and Safety Executive (HSE), reporting to the Health and Safety Commission, is the British government body responsible for the regulation of risks to health and safety in the UK. It was created as a result of the Health and Safety at Work, etc, Act 1974, and has since...


BNFL had to pay compensation to the Japanese customer, Kansai Electric, and take back a flawed shipment of MOX fuel from Japan.[30] BNFL's Chief Executive John Taylor resigned,[31] after initially resisting resignation when the NII's damning report was published.[32] Kansai Electric Power (関西電力; Kansai-Denryoku) (TYO: 9503) is a company that supplies power to the Kansai region of Japan. ...


The "Beach Incident"

1983 was the year of the "Beach Discharge Incident" in which high radioactive discharges resulted in the closure of a beach. BNFL received a fine of £10,000 for this discharge.[33] 1983 was also the year in which Yorkshire Television produced a documentary "Windscale: The Nuclear Laundry", which claimed that the low levels of radioactivity that are associated with waste streams from nuclear plants such as Sellafield did pose a non-negligible risk.[34] Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


In its early days, Sellafield discharged low-level radioactive waste into the sea, using a flocculation process to remove radioactivity from liquid effluent before discharged. Metals dissolved in acidic effluents produced a metal hydroxide flocculent precipitate following the addition of ammonium hydroxide. The suspension was then transferred to settling tanks where the precipitate would settle out, and the remaining clarified liquor, or supernate, would be discharged to the sea. In 1994 the Enhanced Actinide Removal Plant (EARP) was opened. In EARP the effectiveness of the process is enhanced by the addition of reagents to remove the remaining soluble radioactive species. EARP has recently (2004) been enhanced to further reduce the quantities of Tc-99 released to the environment.[35]


Leukemia risks

In the early 1990s, concern was raised in the UK about apparent clusters of leukemia near nuclear facilities. Detailed studies carried out by the Committee on Medical Aspects of Radiation in the Environment (COMARE) in 2003 found no evidence of raised childhood cancer around nuclear power plants, but did find an excess of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) near other nuclear installations including Sellafield, AWE Burghfield and UKAEA Dounreay. COMARE's opinion is that "the excesses around Sellafield and Dounreay are unlikely to be due to chance, although there is not at present a convincing explanation for them".[36] In earlier reports] COMARE had suggested that "..no single factor could account for the excess of leukaemia and NHL but that a mechanism involving infection may be a significant factor affecting the risk of leukaemia and NHL in young people in Seascale."[37] Leukemia or leukaemia (see spelling differences) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an abnormal proliferation (production by multiplication) of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ... Leukemia or leukaemia (see spelling differences) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an abnormal proliferation (production by multiplication) of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ... Non-Hodgkins lymphoma is a type of cancer. ... AWE plc logo The Atomic Weapons Establishment, Aldermaston (formerly the Atomic Weapons Research Establishment, Aldermaston) is situated in the UK, just 7 miles north of Basingstoke and approximately 14 miles south-west of Reading, Berkshire, near a village called Aldermaston, bordering with Tadley. ... Burghfield is a village and civil parish in Berkshire, England. ... The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority was established in 1954 as a statutory corporation to oversee and pioneer the development of nuclear energy within the United Kingdom. ... Dounreay (Ordnance Survey Grid reference NC982669) is the name of a now ruinous castle on the north coast of Caithness, in the Highland area of Scotland. ...


Irish objections

Sellafield has been a matter of some consternation in Ireland, with the Irish Government and some members of the population concerned at the risk that such a facility may pose to the country. The Irish government has made formal complaints about the facility, and recently came to a friendly agreement with the British Government about the issue, as part of which the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland and the Irish police force (An Garda Síochána) are now allowed access to the site. However, Irish government policy remains that of seeking the closure of the facility. The Government (Irish: ) [ral̪ˠt̪ˠəs̪ˠ n̪ˠə heːɼən̪ˠ] is the cabinet that exercises executive authority in the Republic of Ireland. ... The United Kingdom is a unitary state and a democratic constitutional monarchy. ... The Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) is the national institute in the Republic of Ireland responsible for ionising radiation and radioactive contamination matters since its establishment in 1991 by the Radiological Protection Act, 1991. ... A member of the motorcycle unit of the Garda Síochána. ...


Norwegian objections

Similar sentiments are shared by the Norwegian government and population, because the prevailing sea currents transport radioactive materials leaked into the sea along the entire coast of Norway. Water samples show increases of up to ten times of such materials as Tc-99. This is of great concern to the fishing industry, because they fear for the reputation of Norwegian fish, even though the radiation levels have not been conclusively proved as dangerous for the fish. The Norwegian government is also seeking closure of the facility.


Plutonium records discrepancy

On February 17, 2005, the UK Atomic Energy Authority reported that 29.6 kg (65.3 lb) of plutonium, enough to make seven nuclear bombs, was unaccounted for in auditing records at the Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The operating company, the British Nuclear Group, described this as a discrepancy in paper records and not as indicating any physical loss of material. They pointed out that the error amounted to about 0.5%, whereas IAEA regulations permit a discrepancy up to 1% as the amount of plutonium recovered from the reprocessing process never precisely matches the pre-process estimates. The inventories in question were accepted as satisfactory by Euratom, the relevant regulatory agency.[38] is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority was established in 1954 as a statutory corporation to oversee and pioneer the development of nuclear energy within the United Kingdom. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight (244) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... British Nuclear Group (BNG) is a subsidiary of BNFL. One of it main aims is to manage the decommissioning of many of the UKs nuclear assets under contract to the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority, a government body set up specifically to deal with the nuclear legacy under the Energy Act... IAEA The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957, seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ... The European Atomic Energy Community, or EURATOM, is an international organisation composed of the members of the European Union. ...


Sellafield in popular culture

Stop Sellafield video release
Stop Sellafield video release

In 1992, rock bands U2, Public Enemy, Big Audio Dynamite II, and Kraftwerk held a "Stop Sellafield" concert for Greenpeace to protest the nuclear factory. Stop Sellafield: The Concert was later released that year on VHS in the UK, and all proceeds went directly to Greenpeace. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the Irish rock band. ... Public Enemy, also known as PE, is a hip hop group from Long Island, New York, known for their politically charged lyrics, criticism of the media, and active interest in the concerns of the African American community. ... Big Audio Dynamite II, or BAD II, most often refers to Mick Joness UK-based, dance-rock band after the original Big Audio Dynamite dissolved in 1990. ... Kraftwerk (pronounced [], German for power station) is a German musical group from Düsseldorf that has made key contributions to the development of improvisational rock and electronic music, most notably within the latter categorys sub-genres which later became known as synthpop, electro, techno, house and IDM. Early musical... Greenpeace protest against Esso / Exxon Mobil. ... Bottom view of VHS cassette with magnetic tape exposed Top view of VHS cassette with front casing removed The Video Home System, better known by its abbreviation VHS, is a recording and playing standard. ...


U2's performance from the "Stop Sellafield" concert was held during their Zoo TV Tour on June 19, 1992 at the G-Mex Centre in Manchester, England. Two tracks from the concert, "The Fly" and "Even Better Than the Real Thing," were later released on the band's "City of Blinding Lights" CD single and on the Zoo TV: Live from Sydney DVD. For the fan club-exclusive album released from this tour, see Zoo TV Live. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Manchester Central Manchester Central (Formerly known as the GMEX centre and Manchester International Conference Centre (MICC)) is an exhibition and conference centre housed in a former railway station in Manchester in England. ... This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The Fly was the first single released from U2s 1991 Achtung Baby album. ... A Song Infobox has been requested for this article. ... How to Dismantle an Atomic Bomb track listing Love and Peace or Else (Track 4) City of Blinding Lights (Track 5) All Because of You (Track 6) City of Blinding Lights is the third single from U2s 2004 album, How to Dismantle an Atomic Bomb. ... A CD single is a music single in the form of a compact disc. ... Size comparison: A 12 cm Sony DVD+RW and a 19 cm Dixon Ticonderoga pencil. ...


Since 1992, German bank Kraftwerk has introduced their song "Radioactivity" in their live shows with an video clip criticizing the Sellafield-2 reactor for radiation released into the atmosphere during typical operation and the dangers of reprocessing plutonium in regard to nuclear proliferation. This introduction can be heard on their 2005 live album and DVD Minimum-Maximum. Sellafield-2 was the name given by environmental groups including Greenpeace to a proposed second plant to reprocess oxide fuel (it is not obvious how seriously proposed, a public enquiry was never opened). Kraftwerk (pronounced [], German for power station) is a German musical group from Düsseldorf that has made key contributions to the development of improvisational rock and electronic music, most notably within the latter categorys sub-genres which later became known as synthpop, electro, techno, house and IDM. Early musical... World map with nuclear weapons development status represented by color. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... // Many successful recording artists release at least one live album at some point during their career. ... Size comparison: A 12 cm Sony DVD+RW and a 19 cm Dixon Ticonderoga pencil. ... Minimum-Maximum is the first official live album release by Kraftwerk, released on June 6, 2005, almost 35 years after the group gave their first live performance. ... Greenpeace protest against Esso / Exxon Mobil. ... In the politics and government of Commonwealth countries such as Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom, a public inquiry is an official review of events or actions ordered by the government. ...


Fallout, a programme shown on the Irish national TV station RTÉ was a documentary-style drama showing the possible effects of a serious accident at Sellafield. This programme highlighted the fact that an accident could cause long scale contamination of Ireland's most densely populated areas, including its capital city, Dublin. Fallout is a RTÉ two-part fictional drama, made in the style of a documentary. ... Radio Telefís Éireann[1] (RTÉ; IPA: ,  ) is the Public Service Broadcaster of the Republic of Ireland. ... Dublin city centre at night WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Statistics Province: Leinster County: Dáil Éireann: Dublin Central, Dublin North Central, Dublin North East, Dublin North West, Dublin South Central, Dublin South East European Parliament: Dublin Dialling Code: +353 1 Postal District(s): D1-24, D6W Area: 114. ...


Sellafield was also featured in the Arthur Scargill episode of the Comic Strip, and is referred to in the film The Medusa Touch (as Windscale). Not the Nine O'Clock News also had a sketch, with a nod to a popular Ready Brek advert, about glowing children and Sellafield. Arthur Scargill (born January 11, 1938) led the National Union of Mineworkers (NUM) from 1981 to 2000. ... The Comic Strip is a group of British comedians, best known collectively for their television series The Comic Strip Presents. ... The Medusa Touch is a British film released in 1978. ... Not the Nine OClock News is a comedy television programme that was shown on the BBC, broadcast from 1979 to 1982. ... Ready Brek is an oat-based breakfast cereal produced by Weetabix. ...


References

  1. ^ History of Sellafield. Sellafield Web Page. Retrieved on 2006-08-21.
  2. ^ The Role Of Nuclear Weapons And Its Possible Future Missions. NATO Academic Forum. Retrieved on 2006-08-21.
  3. ^ History of Sellafield. Sellafield Web Page. Retrieved on 2006-08-21.
  4. ^ History of Sellafield. Sellafield Web Page. Retrieved on 2006-08-21.
  5. ^ EC: Sellafield must clean up nuclear waste pond. Bellona. Retrieved on 2006-08-21.
  6. ^ http://www.britishnucleargroup.com/content.php?pageID=262&tab=1
  7. ^ History of Sellafield. Sellafield Web Page. Retrieved on 2006-08-21.
  8. ^ First nuclear power plant to close. Guardian Unlimited. Retrieved on 2006-08-21.
  9. ^ Peter Hayes. Should the United States supply light water reactors to Pyongyang?. Nautilus Pacific Research. Retrieved on 2006-08-21.
  10. ^ Sellafield towers are demolished. Retrieved on 2007-09-29.
  11. ^ History. Project WAGR. Retrieved on 2006-08-21.
  12. ^ History of Sellafield. Sellafield Web Page. Retrieved on 2006-08-21.
  13. ^ Continued discharges from Sellafield for ten more years. Bellona. Retrieved on 2006-08-21.
  14. ^ RWMAC's Advice to Ministers on the Radioactive Waste Implications of Reprocessing. RWMAC. Retrieved on 2006-08-21.
  15. ^ Windscale Inquiry. BOPCRIS - Unlocking Key British Government Publications. Retrieved on 2006-08-21.
  16. ^ Site Statistics. NuclearSites Web Site. Retrieved on 2006-08-21.
  17. ^ THE ECONOMY OF CUMBRIA: THE SIGNIFICANCE OF MAJOR EMPLOYERS. Centre for Regional Economic Development. Retrieved on 2006-08-21.
  18. ^ Nuclear decommissioning at Sellafield. BBC News. Retrieved on 2006-08-21.
  19. ^ Government pledges to safeguard West Cumbria's future. Government News Network (1 November 2004).
  20. ^ G A M Webb et al. (March 2006). "Classification of events with an off-site radiological impact at the Sellafield site between 1950 and 2000, using the International Nuclear Event Scale". Journal of Radiological Protection 26. 
  21. ^ Quality Status Report 2000 for the North East-Atlantic (Regional QSR III, Chapter 4 Chemistry, p66. OSPAR Commission. Retrieved on 2007-06-03.
  22. ^ Technetium-99 Behavior in the Terrestrial Environment - Field Observations and Radiotracer Experiments-. Journal of Nuclear and Radiochemical Sciences, Vol. 4, No.1, pp. A1-A8, 2003. Retrieved on 2006-08-23.
  23. ^ Report of Ireland on the Implementation of the OSPAR Strategy with regard to Radioactive Substances (June 2001). Department of Environment, Heritage and Local Government. Retrieved on 2006-08-23.
  24. ^ News Release: MINISTERS ANNOUNCE DECISION ON TECHNETIUM-99. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. Retrieved on 2006-08-23.
  25. ^ J D Harrison et al. Gut transfer and doses from environmental technetium. J. Radiol. Prot. 21 9-11. Retrieved on 2006-08-23.
  26. ^ 44 years of discharges prevented after early end to Sellafield waste programme. Latest News: British Nuclear Group, 26th January 2006. Retrieved on 2006-08-23.
  27. ^ INTERMEDIATE LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE SUBSTITUTION. DTI. Retrieved on 2006-08-23.
  28. ^ Sellafield organ removal inquiry. BBC News. Retrieved on 2007-05-18.
  29. ^ Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (18 February 2000). "An Investigation into the Falsification of Pellet Diameter Data in the MOX Demonstration Facility at the BNFL Sellafield Site and the Effect of this on the Safety of MOX Fuel in Use". Retrieved on 2006-11-18.
  30. ^ "BNFL ends Japan nuclear row", BBC, 11 July 2000. Retrieved on 2006-11-18. 
  31. ^ "Safety overhaul at Sellafield", BBC, 17 April 2000. Retrieved on 2006-11-18. 
  32. ^ "BNFL chief determined to stay despite damning safety report", Daily Telegraph, 19 February 2000. Retrieved on 2006-11-18. 
  33. ^ Written answers for Friday 5th May 2000. Hansard. Retrieved on 2006-08-21.
  34. ^ Science: Leukaemia and nuclear power stations. New Scientist. Retrieved on 2006-08-21.
  35. ^ Treating a 50-year-old legacy of radioactive sludge waste. Engineer Live. Retrieved on 2006-08-21.
  36. ^ COMARE 10th Report: The incidence of childhood cancer around nuclear installations in Great Britain. Committee on Medical Aspects of Radiation in the Environment. Retrieved on 2006-08-25.
  37. ^ Summary of the work of COMARE as published in its first six reports. Committee on Medical Aspects of Radiation in the Environment. Retrieved on 2006-08-25.
  38. ^ "Missing plutonium 'just on paper'", BBC News, 2005-02-17. Retrieved on 2006-08-22. 

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article deals with The Daily Telegraph in Britain, see The Daily Telegraph (Australia) for the Australian publication The Daily Telegraph is a British broadsheet newspaper founded in 1855. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  1. Sellafield, Erik Martiniussen, Bellona Foundation, December 2003, ISBN 82-92318-08-9
  2. Technetium-99 Behaviour in the Terrestrial Environment - Field Observations and Radiotracer Experiments, Keiko Tagami, Journal of Nuclear and Radiochemical Sciences, Vol. 4, No.1, pp. A1-A8, 2003
  3. The excess of childhood leukaemia near Sellafield: a commentary on the fourth COMARE report, L J Kinlen et al 1997 J. Radiol. Prot. 17 63-71

The Bellona Foundation is an international environmental organization established in 1986 as a Norwegian organization and based in Oslo. ...

See also

This article is about applications of nuclear fission reactors as power sources. ... // Nuclear reprocessing separates any usable elements (e. ... The nuclear fuel cycle, also called nuclear fuel chain, is the progression of nuclear fuel through a series of differing stages. ... On October 10, 1957, the graphite core of a British nuclear reactor at Windscale, Cumbria, caught fire, releasing substantial amounts of radioactive contamination into the surrounding area. ... The COGEMA La Hague site is a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant near La Hague on the French Cotentin Peninsula that currently has over half of the worlds light water reactor spent nuclear fuel reprocessing capacity. ... This is a list of cancer clusters. ... Pathways from airborne radioactive contamination to man This article covers notable accidents involving nuclear material. ... List of nuclear reactors is a comprehensive annotated list of all the nuclear reactors of the world, sorted by country. ... Nuclear power plants in United Kingdom (view)  Active plants  Closed plants As of 2006, the United Kingdom operates 24 nuclear reactors generating one-fifth of its electricity (19. ... Energy policy of the United Kingdom is a set of official publications and activities directed at the present and future production, transmission and use of various power technologies. ... For Government policy, see Energy policy of the United Kingdom Energy use and conservation in the United Kingdom has been receiving increased attention over recent years. ... Sellafield Railway Station is a train station serving the nuclear facility of Sellafield in Cumbria. ...

External links

  • Nuclear Decommissioning Authority
  • Sellafield Ltd
  • British Nuclear Group
  • British Nuclear Fuels Limited
  • go-experimental.com (Another Sellafield Visitors Centre interactive site)
  • An article on the Windscale fire, by the Lake District Tourist Board
  • Nuclear Tourist
  • BBC retrospective on the accident report
  • Sellafield awaits nuclear power's rebirth, by Jorn Madslien, BBC News
  • http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/4818370.stm, by Jorn Madslien, BBC News
  • The sale of Britain's nuclear giant, by Jorn Madslien, BBC News
  • All about Sellafield
  • The present day Windscale site
  • Project WAGR to safely decommission the AGR at Sellafield
  • Board of Inquiry Report
  • Wiki devoted to education about nuclear power
  • "Blast from the past" Guardian article
  • Calder Hall Cooling towers demolition page

Coordinates: 54.42° N 3.50° W Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Guardian Unlimited | Today's issues | Sellafield (734 words)
Sellafield also has a host of other plants, including two reprocessing plants - one to reprocess the waste from the old so-called Magnox nuclear power stations and one, Thorp, to reprocess spent fuel from the newer privatised plants at home and abroad.
Sellafield reprocesses that - it dissolves the plutonium and uranium in nitric acid which itself produces a whole lot of liquid waste - more than it can get rid of.
In the 1970s Sellafield had an accident in a plutonium handling compartment and enough of the metal was spilt in a lump to start a nuclear reaction.
WISE Women special: THE SELLAFIELD STORY (1134 words)
Ever since then Sellafield has declared itself "cleared", claims that radioactivity from Sellafield is not to blame and, by turning speculation into science, favors an as yet unidentified virus and the effects of population mixing as the cause.
Still Sellafield keeps asking for increases in their annual discharges, continually adding to the contamination already there, hiding behind the fact they are "authorized" and thereby implying that they are safe.
We are committed to halting reprocessing at Sellafield, which has placed an unacceptable burden on a community which has borne the brunt of the accumulation of overseas nuclear waste, as well as the associated risks of transports, accidents at the plant and health damage, for too long.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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