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Encyclopedia > Seljuqs
The dynasty at the time of its largest extent
History of Iran
Empires of Persia - Kings of Persia
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The Seljuqs (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuk, sometimes also Seljuq Turks; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; in Arabic سلجوق Saljūq, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a Muslim dynasty of Oghuz Turkic descent[1][2][3][4] that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th centuries. Today, they are regarded as the cultural ancestors of the Western Turks, the present-day inhabitants of Turkey, Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan. Image File history File links Seldschuken-Reich-map. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Iran is one of the worlds oldest continuous major civilizations. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau (Irān - Land of the Aryans) and beyond. ... The following is a comprehensive list of all Persian Empires and their rulers: // [edit] Early realms in Iran [edit] Elamite Kingdom, 3000–660 BC The Elamites were a people located in Susa, in what is now Khuzestan province. ... See further the article on proto-Elamite at the education pages of the CDLI project. ... The Jiroft Kingdom or Jiroft Civilization (تمدن جيرفت) is a relatively recent and ongoing multinational archeological project that aims to uncover an unknown civilization in a series of newly discovered sites in Irans Kerman Province, located at 28° 48 N latitude and 57° 46 E Longitude, known as Jiroft or Halilrud... Elam (Persian: ایلام) is one of the most ancient civilizations on record. ... The Mannaeans (or Mannai, Mannae, Biblical Minni) were an ancient people of unknown origin, who lived in the territory of present-day Iranian Azerbaijan around the 10th to 7th century BC. At that time they were neighbours of the empires of Assyria and Urartu, as well as other small buffer... The Medes(ancient Kurdistan) were an Iranian people, who lived in the north, western, and northwestern portions of present-day Iran, and roughly the areas of present day Tehran, Hamedan, Azarbaijan, north of Esfahan, Zanjan, and Kurdistan. ... The Persepolis Ruins The Achaemenid dynasty (Old Persian:Hakamanishiya, Persian: هخامنشیان) - was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire. ... The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Greats dominion. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Sassanid Empire in the time of Shapur I; the conquest of Cappadocia was temporary Official language Pahlavi (Middle Persian) Dominant Religion Zoroastrianism Capital Ctesiphon Sovereigns Shahanshah of the Iran (Eranshahr) First Ruler Ardashir I Last Ruler Yazdegerd III Establishment 224 AD Dissolution 651 AD Part of the History of... Combatants Sassanid Persia Rashidun Caliphate The Islamic conquest of Persia (637-651 CE) led to the end of the Sassanid Empire and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Persia (modern day Iran). ... The Tahirid dynasty ruled the northeastern Persian region of Khorasan between AD 821-873. ... The Alavids (سلسله علویان طبرستان in Persian) were a Shia emirate based in Tabaristan of Iran. ... The Saffarid dynasty of Persia ruled a short-lived empire centred on Seistan, a border district between modern-day Afghanistan and Iran, between 861-1003. ... The Samanids (875-999) (in Persian: Samanian) were a Persian dynasty in Central Asia and eastern Iran, named after its founder Saman Khoda. ... The tomb of Ghaboos ebne Voshmgir, built in 1007AD, rises 160 ft from its base. ... The Buwayhids or Buyyids or Ä€l-i Buyeh, were a Yazdani tribal confederation from Daylam, a region on the southern shore of the Caspian Sea. ... The Ghaznavid Empire (سلسله غزنویان in Persian) was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 962 to 1187. ... The Ghurids (or Ghoris) were rulers from Ghor in Central Afghanistan. ... The Khwarezmid dynasty also known as the Shahs of Khwarezm (in Persian: Khwarezmshahian) was a Muslim Iranian state in the 11th century in Khwarezmia that lasted until the Mongol invasion in 1220. ... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... The Muzaffarids were a Sunni Arab family that came to power in Iran following the breakup of the Ilkhanate in the 14th century. ... The Chobanids (also known as the Chupanids) were members of a Mongol family that came to prominence in 14th century Persia. ... The Jalayirids were a Mongol dynasty which ruled over Iraq and western Persia after the breakup of the Mongol Khanate of Persia (or Ilkhanate) in the 1330s. ... Timurids Map The Timurids were a mixed Turkic-Mongol and Persian (Turco) dynasty of Central Asia established by Timur (Tamerlane). ... The Karakoyunlu or the Black Sheep Turkomans (Azeri-Turkish: Qaraqoyunlular/Karakoyunlular) were a Turkoman tribal federation that ruled what is today Azerbaijan, including present-day northwestern Iran and Iraq from 1375 to 1468. ... ... The Safavid Empire at its 1512 borders. ... The Hotaki were a Ghilzai Pashtun (Afghan) dynasty (1709-1738). ... Tomb of Nader Shah Afshar, a popular tourist attraction in Mashad. ... Vakeel mosque, Shiraz. ... The Qajar dynasty was the ruling family of Persia from 1781 to 1925. ... The Pahlavi dynasty(سلسله پهلوی) of Iran began with the crowning of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925 and ended with the Iranian Revolution of 1979, and the subsequent collapse of the ancient tradition of Iranian monarchy. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Provisional Government of Iran (PGOI) preceded the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... Persian is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... The Arabic language (Arabic: ‎ translit: ), or simply Arabic (Arabic: ‎ translit: ), is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ...

Contents

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Early History

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Origins

Originally, the House of Seljuq was a branch of the Kýnýk Oghuz Turks who in the 9th century lived on the periphery of the Muslim world, north of the Caspian and Aral sea in their Yabghu Khaganate of the Oghuz confederacy.[5] In the 10th century the Seljuqs migrated from their ancestral homelands into mainland Persia, where they adopted the Persian culture and language in the following decades[6][7][8]. The Oghuz Turks (also with various alternate spellings, including Oguz, OÄŸuz, Ouz, Okuz, Oufoi, Guozz and Ghuzz) are regarded as one of the major branches of Turkic peoples. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was that century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... For Caspian Sea, go to: Caspian Sea CASPIAN Consumers Against Supermarket Privacy Invasion and Numbering (CASPIAN) is a national grass-roots consumer group dedicated to fighting supermarket loyalty or frequent shopper cards. ... Map of area around the Aral Sea. ... KHAGAN, alternatively spelled Chagan, Qaqan etc, is a title of royal or imperial rank in Mongolian and Turkic languages. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Persian is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ...

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Seljuk

Main article: Seljuk

The apical ancestor of the Seljuqs was their bey Seljuq who was reputed to have served in the Khazar army, under whom, circa 950 CE they migrated to Khwarezm, near the city of Jend also called Khujand, where they converted to Islam.[9] Seljuk (in Arabic Saljūq; in Turkish Selçuk; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) was the bey (chieftain) of a branch of Oghuz Turks known as the Seljuk Turks. ... Apical, from the Latin apex (plural apices) meaning to be at the apex or tip, may refer to: An apical consonant, a consonant produced with the tip of the tongue Apical dominance An apical bud An apical pulse: apical pulse is your heart rate when counted with a stethoscope (steth... Bey is the Turkish word for chieftain, traditionally applied to the leaders of small tribal groups. ... Seljuk (in Arabic Saljūq; in Turkish Selçuk; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) was the bey (chieftain) of a branch of Oghuz Turks known as the Seljuk Turks. ... The Khazars were a Turkic semi-nomadic people from Central Asia who adopted Judaism. ... Khwarezmid Empire (1190-1220) Khwarezm (Uzbek: Xorazm, Russian: Хорезм Khorezm, Persian: خوارزم Khwārazm, Arabic: خوارزم Khwārizm, Chinese: 花剌子模 Hualazimo) was a state centred on the Amu Darya river delta of the former Aral Sea, in modern Uzbekistan, extending across the Ust-Urt plateau and possibly as far west as the eastern shores... Khujand (Tajik Хуҷанд or خجند, also transliterated as Khudzhand, Russian: , formerly Khodjend or Khodzhent until 1939 and Leninabad until 1992), is the second largest city of Tajikistan. ... For other uses, including people named Islam, see Islam (disambiguation). ...

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Great Seljuk

The Seljuqs were allied with the Persian Samanid Shahs against the Qarakhanids. The Samanids however fell to the Qarakhanids and the emergence of the Ghaznavids and were involved in the power struggle in the region before establishing their own independent base. The Persians are an Iranian people who speak the Persian language and share a common culture and history. ... The Samanid dynasty (819-999) was a Persian dynasty in Central Asia, named after its founder Saman Khuda. ... The Muslim, Turkic Kara-Khanid Khanate is not to be confused with the Sinitic, Khitan Kara-Khitan Khanate. ... The Samanid dynasty (819-999) was a Persian dynasty in Central Asia, named after its founder Saman Khuda. ... The Muslim, Turkic Kara-Khanid Khanate is not to be confused with the Sinitic, Khitan Kara-Khitan Khanate. ... The Ghaznavid Empire (سلسله غزنویان in Persian) was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 962 to 1187. ...

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Toğrül and Çağrı Bey

Main article: Toğrül

Toğrül Bey was the grandson of Seljuk and Çağrı (Chagri) was his brother, under whom the Seljuks wrested an empire from the Ghaznavids. Initially the Seljuks were repulsed by Mahmud and retired to Khwarezm but Toğrül and Çağrı led them to capture Merv and Nishapur (1028-1029). Later they repeatedly raided and traded territory with his successors across Khorasan and Balkh and even sacked Ghazni in 1037. In 1039 at The Battle of Dandanaqan they decisively defeated Mas'ud I of the Ghaznavids resulting in him abandoning most of his western territories to the Seljuks. In 1055 Toğrül captured Baghdad from the Shi'a Buyids under a commission from the Abbassids. ToÄŸrül (TuÄŸril or Toghrïl Beg; ca 990 - September 4, 1063) was the third ruler of the Seljuk dynasty. ... ToÄŸrül (TuÄŸril or Toghrïl Beg; ca 990 - September 4, 1063) was the third ruler of the Seljuk dynasty. ... The Ghaznavid Empire (سلسله غزنویان in Persian) was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 962 to 1187. ... Mahmud and Ayaz The Sultan is to the right, shaking the hand of the sheykh, with Ayaz standing behind him. ... Khwarezmid Empire (1190-1220) Khwarezm (Uzbek: Xorazm, Russian: Хорезм Khorezm, Persian: خوارزم Khwārazm, Arabic: خوارزم Khwārizm, Chinese: 花剌子模 Hualazimo) was a state centred on the Amu Darya river delta of the former Aral Sea, in modern Uzbekistan, extending across the Ust-Urt plateau and possibly as far west as the eastern shores... Merv – Persian name: مرو; formerly Alexandria and Antiochia in Margiana (Greek: Αντιόχεια η Μαργιανή) – in current-day Turkmenistan, was a major oasis-city in Central Asia, on the historical Silk Road, located near todays Mary. ... Nishapur (or Neyshâbûr; نیشابور in Persian) is a town in the province of Khorasan in northeastern Iran, situated in a fertile plain at the foot of the Binalud Mountains, near the regional capital of Mashhad. ... Khorasan (also spelled Khurasan and Khorassan; Xorasan or Xurasan in Kurdish; خراسان in Persian) is an area, located in eastern and northeastern Iran. ... Today Balkh is a small town in the Province of Balkh, Afghanistan, about 20 kilometers northwest of the provincial capital, Mazar-e Sharif, and some 74 km (46 miles) south of the Amu Darya, the Oxus River of antiquity, of which a tributary formerly flowed past Balkh. ... Minaret, July 2001 Ghazni is a city in central Afghanistan, situated on a plateau at 7280 feet above sea level. ... Shia Islam, also Shiite Islam or Shiism (Arabic: ‎ , translit: ; is the second largest denomination of the religion of Islam. ... The Buwayhids or Buyyids or Ä€l-i Buyeh, were a Yazdani tribal confederation from Daylam, a region on the southern shore of the Caspian Sea. ... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Muslim empire. ...

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Alp Arslan

Main article: Alp Arslan

Alp Arslan was the son of Çağrı Bey and expanded significantly upon Toğrül's holdings by adding Armenia and Georgia in 1064 and invading the Byzantine Empire in 1068 from whom he annexxed Anatolia after defeating them at the Battle of Manzikert. He ordered his Turcoman generals to conquer the Byzantine lands and allowed them to carve principalities of their own as atabegs that were loyal to him. Within two years the Turcomans captured Asia Minor and went as far as the Aegean Sea establishing numerous "beghliks" such as the: Saltuqis in Northeastern Anatolia, Mengujeqs in Eastern Anatolia, Artuqids in Southeastern Anatolia, Danishmendis in Central Anatolia, Rum Seljuks (Beghlik of Süleyman, which later moved to Central Anatolia) in Western Anatolia and the Beghlik of Çaka Bey in İzmir (Smyrna). Muhammed ben Daud (1029 – December 15, 1072), the second sultan of the dynasty of Seljuk Turks, in Persia, and great-grandson of Seljuk, the founder of the dynasty. ... Byzantine Empire (native Greek name: - Basileia tōn Romaiōn) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire of the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Events Emperor Go-Sanjo ascends the throne of Japan William the Conqueror takes Exeter after a brief siege Births Henry I of England (d. ... Asia Minor lies east of the Bosporus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. ... The Battle of Manzikert, or The Battle of Malazgirt, was fought between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuk forces led by Alp Arslan on August 26, 1071 near Manzikert, Armenia (modern Malazgirt, Turkey). ... Atabeg is a title of nobility of Turkic origin, indicating a governor of a nation or province who was subordinate to a king or Emperor but senior to a Khan. ... The Ortoqid dynasty was an Oghuz Turk dynasty that ruled in the Jezirah (northern Iraq) in the 11th and 12th centuries. ... The Danishmend dynasty was a Turcoman dynasty ruling in eastern Anatolia in the 11th and 12th centuries. ... The Sultanate of Rûm was a Seljuk sultanate in Anatolia from 1077 to 1307. ... Çaka Bey or Çakabey was the bey of Ä°zmir (Smyrna) during the Beyliks era in Anotolia about 1081. ... Ä°zmir (Greek: Σμύρνη) is the third most populous city of Turkey and the countrys largest port after Ä°stanbul. ... For other meanings of Smyrna, see Smyrna (disambiguation). ...

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Mālik Shāh I

Main article: Malik Shah I

Under Alp Arslan's successor Mālik Shāh and his two Persian viziers[10] Nizām al-Mulk and Tāj al-Mulk, the Seljuk state expanded in various directions to former Iranian border before Arab invasion, so that it bordered China in the East and the Byzantines in the West. He moved the capital from Rayy to Isfahan. The Iqta mililtary system and the Nizāmīyyah University at Baghdad were established by Nizām al-Mulk, and the reign of Mālik Shāh was reckoned the golden age of "Great Seljuk". The Abassid Caliph titled him "The Sultan of the East and West" in 1087. The Assassins of Hassan-e Sabāh however started to become a force during his era and assassinated many leading figures in his administration. Jalal ad-Dawlah Malik Shah was the Seljuk sultan from 1072 to 1092. ... Muhammed ben Daud (1029 – December 15, 1072), the second sultan of the dynasty of Seljuk Turks, in Persia, and great-grandson of Seljuk, the founder of the dynasty. ... A Vizier (وزير, sometimes also spelled Wazir) is an Arabic term for a high-ranking religious and political advisor, often to a king or sultan. ... Abu Ali al-Hasan al-Tusi Nizam al-Mulk (نظام الملك، ابو علي الحسن الطوسي in Arabic; 1018 - 14 October 1092) was a celebrated Persian vizier of the Seljuk... Byzantine Empire (native Greek name: - Basileia tōn Romaiōn) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire of the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Ray, also spelled Rayy or Rages (ری in Persian) is the most historic city in the province of Tehran, Iran. ... Isfahan or Esfahān can refer to either a city or a province in Iran (Persia): Isfahan (city) Isfahan (province) Isfahan (rugs) Isfahan is the name of a song by the Jazzist Duke Ellington Ispahan a kind of rose and an older pronunciation of the citys name. ... The Hashshashin (also Hashishin, Hashashiyyin or Assassins) had a militant basis as a religious sect (often referred to as a cult) of Ismaili Muslims from the Nizari sub-sect. ... Artistic Rendering of Hassan-i-Sabbah Hassan-i Sabbah, modern Persian Hæsæn-e Sæbba (Persian: بن صباح or حسن صباح) (circa 1034 - 1124), also known as The Old Man of the Mountain (Arabic: شيخ الجبل), was an Iranian IsmāīlÄ« NizarÄ« missionary who converted a community in the late 11th century in the...

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Governance

The Seljuk power was at it's zenith under Malik Shah, and both the Qarakhanids and Ghaznavids had to acknowledge the overlordship of the Seljuks.[11]. The Seljuk dominion was established over with the Sassanid domains, in Iran and Iraq, and included Anatolia as well as parts of Central Asia and Afghanistan.[11] The Seljuks kept their distance from the the Iranian tradition and by the 11th century, the term had lost the political connotations it held under the Sassanids.[11] The Seljuk rule was modelled after the tribal organization brought in by the nomadic conquerors and resembled a 'family federation' or 'appanage state'.[11] Under this organization the leading member of the paramount family assigned family members portions of his domains as autonomous appanages.[11] The Muslim, Turkic Kara-Khanid Khanate is not to be confused with the Sinitic, Khitan Kara-Khitan Khanate. ... The Ghaznavid Empire was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 977 to 1186. ... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... Asia Minor lies east of the Bosporus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ...

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Division of Empire

Enlarge
The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle
See also: Sultanate of Rum, Atabegs

When Malik Shah I died in 1092 the empire split, as his brother and four sons quarrelled over the apportioning of the empire among themselves. In Anatolia, Malik Shah I was succeeded by Kilij Arslan I who founded the Sultanate of Rum and in Syria by his brother Tutush I. In Persia he was succeeded by his son Mahmud I whose reign was contested by his other three brothers Barkiyaruq in Iraq, Mehmed I in Baghdad and Ahmed Sanjar in Khorasan. Image File history File links Selçuklu_kartalı.jpg Summary double headed seljukian amblem coat for state of seljuk turks. ... Image File history File links Selçuklu_kartalı.jpg Summary double headed seljukian amblem coat for state of seljuk turks. ... The Sultanate of Rûm was a Seljuk sultanate in Anatolia from 1077 to 1307. ... Atabeg is a title of nobility of Turkic origin, indicating a governor of a nation or province who was subordinate to a king or Emperor but senior to a Khan. ... Events May 9 - Lincoln Cathedral is consecrated. ... Dawud Kılıj Arslan ibn Süleyman ibn Kutalmish (in Turkish Kılıç Arslan, قلج أرسلان Qïlïj Arslān d. ... The Sultanate of Rûm was a Seljuk sultanate in Anatolia from 1077 to 1307. ... Abu Said Taj ad-Dawla Tutush I (died in 1095) was the Seljuk ruler (probably sultan or emir) of Damascus from 1079 to 1095, succeeding Abaaq al-Khwarazmi. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Nasir ad-Din Mahmud I (b. ... Rukn ad-Din Barkiyaruq (b. ... Ghiyath ad-Din Mehmed Tapar (probably died in 1118) was a Seljuk leader who revolted against Sultan Ahmed Sanjar in 1104. ... Baghdad ( translit: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Muizz ad-Din Ahmed Sanjar (1084/1086 - May 8, 1157) was the sultan of Great Seljuk from 1118 to 1153. ... Khorasan (also spelled Khurasan and Khorassan; Xorasan or Xurasan in Kurdish; خراسان in Persian) is an area, located in eastern and northeastern Iran. ...


When Tutush I died his sons Radwan and Duqaq inherited Aleppo and Damascus respectively and contested with each other as well further dividing Syria amongst emirs antagonistic towards each other. Abu Said Taj ad-Dawla Tutush I (died in 1095) was the Seljuk ruler (probably sultan or emir) of Damascus from 1079 to 1095, succeeding Abaaq al-Khwarazmi. ... Fakhr al-Mulk Radwan (also Ridwan; probably died in 1113) was a Seljuk ruler of Syria from 1095 to 1113 and the son in law of Yaghi-Siyan, the Atabeg of Antioch. ... Abu Nasr Shams al-Muluk Duqaq (probably died in 1104) was the Seljuk ruler of Damascus from 1095 to 1104. ... Old Town Aleppo viewed from the Citadel Aleppo is also the name of two townships in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


In 1118, the third son Ahmed Sanjar took over the empire. His nephew, the son of Mehmed I did not recognize his claim to the throne and Mahmud II proclaimed himself Sultan and established a capital in Baghdad, until 1131 when he was finally officially deposed by Ahmed Sanjar. Events Knights Templar founded Baldwin of Le Bourg succeeds his cousin Baldwin I as king of Jerusalem John II Comnenus succeeds Alexius I as Byzantine emperor Gelasius II succeeds Paschal II as pope Births November 28 - Manuel I Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor (died 1180) Andronicus I Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor (died 1185... Muizz ad-Din Ahmed Sanjar (1084/1086 - May 8, 1157) was the sultan of Great Seljuk from 1118 to 1153. ... Sultan Mahmud II Animation showing the structure of the Tughra of Mahmud II Mahmud II (in Arabic محمودالثانى ) (July 20, 1785–July 1, 1839) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1808 until his death. ... Events May 9 - Tintern Abbey is founded. ...


Elsewhere in nominal Seljuk territory were the Artuqids in northeastern Syria and northern Mesopotamia. They controlled Jerusalem until 1098. In eastern Anatolia and northern Syria a state was founded by Danishmend, and contested land with the Sultanate of Rum and Kerbogha excercised greeted independence as the atabeg of Mosul. The Ortoqid dynasty was an Oghuz Turk dynasty that ruled in the Jezirah (northern Iraq) in the 11th and 12th centuries. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Jerusalem (Hebrew:  , Yerushaláyim or Yerushalaim; Arabic:  , al-Quds; official Arabic in Israel: أورشليم القدس, Urshalim-Al-Quds) is Israels capital and largest city, with a population of 724,000 (as of May 24, 2006 [1]) contained in 123 km². An ancient Middle Eastern city on the watershed between the Mediterranean... The Danishmend dynasty was a Turcoman dynasty ruling in eastern Anatolia in the 11th and 12th centuries. ... The Sultanate of Rûm was a Seljuk sultanate in Anatolia from 1077 to 1307. ... Kerbogha was Atabeg of Mosul during the First Crusade and was renowned as a soldier. ... Atabeg is a title of nobility of Turkic origin, indicating a governor of a nation or province who was subordinate to a king or Emperor but senior to a Khan. ... , Tigris River and bridge in Mosul Mosul (Arabic: , Kurdish: Mûsil, Syriac: NînÄ›wâ, Turkish: Musul) is a city in northern Iraq and the capital of Ninawa Governorate. ...

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The First Crusade

Main article: First Crusade

The fractured states of the Seljuks were on the whole more concerned with consolidating their own territories and gaining control of their neighbours, than with cooperating against the crusaders when the First Crusade arrived in 1095 and successfully captured the Holy land to set up the Crusader States. The Seljuks had already lost Palestine to the Fatimid before their capture by the crusaders. The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II to regain control of the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Christian Holy Land from Muslims. ... The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II to regain control of the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Christian Holy Land from Muslims. ... Events The country of Portugal is established for the second time. ... The phrase The Holy Land (Arabic الأرض المقدسة, al-Arḍ ul-Muqaddasah; Hebrew ארץ הקודש: Standard Hebrew Éreẓ haQodeš, Tiberian Hebrew ʾÉreṣ haqQāḏēš; Latin Terra Sancta) generally refers to Israel, otherwise known as Palestine (sometimes including Jordan, Syria and parts of Egypt). ... The Crusader states, c. ... Palestine (from Latin: ; Hebrew: Pleshet, פלשתינה Palestina; Arabic: ‎ Filastīn, Falastīn) is one of several names for the geographic region between the Mediterranean Sea and the banks of the Jordan River with various adjoining lands. ... The Fatimids or Fatimid Caliphate (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Ismaili Shiite dynasty that ruled much of North Africa from A.D. 5 January 910 to 1171. ...

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The Second Crusade

See also: Second Crusade, Zengi, Nur ad-Din

Ahmed Sanjar had to contend the revolts of Qarakhanids in Transoxiana, Ghorids in Afghanistan and Qarluks in modern Kyrghyzstan, even as the nomadic Kara-Khitais invaded the East destroying the Seljuk vassal state of the Eastern Qarakhanids. At the Battle of Qatwan Sanjar 1141 and lost all his eastern provinces up to the Syr Darya. The Second Crusade was the second major crusade launched from Europe, called in 1145 in response to the fall of the County of Edessa the previous year. ... Imad ad-Din Atabeg Zengi (also Zangi, Zengui, Zenki, or Zanki) (1087- September 14, 1146) was the son of Aq Sunqur al-Hajib, governor of Aleppo under Malik Shah I. His father was beheaded for treason in 1094, and Zengi was brought up by Karbuqa, the governor of Mosul. ... al-Malik al-Adil Nur ad-Din Abu al-Qasim Mahmud Ibn Imad ad-Din Zangi (1118 – May 15, 1174), also known as Nur ed-Din, Nur al-Din, etc. ... The Muslim, Turkic Kara-Khanid Khanate is not to be confused with the Sinitic, Khitan Kara-Khitan Khanate. ... Map showing modern Transoxiana. ... Muhammad of Ghor or Muhammad Ghori (originally named Muizz-ad-din) (1162 - 1206) was a Persian conqueror and sultan between 1171 and 1206. ... The Qarluq or Karluk (Chinese: ; pinyin: Géluólù) were originally a nomadic Turkic tribe based at the eastern foot of Altay Mountains in Central Asia. ... Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz: Кыргызстан, variously transliterated), officially the Kyrgyz Republic, and sometimes known as Kirghizia, is a country in Central Asia. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Syr Darya (also known as Syrdarya or Sirdaryo) is a river in Central Asia. ...


During this time conflict with the Crusader States was also intermittent and after the First Crusade and increasingly independent atabegs would frequently ally with the crusader states against other atabegs as they vied with each other for territory. At Mosul Zengi succeeded Kerbogha as atabeg and successfully began the process of consolidating the atabegs of Syria. In 1144 Zengi captured Edessa, as the County of Edessa had allied itself with the Ortoqids against him. This event triggered the launch of the second crusade. Nur ad-Din, one of Zengi's sons who succeeded him as atabeg of Aleppo and created an alliance in the region to oppose the second crusade which landed in 1147. Imad ad-Din Atabeg Zengi (also Zangi, Zengui, Zenki, or Zanki) (1087- September 14, 1146) was the son of Aq Sunqur al-Hajib, governor of Aleppo under Malik Shah I. His father was beheaded for treason in 1094, and Zengi was brought up by Karbuqa, the governor of Mosul. ... Kerbogha was Atabeg of Mosul during the First Crusade and was renowned as a soldier. ... The Siege of Edessa took place from November 28 to December 24, 1144, resulting in the fall of the majority of the crusader County of Edessa to Zengi, the atabeg of Mosul. ... The County of Edessa was one of the Crusader states in the 12th century, based around a city with an ancient history and an early tradition of Christianity (see Edessa). ... The Ortoqid dynasty was an Oghuz Turk dynasty that ruled in the Jezirah (northern Iraq) in the 11th and 12th centuries. ... al-Malik al-Adil Nur ad-Din Abu al-Qasim Mahmud Ibn Imad ad-Din Zangi (1118 – May 15, 1174), also known as Nur ed-Din, Nur al-Din, etc. ... Old Town Aleppo viewed from the Citadel Aleppo is also the name of two townships in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. ...

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Conquest by Khwarezm and the Ayyubids

See also:Saladin, Ayyubid, Khwarezmid Empire

In 1153 the Oghuz Turks rebelled and captured Sanjar. He managed to escaped three years later but died a year later. Despite several attempts to reunite the Seljuks by his successors, the Crusades prevented them from regaining their former empire. While the Atabegs such as the Zengids and Artuqids were only nominally under the Seljuk Sultan, and generally controlled Syria independently. When Ahmed Sanjar died in 1156 it fractured the empire even further rendering the atabegs effectively independent. Artistic representation of Saladin. ... The Ayyubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Egypt, Iraq in the 12th and 13th centuries. ... The Khwarezmid Empire (also known as the Khwarezmian Empire) was a Muslim Iranian state in the 11th century in Khwarezmia that lasted until the Mongol invasion in 1220. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... The Ortoqid dynasty was an Oghuz Turk dynasty that ruled in the Jezirah (northern Iraq) in the 11th and 12th centuries. ...

  1. Khorasani Seljuks in Khorasan and Transoxiana. Capital: Merv
  2. Kermani Seljuks
  3. Sultanate of Rum. Capital: Iznik (Nicaea), later Konya (Iconium)
  4. Atabeghlik of Salgur in Iran
  5. Atabeghlik of Ildeniz in Iraq and Azerbaijan. Capital Hamadan
  6. Atabeghlik of Bori in Syria. Capital: Damascus
  7. Atabeghlik of Zangi in Al Jazira (Northern Mesopotamia). Capital: Mosul
  8. Turcoman Beghliks: Danishmendis, Artuqids, Saltuqis and Mengujegs in Asia Minor
  9. Khwarezmshahs in Transoxiana, Khwarezm. Capital: Urganch

After the Second Crusade Nur ad-Din's general Shirkuh, who had established himself in Egypt on Fatimid land, was succeeded by Saladin who rebelled against Nur ad-Din. Upon Nur ad-Dins death, Saladin married his widow and captured most of Syria creating the Ayyubid dynasty. Khorasan (also spelled Khurasan and Khorassan; Xorasan or Xurasan in Kurdish; خراسان in Persian) is an area, located in eastern and northeastern Iran. ... Merv – Persian name: مرو; formerly Alexandria and Antiochia in Margiana (Greek: Αντιόχεια η Μαργιανή) – in current-day Turkmenistan, was a major oasis-city in Central Asia, on the historical Silk Road, located near todays Mary. ... Map of Iran and surrounding countries, showing location of Kerman Kerman (in Persian: کرمان ) is a city in Iran. ... Iznik (which derives from the former Greek name, Nicaea) is a city in Turkey which is known primarily as the site of two major meetings (or Ecumenical councils) in the early history of the Christian church. ... Iznik (formerly Nicaea) is a city in Anatolia (now part of Turkey) which is known primarily as the site of two major meetings (or Ecumenical councils) in the early history of the Christian church. ... Tomb of Mevlana Rumi is a popular attraction of Konya. ... Konya (also Koniah, Konieh, Konia, and Qunia; historically known as Iconium) is a city in Turkey, on the central plateau of Anatolia. ... Avicennas tomb in Hamedan Hamadan or Hamedan ( Persian: همدان ) is the capital city of Hamadan Province of Iran. ... Al-Jazira (Arabic, الجزيرة) is the traditional Arabic name for the region of northeastern modern-day Syria and northwestern modern-day Iraq. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... , Tigris River and bridge in Mosul Mosul (Arabic: , Kurdish: Mûsil, Syriac: Nîněwâ, Turkish: Musul) is a city in northern Iraq and the capital of Ninawa Governorate. ... The Danishmend dynasty was a Turcoman dynasty ruling in eastern Anatolia in the 11th and 12th centuries. ... The Ortoqid dynasty was an Oghuz Turk dynasty that ruled in the Jezirah (northern Iraq) in the 11th and 12th centuries. ... Map showing modern Transoxiana. ... Khwarezmid Empire (1190-1220) Khwarezm (Uzbek: Xorazm, Russian: Хорезм Khorezm, Persian: خوارزم Khwārazm, Arabic: خوارزم Khwārizm, Chinese: 花剌子模 Hualazimo) was a state centred on the Amu Darya river delta of the former Aral Sea, in modern Uzbekistan, extending across the Ust-Urt plateau and possibly as far west as the eastern shores... Urgench (Uzbek: Urganch / Урганч) is city (1989 pop. ... Asad ad-Din Shirkuh bin Shadhi (also Shirguh or Sherko) (died 1169) was an important Muslim military commander, and uncle of Saladin. ... The Fatimids or Fatimid Caliphate (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Ismaili Shiite dynasty that ruled much of North Africa from A.D. 5 January 910 to 1171. ... Artistic representation of Saladin. ... al-Malik al-Adil Nur ad-Din Abu al-Qasim Mahmud Ibn Imad ad-Din Zangi (1118 – May 15, 1174), also known as Nur ed-Din, Nur al-Din, etc. ... The Ayyubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Egypt, Iraq in the 12th and 13th centuries. ...

The Middle East, c. 1190. Saladin's empire and its vassals shown in red; territory taken from the Crusader states 1187-1189 shown in pink. Light green indicates Crusader territories surviving Saladin's death.
The Middle East, c. 1190. Saladin's empire and its vassals shown in red; territory taken from the Crusader states 1187-1189 shown in pink. Light green indicates Crusader territories surviving Saladin's death.

On other fronts the the Kingdom of Georgia began to become a regional power and extended its borders at the expense of Great Seljuk as did the revival of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia under Leo II of Armenia in Anatolia. The Abbassid caliph An-Nasir also began to reassert the authority of the caliph and allied himself with the Khwarezmshah Ala ad-Din Tekish. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (667x621, 30 KB) Summary The Middle East, c. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (667x621, 30 KB) Summary The Middle East, c. ... Motto: Georgian: ძალა ერთობაშია (English: Strength is in Unity) Anthem: Tavisupleba (Freedom) Capital Tbilisi Largest city Tbilisi Official language(s) Georgian Government Unitary republic  - President Mikheil Saakashvili  - Prime Minister Zurab Noghaideli Consolidation    - Establishment of first Georgian Kingdoms of Colchis and Iberia c. ... Armenian Cilicia and Crusader States Cilicia The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (sometimes referred to as Armenia Minor or Lesser Armenia) was a state formed in the Middle Ages by Armenian refugees fleeing the Seljuk invasion of Armenia. ... Leo II of Armenia, (Armenian: Levon II) known as The Magnificent (1150 – May 5, 1219) was king of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, ruling from 1187–1219. ... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Muslim empire. ... An-Nasir (d. ...


For a brief period Toğrül III was the Sultan of all Seljuk except for Anatolia.[citation needed] In 1194 Toğrül was defeated by Ala ad-Din Tekish, the Shah of Khwarezmid Empire, and the Seljuk finally collapsed. Of the former Seljuk Empire, only the Sultanate of Rüm in Anatolia remained. As the dynasty declined in the middle of the 13th century, the Mongols invaded Anatolia in the 1260s and divided it into small emirates called the Anatolian beyliks, one of which, the Ottoman, would rise to power and conquer the rest. Events November 20 - Palermo falls to Henry VI, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire December 25 - Henry VI is crowned king of Sicily. ... The Khwarezmid Empire (also known as the Khwarezmian Empire) was a Muslim Iranian state in the 11th century in Khwarezmia that lasted until the Mongol invasion in 1220. ... The Sultanate of Rûm was a Seljuk sultanate in Anatolia from 1077 to 1307. ... Asia Minor lies east of the Bosporus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Asia Minor lies east of the Bosporus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. ... The 1260s is the decade starting January 1, 1260 and ending December 31, 1269. ... Generally speaking, an emirate (Arabic imarah, plural imarat) is a territory that is administered by an emir, although in Arabic the term can be generalized to mean any province of a country that is administered by a member of the ruling class. ... Anatolian beyliks (also Turkmen beyliks, Tevâif-i mülûk (in Ottoman Turkish) are small Turkish emirates or muslim principalities governed by tribal beys, which were founded in several locations of Anatolia at the end of the 13th century. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Söğüt (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul) (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah...

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Rulers of Seljuk Dynasty 1037-1157

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// Events Construction of the church of Saint Sophia Cathedral is started in Kyiv. ... Events Births September 8 - King Richard I of England (died 1199) Leopold V of Austria (died 1194) Hojo Masako, wife of Minamoto no Yoritomo (died 1225) Deaths August 21 - King Alfonso VII of Castile (born 1105) Agnes of Babenberg, daughter of Leopold III of Austria Sweyn III of Denmark Yury... Toğrül (Tuğril or Toghrïl Beg; c. ... // Events Construction of the church of Saint Sophia Cathedral is started in Kyiv. ... Events Anselm of Canterbury becomes prior at Le Bec Sancho I becomes ruler of Aragon Bishopric of Olomouc is founded Births Deaths April 30 - Emperor Renzong (b. ... Muhammed ben Daud (1029 – December 15, 1072), the second sultan of the dynasty of Seljuk Turks, in Persia, and great-grandson of Seljuk, the founder of the dynasty. ... Events Anselm of Canterbury becomes prior at Le Bec Sancho I becomes ruler of Aragon Bishopric of Olomouc is founded Births Deaths April 30 - Emperor Renzong (b. ... Events William I of England invades Scotland, and also receives the submission of Hereward the Wake. ... Jalal ad-Dawlah Malik Shah was the Seljuk sultan from 1072 to 1092. ... Events William I of England invades Scotland, and also receives the submission of Hereward the Wake. ... Events May 9 - Lincoln Cathedral is consecrated. ... Nasir ad-Din Mahmud I (b. ... Events May 9 - Lincoln Cathedral is consecrated. ... // Events Donald III of Scotland comes to the throne of Scotland. ... Rukn ad-Din Barkiyaruq (b. ... // Events Donald III of Scotland comes to the throne of Scotland. ... Events September 3 - St. ... Muizz ad-Din Malik Shah II (b. ... Events Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor deposed by his son, Henry V Tamna kingdom annexed by Korean Goryeo Dynasty. ... Events Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor deposed by his son, Henry V Tamna kingdom annexed by Korean Goryeo Dynasty. ... Events Knights Templar founded Baldwin of Le Bourg succeeds his cousin Baldwin I as king of Jerusalem John II Comnenus succeeds Alexius I as Byzantine emperor Gelasius II succeeds Paschal II as pope Births November 28 - Manuel I Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor (died 1180) Andronicus I Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor (died 1185... Mahmud II (died in 1131) proclaimed himself the Seljuk sultan of Baghdad in 1118 following the death of Mehmed I (probably Mahmuds father). ... Events Knights Templar founded Baldwin of Le Bourg succeeds his cousin Baldwin I as king of Jerusalem John II Comnenus succeeds Alexius I as Byzantine emperor Gelasius II succeeds Paschal II as pope Births November 28 - Manuel I Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor (died 1180) Andronicus I Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor (died 1185... Events May 9 - Tintern Abbey is founded. ... Muizz ad-Din Ahmed Sanjar (1084/1086 - May 8, 1157) was the sultan of Great Seljuk from 1118 to 1153. ... Events May 9 - Tintern Abbey is founded. ... Events Births September 8 - King Richard I of England (died 1199) Leopold V of Austria (died 1194) Hojo Masako, wife of Minamoto no Yoritomo (died 1225) Deaths August 21 - King Alfonso VII of Castile (born 1105) Agnes of Babenberg, daughter of Leopold III of Austria Sweyn III of Denmark Yury...

Seljuk Rulers of Kerman 1041-1187

Kerman was a nation in southern Persia. It fell in 1187, probably conquered by Toğrül III of Great Seljuk. Events December 10 - Empress Zoe of Byzantium elevates her adoptive son to the throne of the Eastern Roman Empire as Michael V. Revolt at Worcester against the naval taxes of Harthacanute. ... // Events May 1 - Battle of Cresson - Saladin defeats the crusaders July 4 - Saladin defeats Guy of Lusignan, King of Jerusalem, at the Battle of Hattin. ... Kerman is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ...

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Events December 10 - Empress Zoe of Byzantium elevates her adoptive son to the throne of the Eastern Roman Empire as Michael V. Revolt at Worcester against the naval taxes of Harthacanute. ... Events Cardinal Hildebrand elevated to papacy as Pope Gregory VII, succeeding Pope Alexander II Emperor Shirakawa ascends the throne of Japan Rabbi Yitchaki Alfassi finishes writing the Rif, an important work of Jewish law. ... Events Cardinal Hildebrand elevated to papacy as Pope Gregory VII, succeeding Pope Alexander II Emperor Shirakawa ascends the throne of Japan Rabbi Yitchaki Alfassi finishes writing the Rif, an important work of Jewish law. ... Events Births February 12 - Conrad, King of Germany and Italy (d. ... Events Births February 12 - Conrad, King of Germany and Italy (d. ... Events Revolt of the Earls. ... Events Revolt of the Earls. ... Events Saint Bruno founds the Carthusian Order of monks Kyanzittha begins his reign in Myanmar. ... Events Saint Bruno founds the Carthusian Order of monks Kyanzittha begins his reign in Myanmar. ... Events Bernhard becomes Bishop of Brandenburg First documented teaching at the University of Oxford Beginning of the Peoples Crusade, the German Crusade, and the First Crusade Vital I Michele is Doge of Venice Peter I, King of Aragon, conquers Huesca Phayao, now a province of Thailand, is founded as... Events Bernhard becomes Bishop of Brandenburg First documented teaching at the University of Oxford Beginning of the Peoples Crusade, the German Crusade, and the First Crusade Vital I Michele is Doge of Venice Peter I, King of Aragon, conquers Huesca Phayao, now a province of Thailand, is founded as... Events A second wave of crusaders arrives in the newly established Kingdom of Jerusalem, after being heavily defeated by Kilij Arslan I at Heraclia. ... Arslan Shah I was Sultan of Kerman (1101-1142), a city in Iran situated at the center of Kerman province. ... Events A second wave of crusaders arrives in the newly established Kingdom of Jerusalem, after being heavily defeated by Kilij Arslan I at Heraclia. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Sutoku, emperor of Japan Emperor Konoe ascends to the throne of Japan Henry the Lion becomes Duke of Saxony Births Farid od-Din Mohammad ebn Ebrahim Attar, Persian mystical poet (died 1220) Hugh III, Duke of Burgundy (died 1192) Bornin1142, a GameFAQs user... Events End of the reign of Emperor Sutoku, emperor of Japan Emperor Konoe ascends to the throne of Japan Henry the Lion becomes Duke of Saxony Births Farid od-Din Mohammad ebn Ebrahim Attar, Persian mystical poet (died 1220) Hugh III, Duke of Burgundy (died 1192) Bornin1142, a GameFAQs user... Events Prince Yuriy Dolgorukiy fortifies Moscow, regarded as the date of the founding of the city Establishment of the Carmelite Order Hogen Rebellion in Japan January 20 - According to legend, freeholder Lalli slays English crusader Bishop Henry with an axe on the ice of the lake Köyliönjärvi... Events Prince Yuriy Dolgorukiy fortifies Moscow, regarded as the date of the founding of the city Establishment of the Carmelite Order Hogen Rebellion in Japan January 20 - According to legend, freeholder Lalli slays English crusader Bishop Henry with an axe on the ice of the lake Köyliönjärvi... Events Nur ad-Din invades Egypt, and his nephew Saladin becomes the sultan over the territory conquered by Nur ad-Din. ... Events Nur ad-Din invades Egypt, and his nephew Saladin becomes the sultan over the territory conquered by Nur ad-Din. ... Events Vietnam is given the official name of Annam by China. ... Events Vietnam is given the official name of Annam by China. ... Events May 22 - Murder attempt by the Hashshashin on Saladin near Aleppo Raynald of Chatillon released from prison in Aleppo May 29 - Frederick Barbarossa is defeated in the Battle of Legnano by the Lombard League leading to the pactum Anagninum (the Agreement of Anagni) September 17 - Seljuk Turks defeat Manuel... Events May 22 - Murder attempt by the Hashshashin on Saladin near Aleppo Raynald of Chatillon released from prison in Aleppo May 29 - Frederick Barbarossa is defeated in the Battle of Legnano by the Lombard League leading to the pactum Anagninum (the Agreement of Anagni) September 17 - Seljuk Turks defeat Manuel... Events Three-year old Emperor Go-Toba ascends to the throne of Japan after the forced abdication of his brother Antoku during the Genpei War William of Tyre excommunicated by the newly appointed Heraclius of Jerusalem, firmly ending their struggle for power Andronicus I Comnenus becomes the Byzantine emperor Births... Events Three-year old Emperor Go-Toba ascends to the throne of Japan after the forced abdication of his brother Antoku during the Genpei War William of Tyre excommunicated by the newly appointed Heraclius of Jerusalem, firmly ending their struggle for power Andronicus I Comnenus becomes the Byzantine emperor Births... // Events May 1 - Battle of Cresson - Saladin defeats the crusaders July 4 - Saladin defeats Guy of Lusignan, King of Jerusalem, at the Battle of Hattin. ...

Seljuk Rulers in Syria 1076-1117

Sultans/Emirs of Damascus: Events February 14 - Pope Gregory VII excommunicates Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor. ... Events May 3 - Merton Priory (Thomas Becket school) consecrated. ... Abu Said Taj ad-Dawla Tutush I (died in 1095) was the Seljuk ruler (probably sultan or emir) of Damascus from 1079 to 1095, succeeding Abaaq al-Khwarazmi. ... Events May 25 - Alfonso VI of Castile takes Toledo, Spain back from the Moors. ... Events Domesday Book is completed in England Emperor Shirakawa of Japan starts his cloistered rule Imam Ali Mosque is rebuilt by the Seljuk Malik Shah I after being destroyed by fire. ... Jalal ad-Dawlah Malik Shah was the Seljuk sultan from 1072 to 1092. ... Events Domesday Book is completed in England Emperor Shirakawa of Japan starts his cloistered rule Imam Ali Mosque is rebuilt by the Seljuk Malik Shah I after being destroyed by fire. ... Events May 9 - The remains of Saint Nicholas were brought to Bari. ... Qasim ad-Dawla Abu Said Aq Sunqur al-Hajib (also Aksunkur el-Hacib or Aksungur al-Hajib) was the Seljuk governor of Aleppo under Sultan Malik Shah I. He probably enjoyed some independence from his lord and was from 1087 the de-facto ruler of most of Syria. ... Events May 9 - The remains of Saint Nicholas were brought to Bari. ... // Events May - El Cid completes his Christian reconquest of Valencia, Spain from the Muslims. ... Abu Said Taj ad-Dawla Tutush I (died in 1095) was the Seljuk ruler (probably sultan or emir) of Damascus from 1079 to 1095, succeeding Abaaq al-Khwarazmi. ... // Events May - El Cid completes his Christian reconquest of Valencia, Spain from the Muslims. ... Events The country of Portugal is established for the second time. ... Fakhr al-Mulk Radwan (also Ridwan; probably died in 1113) was a Seljuk ruler of Syria from 1095 to 1113 and the son in law of Yaghi-Siyan, the Atabeg of Antioch. ... Events The country of Portugal is established for the second time. ... Events Pierre Abélard opens his school in Paris End of Kyanzitthas reign in Myanmar Alaungsithus reign begins in Myanmar Suryavarman Is reign begins in the Khmer Empire Bridlington Priory founded Births August 24 - Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou (died 1151) Stefan Nemanja, Serbian Grand Zupan Deaths... Events Pierre Abélard opens his school in Paris End of Kyanzitthas reign in Myanmar Alaungsithus reign begins in Myanmar Suryavarman Is reign begins in the Khmer Empire Bridlington Priory founded Births August 24 - Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou (died 1151) Stefan Nemanja, Serbian Grand Zupan Deaths... Events January 7 - Matilda, daughter of Henry I of England, marries Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor Births Deaths Categories: 1114 ... Events January 7 - Matilda, daughter of Henry I of England, marries Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor Births Deaths Categories: 1114 ... Events First Council of the Lateran confirms Concordat of Worms and demands that priests remain celibate End of the reign of Emperor Toba of Japan. ... The Sultan in Disneys Aladdin A Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... Entrance to the emirs palace in Bukhara. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Atabegs of Aleppo: Aziz ibn Abaaq al-Khwarazmi (died in 1079) was the first Seljuk ruler to gain his independence from the Great Seljuk Empire under Malik Shah I. He founded a state (a sultanate or emirate) in Damascus in 1076. ... Events February 14 - Pope Gregory VII excommunicates Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor. ... Events Persian astronomer, Omar Khayyám, computed the length of the year as 365. ... Abu Said Taj ad-Dawla Tutush I (died in 1095) was the Seljuk ruler (probably sultan or emir) of Damascus from 1079 to 1095, succeeding Abaaq al-Khwarazmi. ... Events Persian astronomer, Omar Khayyám, computed the length of the year as 365. ... Events The country of Portugal is established for the second time. ... Abu Nasr Shams al-Muluk Duqaq (probably died in 1104) was the Seljuk ruler of Damascus from 1095 to 1104. ... Events The country of Portugal is established for the second time. ... Events September 3 - St. ... Events September 3 - St. ... Events September 3 - St. ... Atabeg is a title of nobility of Turkic origin, indicating a governor of a nation or province who was subordinate to a king or Emperor but senior to a Khan. ... Old Town Aleppo viewed from the Citadel Aleppo is also the name of two townships in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. ...

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Events January 7 - Matilda, daughter of Henry I of England, marries Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor Births Deaths Categories: 1114 ... Events May 3 - Merton Priory (Thomas Becket school) consecrated. ... Events May 3 - Merton Priory (Thomas Becket school) consecrated. ... Imad ad-Din Atabeg Zengi (also Zangi, Zengui, Zenki, or Zanki) (1087- September 14, 1146) was the son of Aq Sunqur al-Hajib, governor of Aleppo under Malik Shah I. His father was beheaded for treason in 1094, and Zengi was brought up by Karbuqa, the governor of Mosul. ... Events Pope Honorius II recognizes and confirms the Order of the Knights Templar. ... Events Saint Bernard of Clairvaux preaches the Second Crusade at Vezelay, Burgundy First written mention of Bryansk. ... al-Malik al-Adil Nur ad-Din Abu al-Qasim Mahmud Ibn Imad ad-Din Zangi (1118 – May 15, 1174), also known as Nur ed-Din, Nur al-Din, etc. ... Events Saint Bernard of Clairvaux preaches the Second Crusade at Vezelay, Burgundy First written mention of Bryansk. ... Events Vietnam is given the official name of Annam by China. ...

Seljuk Sultans of Rüm (Anatolia) 1077-1307

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The Sultanate of Rûm was a Seljuk sultanate in Anatolia from 1077 to 1307. ... Asia Minor lies east of the Bosporus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. ... Events January 26 - Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor visits Pope Gregory VII as a penitent, asking him remove sentence of excommunication Robert Curthose instigates his first insurrection against his father, William the Conqueror Seljuk Turks capture Nicaea Süleyman I of Rüm becomes the leader of the Sultanate of... Events July - The Knights Hospitaller begin their conquest of Rhodes. ... Events May - The Norman leader Robert Guiscard conquers Taranto. ... Events January 26 - Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor visits Pope Gregory VII as a penitent, asking him remove sentence of excommunication Robert Curthose instigates his first insurrection against his father, William the Conqueror Seljuk Turks capture Nicaea Süleyman I of Rüm becomes the leader of the Sultanate of... Süleyman Ibn Kutalmish (سليمان بن قتلمش Sulāyman bin Qutalmish, also Suleiman ibn Kutalmish; died in 1086) was the Seljuk ruler of the Sultanate of Rüm in Anatolia from 1077 until his death. ... Events January 26 - Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor visits Pope Gregory VII as a penitent, asking him remove sentence of excommunication Robert Curthose instigates his first insurrection against his father, William the Conqueror Seljuk Turks capture Nicaea Süleyman I of Rüm becomes the leader of the Sultanate of... Events Domesday Book is completed in England Emperor Shirakawa of Japan starts his cloistered rule Imam Ali Mosque is rebuilt by the Seljuk Malik Shah I after being destroyed by fire. ... Dawud Kılıj Arslan ibn Süleyman ibn Kutalmish (in Turkish Kılıç Arslan, قلج أرسلان Qïlïj Arslān d. ... Events May 9 - Lincoln Cathedral is consecrated. ... Events William Warelwast becomes Bishop of Exeter. ... Events William Warelwast becomes Bishop of Exeter. ... Events Baldwin I of Jerusalem undertakes an invasion of Egypt The modern book of separate pages stitched together is invented in China Construction starts on the Chennkesava temple The Aztecs leave Aztlán searching for the site of what will eventually become Tenochtitlán and later Mexico City Births Deaths... Rukn ad-Din Masud (died in 1156) was the Seljuk sultan of Rüm (Anatolia) from 1116 until his death. ... Events Baldwin I of Jerusalem undertakes an invasion of Egypt The modern book of separate pages stitched together is invented in China Construction starts on the Chennkesava temple The Aztecs leave Aztlán searching for the site of what will eventually become Tenochtitlán and later Mexico City Births Deaths... Events Prince Yuriy Dolgorukiy fortifies Moscow, regarded as the date of the founding of the city Establishment of the Carmelite Order Hogen Rebellion in Japan January 20 - According to legend, freeholder Lalli slays English crusader Bishop Henry with an axe on the ice of the lake Köyliönjärvi... Izz ad-Din Kılıj Arslan II (also Qïlïch Arslan; died in 1192) was a Seljuk sultan of Rüm. ... Events Prince Yuriy Dolgorukiy fortifies Moscow, regarded as the date of the founding of the city Establishment of the Carmelite Order Hogen Rebellion in Japan January 20 - According to legend, freeholder Lalli slays English crusader Bishop Henry with an axe on the ice of the lake Köyliönjärvi... // Events The Third Crusade ends in disaster. ... Kay Khusrau I, one of the sons of Izz ad-Din Kılıj Arslan II, was a Seljuk sultan of Rüm. ... // Events The Third Crusade ends in disaster. ... Events Spring, London, popular uprising of the poor against the rich led by William Fitz Osbern. ... Suleiman II aka Rukn ad-Din Suleiman Shah (1196-1204), was the Seljuk sultan of Rüm in 1196-1204. ... Events Spring, London, popular uprising of the poor against the rich led by William Fitz Osbern. ... // Events February - Byzantine emperor Alexius IV is overthrown in a revolution, and Alexius V is proclaimed emperor. ... // Events February - Byzantine emperor Alexius IV is overthrown in a revolution, and Alexius V is proclaimed emperor. ... Events January 6 - Philip of Swabia becomes King of the Romans April 14 - Battle of Adrianople (1205) between Bulgars and Latins August 20 - Following certain news of Baldwin Is death, Henry of Flanders is crowned Emperor of the Latin Empire Births Walter IV of Brienne Wenceslaus I, King of... Kay Khusrau I, one of the sons of Izz ad-Din Kılıj Arslan II, was a Seljuk sultan of Rüm. ... Events January 6 - Philip of Swabia becomes King of the Romans April 14 - Battle of Adrianople (1205) between Bulgars and Latins August 20 - Following certain news of Baldwin Is death, Henry of Flanders is crowned Emperor of the Latin Empire Births Walter IV of Brienne Wenceslaus I, King of... // Events The oldest extant double entry bookkeeping record dates from 1211 Canons regular of the Order of the Holy Cross founded September 14 1211 Troops led by Estonian resistance fighter Lembitu of Lehola destroy a garrison of missionaries in the historical Estonian region of Sakala and raid the Russian town... // Events The oldest extant double entry bookkeeping record dates from 1211 Canons regular of the Order of the Holy Cross founded September 14 1211 Troops led by Estonian resistance fighter Lembitu of Lehola destroy a garrison of missionaries in the historical Estonian region of Sakala and raid the Russian town... // The world in 1220 Middle Ages in Europe Fifth Crusade (1217-1221) Events Mongols first invade Abbasid caliphate - Bukhara and Samarkand taken End of the Kara-Khitan Khanate, destroyed by Genghis Khans Mongolian cavalry Dominican Order approved by Pope Honorius III Frederick II crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope... // The world in 1220 Middle Ages in Europe Fifth Crusade (1217-1221) Events Mongols first invade Abbasid caliphate - Bukhara and Samarkand taken End of the Kara-Khitan Khanate, destroyed by Genghis Khans Mongolian cavalry Dominican Order approved by Pope Honorius III Frederick II crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope... // Events Thomas II of Savoy becomes count of Flanders. ... // Events Thomas II of Savoy becomes count of Flanders. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Saga, emperor of Japan. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Saga, emperor of Japan. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Fukakusa of Japan Emperor Kameyama ascends to the throne of Japan September 3 - Mongols defeated by Mameluks at Battle of Ain Jalut Samogatians and Curonians defeats Teutonic knights in Battle of Durbe Births Maximus Planudes, Byzantine grammarian and theologian Deaths Monarchs/Presidents... For broader historical context, see 1240s and 13th century. ... For broader historical context, see 1260s and 13th century. ... Events University, the first College at Oxford founded Births Emperor Kameyama of Japan Pope John XXII Frederick I, Margrave of Baden Deaths July 6 - Alexander II of Scotland (b. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... For broader historical context, see 1260s and 13th century. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... // Events War and politics King Charles II of Naples is captured in a naval battle off Naples by Roger of Lauria, admiral to King Peter III of Aragon. ... // Events War and politics King Charles II of Naples is captured in a naval battle off Naples by Roger of Lauria, admiral to King Peter III of Aragon. ... // Events War and politics King Charles II of Naples is captured in a naval battle off Naples by Roger of Lauria, admiral to King Peter III of Aragon. ... Events May 20 - King Sancho IV of Castile creates the Study of General Schools of Alcala The Minoresses (Franciscan nuns) are first introduced into England Births Deaths Categories: 1293 ... Events May 20 - King Sancho IV of Castile creates the Study of General Schools of Alcala The Minoresses (Franciscan nuns) are first introduced into England Births Deaths Categories: 1293 ... For broader historical context, see 1290s and 13th century. ... For broader historical context, see 1290s and 13th century. ... Events February 7 - Edward of Caernarvon (later King Edward II of England) becomes the first Prince of Wales End of the reign of Emperor Go-Fushimi, emperor of Japan Emperor Go-Nijō ascends to the throne of Japan Dante was sent into Exile in Florence. ... Events February 7 - Edward of Caernarvon (later King Edward II of England) becomes the first Prince of Wales End of the reign of Emperor Go-Fushimi, emperor of Japan Emperor Go-Nijō ascends to the throne of Japan Dante was sent into Exile in Florence. ... // Events 24 February: Battle of Roslin 20 April: Pope Boniface VIII founds the University of Rome La Sapienza Edward I of England reconquers Scotland (see also: William Wallace, Wars of Scottish Independence) The Khilji Dynasty conquers time travel Births Saint Birgitta, Swedish saint (died 1373) Gegeen Khan, Mongol emperor of... // Events 24 February: Battle of Roslin 20 April: Pope Boniface VIII founds the University of Rome La Sapienza Edward I of England reconquers Scotland (see also: William Wallace, Wars of Scottish Independence) The Khilji Dynasty conquers time travel Births Saint Birgitta, Swedish saint (died 1373) Gegeen Khan, Mongol emperor of... Events July - The Knights Hospitaller begin their conquest of Rhodes. ... Events July - The Knights Hospitaller begin their conquest of Rhodes. ...

See also

[edit]

This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... The Zengid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Seljuk Turkish origin, which ruled parts of Northern Iraq and Syria during the 12th and 13th centuries. ... Atabeg is a title of nobility of Turkic origin, indicating a governor of a nation or province who was subordinate to a king or Emperor but senior to a Khan. ... The Ortoqid dynasty was an Oghuz Turk dynasty that ruled in the Jezirah (northern Iraq) in the 11th and 12th centuries. ... The Danishmend dynasty was a Turcoman dynasty ruling in eastern Anatolia in the 11th and 12th centuries. ... The Ghaznavid Empire (سلسله غزنویان in Persian) was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 962 to 1187. ... The Sultanate of Rûm was a Seljuk sultanate in Anatolia from 1077 to 1307. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Söğüt (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul) (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah... Seljuk (in Arabic Saljūq; in Turkish Selçuk; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) was the bey (chieftain) of a branch of Oghuz Turks known as the Seljuk Turks. ...

References

  1. ^ Concise Britannica Online Seljuq Dynasty article
  2. ^ Merriam-Webster Online - Definiton of Seljuk
  3. ^ The History of the Seljuq Turks: From the Jami Al-Tawarikh (LINK)
  4. ^ History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey - Stanford Shaw (LINK)
  5. ^ Wink, Andre, Al Hind the Making of the Indo Islamic World, Brill Academic Publishers, Jan 1, 1996, ISBN 9-004-09249-8 pg.9
  6. ^ M.A. Amir-Moezzi, "Shahrbanu", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK): "... here one might bear in mind that non-Persian dynasties such as the Ghaznavids, Saljuqs and Ilkhanids were rapidly to adopt the Persian language and have their origins traced back to the ancient kings of Persia rather than to Turkish heroes or Muslim saints ..."
  7. ^ O.Özgündenli, "Persian Manuscripts in Ottoman and Modern Turkish Libraries", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK)
  8. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica, "Seljuq", Online Edition, (LINK): "... Because the Turkish Seljuqs had no Islamic tradition or strong literary heritage of their own, they adopted the cultural language of their Persian instructors in Islam. Literary Persian thus spread to the whole of Iran, and the Arabic language disappeared in that country except in works of religious scholarship ..."
  9. ^ Wink, Andre, Al Hind the Making of the Indo Islamic World, Brill Academic Publishers, Jan 1, 1996, ISBN 9-004-09249-8 pg.9
  10. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica, "Nizam al-Mulk", Online Edition, (LINK)
  11. ^ a b c d e Wink, Andre, Al Hind the Making of the Indo Islamic World, Brill Academic Publishers, Jan 1, 1996, ISBN 9-004-09249-8 pg 9-10
[edit]

Encyclopædia Iranica is a project in Columbia Universitys Center for Iranian studies, to create an English language encyclopedia about Iran and Persia. ... Encyclopædia Iranica is a project in Columbia Universitys Center for Iranian studies, to create an English language encyclopedia about Iran and Persia. ... ... ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Seljuqs (491 words)
The Seljuqs were originally a clan belonging to the Oguz Turkmen tribes that invaded Asia in the 11th century.
Even if the expansion of the Seljuqs came to alarm the Christians in Europe to the extent that it helped trigger the crusader movement from the late 11th century, it was still the Shi'is who were the main enemy of the Seljuqs.
The decline of the Seljuq dynasty came mainly from the practice of dividing the state between sons of sultans.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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