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Encyclopedia > Seljuq dynasty

The Seljuqs (also Seljuq Turks, Seldjuks, Seldjuqs, Seljuks; in Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian: سلجوقيان Ṣaljūqīyān; in Arabic سلجوق Saljūq, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a Sunni Muslim dynasty that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th centuries. They set up an empire known as Great Seljuq Empire that stretched from Anatolia to Punjab and was the target of the First Crusade. The dynasty had its origins in the Turcoman tribal confederations of Central Asia and marked the beginning of Turkic power in the Middle East. Today they are regarded as the cultural ancestors of the Western Turks - the present-day inhabitants of Azerbaijan, Turkey, and Turkmenistan - and they are remembered as great patrons of Persian culture, art, literature, and language.[1][2][3] This article is about political entity known as Great Seljuq Empire. ... “Farsi” redirects here. ... “Arabic” redirects here. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... This article is about political entity known as Great Seljuq Empire. ... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... This article is about the geographical region. ... Combatants Christendom, Catholicism West European Christians, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Seljuks, Arabs and other Muslims The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of destroying the peaceful Islamic civilizations and confirming the barbaric nature of European society. ... The Oghuz Turks (also with various alternate spellings, including Oguz, OÄŸuz, Ouz, Okuz, Oufoi, Guozz, Ghuzz and Uz) are regarded as one of the major branches of Turkic peoples. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Iran is filled with tombs of poets and musicians, such as this one belonging to Rahi Moayeri. ... Persian literature (in Persian: ‎ ) spans two and a half millennia, though much of the pre-Islamic material has been lost. ...

Contents

Early history

Origins

Prior to the ninth century, hordes of Turks had crossed the Volga River into the Black Sea steppes.[4] Originally, the House of Seljuq was a branch of the Qinik Oghuz Turks[5][6][7][8] who in the 9th century lived on the periphery of the Muslim world, north of the Caspian and Aral sea in their Yabghu Khaganate of the Oghuz confederacy.[9] In the 10th century the Seljuqs migrated from their ancestral homelands into mainland Persia, in the province of Khurasan, where they mixed with the local population and adopted the Persian culture and language in the following decades.[1][2][3][10][11] “Volga” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... The Oghuz Turks (also with various alternate spellings, including Oguz, Oğuz, Ouz, Okuz, Oufoi, Guozz, Ghuzz and Uz) are regarded as one of the major branches of Turkic peoples. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... For Caspian Sea, go to: Caspian Sea CASPIAN Consumers Against Supermarket Privacy Invasion and Numbering (CASPIAN) is a national grass-roots consumer group dedicated to fighting supermarket loyalty or frequent shopper cards. ... The Aral Sea (Kazakh: Арал Теңізі, Aral Tengizi, Uzbek: , Russian: Аральскοе мοре) is a landlocked endorheic sea in Central Asia; it lies between Kazakhstan in the north and Karakalpakstan, an autonomous region of Uzbekistan, in the south. ... Yabgu (literally, pioneer, guide) was a state office in the early Türkic states, roughly equivalent to viceroy. ... KHAGAN, alternatively spelled Chagan, Qaqan etc, is a title of royal or imperial rank in Mongolian and Turkic languages. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Friday Mosque in Herat, a city which is known as The Pearl of Khorasan Greater Khorasan is a modern term for eastern territories of ancient Persia. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


It was reported by some muslim historians of the time that the Seljuks were originally a remote tribe of the Khazar that escaped destruction by the Rus because they were further north east of the Volga river. They converted from Judaism to Sunni Islam and their leader proclaimed the title of Sultan of War for Islam. The turks and Turkomans had pride in being in servitude to the Seljuq dynasty because the Khazar were their ancient masters in the Khazar wars. The Khazars were a Turkic semi-nomadic people from Central Asia who adopted Judaism. ...


Seljuk leaders

Rulers of Seljuk Dynasty 1037-1157

The "Great Seljuks" were heads of the family; in theory their authority extended over all the other Seljuk lines, although in practice this often was not the case. Turkish custom called for the senior member of the family to be the Great Seljuk, although usually the position was associated with the ruler of western Persia.

Muhammad's son Mahmud II succeeded him in western Persia, but Sanjar, the governor of Khurasan from 1097 and the senior member of the family, becomes Great Seljuk sultan ToÄŸrül (TuÄŸril or Toghrïl Beg; c. ... // Events Construction of the church of Saint Sophia Cathedral is started in Kyiv. ... Events Anselm of Canterbury becomes prior at Le Bec Sancho I becomes ruler of Aragon Bishopric of Olomouc is founded Births Deaths April 30 - Emperor Renzong (b. ... Muhammed ben Daud (1029 – December 15, 1072), the second sultan of the dynasty of Seljuk Turks, in Persia, and great-grandson of Seljuk, the founder of the dynasty. ... Events Anselm of Canterbury becomes prior at Le Bec Sancho I becomes ruler of Aragon Bishopric of Olomouc is founded Births Deaths April 30 - Emperor Renzong (b. ... Events William I of England invades Scotland, and also receives the submission of Hereward the Wake. ... Jalal ad-Dawlah Malik Shah was the Seljuk sultan from 1072 to 1092. ... Events William I of England invades Scotland, and also receives the submission of Hereward the Wake. ... Events May 9 - Lincoln Cathedral is consecrated. ... Nasir ad-Din Mahmud I (b. ... Events May 9 - Lincoln Cathedral is consecrated. ... // Events Donald III of Scotland comes to the throne of Scotland. ... Rukn ad-Din Barkiyaruq (b. ... // Events Donald III of Scotland comes to the throne of Scotland. ... Events September 3 - St. ... Muizz ad-Din Malik Shah II (b. ... Events Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor deposed by his son, Henry V Tamna kingdom annexed by Korean Goryeo Dynasty. ... Ghiyath ad-Din Muhammad Tapar (died 1118) was a son of Seljuk Sultan Malik Shah I. He succeeded his nephew, Malik Shah II, as Seljuk Sultan in Baghdad, and thus was theoretically the head of the dynasty, although his brother Ahmed Sanjar in Khorasan probably held more practical power. ... Events Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor deposed by his son, Henry V Tamna kingdom annexed by Korean Goryeo Dynasty. ... Events Knights Templar founded Baldwin of Le Bourg succeeds his cousin Baldwin I as king of Jerusalem John II Comnenus succeeds Alexius I as Byzantine emperor Gelasius II succeeds Paschal II as pope Births November 28 - Manuel I Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor (died 1180) Andronicus I Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor (died 1185... Mahmud II (died in 1131) proclaimed himself the Seljuk sultan of Baghdad in 1118 following the death of Mehmed I (probably Mahmuds father). ... Khorasan (also spelled Khurasan and Khorassan; خراسان in Persian) is an area, located in eastern and northeastern Iran. ... Events Edgar I deposes Donald III to become king of Scotland. ...

The Oghuz take control of much of Khurasan, with the remainder in the hands of former Seljuk emirs Muizz ad-Din Ahmed Sanjar (1084/1086 - May 8, 1157) was the sultan of Great Seljuk from 1118 to 1153. ... Events Knights Templar founded Baldwin of Le Bourg succeeds his cousin Baldwin I as king of Jerusalem John II Comnenus succeeds Alexius I as Byzantine emperor Gelasius II succeeds Paschal II as pope Births November 28 - Manuel I Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor (died 1180) Andronicus I Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor (died 1185... Events Births September 8 - King Richard I of England (died 1199) Leopold V of Austria (died 1194) Hojo Masako, wife of Minamoto no Yoritomo (died 1225) Deaths August 21 - King Alfonso VII of Castile (born 1105) Agnes of Babenberg, daughter of Leopold III of Austria Sweyn III of Denmark Yury...


Seljuk sultans of Hamadan 1118-1194

The rulers of western Persia, who maintained a very loose grip on the Abbasids of Baghdad. Several Turkish emirs gained a strong level of influence in the region, such as the Eldiduzids. Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Muslim empire. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Tugrul III killed in battle with the Khwarazmshah, who annexes Hamadan Mahmud II (died in 1131) proclaimed himself the Seljuk sultan of Baghdad in 1118 following the death of Mehmed I (probably Mahmuds father). ... Events Knights Templar founded Baldwin of Le Bourg succeeds his cousin Baldwin I as king of Jerusalem John II Comnenus succeeds Alexius I as Byzantine emperor Gelasius II succeeds Paschal II as pope Births November 28 - Manuel I Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor (died 1180) Andronicus I Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor (died 1185... Events May 9 - Tintern Abbey is founded. ... Under the Caliphate, Jibal was a province located in northwestern Iran. ... Iranian Azerbaijan or Iranian Azarbaijan (Persian: آذربایجان ایران; Āzārbāijān-e Irān), (Azeri: اذربایجان, c. ... Events May 9 - Tintern Abbey is founded. ... Events May 9 - Tintern Abbey is founded. ... Events Baalbeck taken by Genghis Khan House of Brandenburg begins when Albrecht the Bear is made head of the Nordmark St. ... Events Baalbeck taken by Genghis Khan House of Brandenburg begins when Albrecht the Bear is made head of the Nordmark St. ... Events March 4 - Frederick I Barbarossa is elected King of the Germans Eleanor of Aquitaine has her marriage to Louis VII annulled May 18 - Eleanor of Aquitaine marries Henry of Anjou Church of Ireland acknowledges Popes authority Almohad Dynasty conquers Algeria Establishment of the archbishopric of Nidaros (Trondheim), Norway... Events March 4 - Frederick I Barbarossa is elected King of the Germans Eleanor of Aquitaine has her marriage to Louis VII annulled May 18 - Eleanor of Aquitaine marries Henry of Anjou Church of Ireland acknowledges Popes authority Almohad Dynasty conquers Algeria Establishment of the archbishopric of Nidaros (Trondheim), Norway... Events January 6 - Henry of Anjou arrives in England. ... Events January 6 - Henry of Anjou arrives in England. ... Events Eric IX of Sweden is succeeded by Karl Sverkersson. ... Events Eric IX of Sweden is succeeded by Karl Sverkersson. ... Events Bartholomew Iscanus becomes Bishop of Exeter. ... Events Bartholomew Iscanus becomes Bishop of Exeter. ... Events Vietnam is given the official name of Annam by China. ... Events Vietnam is given the official name of Annam by China. ... Events November 20 - Palermo falls to Henry VI, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire December 25 - Henry VI is crowned king of Sicily. ... The Khwarezmid Empire (also known as the Khwarezmian Empire) was a Muslim Iranian state in the 11th century in Khwarezmia that lasted until the Mongol invasion in 1220. ...


Seljuk rulers of Kerman 1041-1187

Kerman was a province in southern Persia. Kerman is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ...

Mehmed II overthrown by the Oghuz chief Malik Dinar Events December 10 - Empress Zoe of Byzantium elevates her adoptive son to the throne of the Eastern Roman Empire as Michael V. Revolt at Worcester against the naval taxes of Harthacanute. ... Events Cardinal Hildebrand elevated to papacy as Pope Gregory VII, succeeding Pope Alexander II Emperor Shirakawa ascends the throne of Japan Rabbi Yitchaki Alfassi finishes writing the Rif, an important work of Jewish law. ... Events Cardinal Hildebrand elevated to papacy as Pope Gregory VII, succeeding Pope Alexander II Emperor Shirakawa ascends the throne of Japan Rabbi Yitchaki Alfassi finishes writing the Rif, an important work of Jewish law. ... Events Births February 12 - Conrad, King of Germany and Italy (d. ... Events Births February 12 - Conrad, King of Germany and Italy (d. ... Events Revolt of the Earls. ... Events Revolt of the Earls. ... Events Saint Bruno founds the Carthusian Order of monks Kyanzittha begins his reign in Myanmar. ... Events Saint Bruno founds the Carthusian Order of monks Kyanzittha begins his reign in Myanmar. ... Events Bernhard becomes Bishop of Brandenburg First documented teaching at the University of Oxford Beginning of the Peoples Crusade, the German Crusade, and the First Crusade Vital I Michele is Doge of Venice Peter I, King of Aragon, conquers Huesca Phayao, now a province of Thailand, is founded as... Events Bernhard becomes Bishop of Brandenburg First documented teaching at the University of Oxford Beginning of the Peoples Crusade, the German Crusade, and the First Crusade Vital I Michele is Doge of Venice Peter I, King of Aragon, conquers Huesca Phayao, now a province of Thailand, is founded as... Events A second wave of crusaders arrives in the newly established Kingdom of Jerusalem, after being heavily defeated by Kilij Arslan I at Heraclia. ... Arslan Shah I was Sultan of Kerman (1101-1142), a city in Iran situated at the center of Kerman province. ... Events A second wave of crusaders arrives in the newly established Kingdom of Jerusalem, after being heavily defeated by Kilij Arslan I at Heraclia. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Sutoku, emperor of Japan Emperor Konoe ascends to the throne of Japan Henry the Lion becomes Duke of Saxony Births Farid od-Din Mohammad ebn Ebrahim Attar, Persian mystical poet (died 1220) Hugh III, Duke of Burgundy (died 1192) Bornin1142, a GameFAQs user... Events End of the reign of Emperor Sutoku, emperor of Japan Emperor Konoe ascends to the throne of Japan Henry the Lion becomes Duke of Saxony Births Farid od-Din Mohammad ebn Ebrahim Attar, Persian mystical poet (died 1220) Hugh III, Duke of Burgundy (died 1192) Bornin1142, a GameFAQs user... Events Prince Yuriy Dolgorukiy fortifies Moscow, regarded as the date of the founding of the city Establishment of the Carmelite Order Hogen Rebellion in Japan January 20 - According to legend, freeholder Lalli slays English crusader Bishop Henry with an axe on the ice of the lake Köyliönjärvi... Events Prince Yuriy Dolgorukiy fortifies Moscow, regarded as the date of the founding of the city Establishment of the Carmelite Order Hogen Rebellion in Japan January 20 - According to legend, freeholder Lalli slays English crusader Bishop Henry with an axe on the ice of the lake Köyliönjärvi... Events Nur ad-Din invades Egypt, and his nephew Saladin becomes the sultan over the territory conquered by Nur ad-Din. ... Events Nur ad-Din invades Egypt, and his nephew Saladin becomes the sultan over the territory conquered by Nur ad-Din. ... Events Vietnam is given the official name of Annam by China. ... Events Vietnam is given the official name of Annam by China. ... Events May 22 - Murder attempt by the Hashshashin on Saladin near Aleppo Raynald of Chatillon released from prison in Aleppo May 29 - Frederick Barbarossa is defeated in the Battle of Legnano by the Lombard League leading to the pactum Anagninum (the Agreement of Anagni) September 17 - Seljuk Turks defeat Manuel... Events May 22 - Murder attempt by the Hashshashin on Saladin near Aleppo Raynald of Chatillon released from prison in Aleppo May 29 - Frederick Barbarossa is defeated in the Battle of Legnano by the Lombard League leading to the pactum Anagninum (the Agreement of Anagni) September 17 - Seljuk Turks defeat Manuel... Events Three-year old Emperor Go-Toba ascends to the throne of Japan after the forced abdication of his brother Antoku during the Genpei War William of Tyre excommunicated by the newly appointed Heraclius of Jerusalem, firmly ending their struggle for power Andronicus I Comnenus becomes the Byzantine emperor Births... Events Three-year old Emperor Go-Toba ascends to the throne of Japan after the forced abdication of his brother Antoku during the Genpei War William of Tyre excommunicated by the newly appointed Heraclius of Jerusalem, firmly ending their struggle for power Andronicus I Comnenus becomes the Byzantine emperor Births... // Events May 1 - Battle of Cresson - Saladin defeats the crusaders July 4 - Saladin defeats Guy of Lusignan, King of Jerusalem, at the Battle of Hattin. ...


Seljuk rulers in Syria 1076-1117

To the Artuqids Abu Said Taj ad-Dawla Tutush I (died in 1095) was the Seljuk ruler (probably sultan or emir) of Damascus from 1079 to 1095, succeeding Abaaq al-Khwarazmi. ... April 2 - Emperor Zhezong became emperor of Song Dynasty. ... Events Domesday Book is completed in England Emperor Shirakawa of Japan starts his cloistered rule Imam Ali Mosque is rebuilt by the Seljuk Malik Shah I after being destroyed by fire. ... Jalal ad-Dawlah Malik Shah was the Seljuk sultan from 1072 to 1092. ... Events Domesday Book is completed in England Emperor Shirakawa of Japan starts his cloistered rule Imam Ali Mosque is rebuilt by the Seljuk Malik Shah I after being destroyed by fire. ... Events May 9 - The remains of Saint Nicholas were brought to Bari. ... Qasim ad-Dawla Abu Said Aq Sunqur al-Hajib (also Aksunkur el-Hacib or Aksungur al-Hajib) was the Seljuk governor of Aleppo under Sultan Malik Shah I. He probably enjoyed some independence from his lord and was from 1087 the de-facto ruler of most of Syria. ... Events May 9 - The remains of Saint Nicholas were brought to Bari. ... // May - El Cid completes his conquest of Valencia, Spain, and begins his rule of Valencia. ... Abu Said Taj ad-Dawla Tutush I (died in 1095) was the Seljuk ruler (probably sultan or emir) of Damascus from 1079 to 1095, succeeding Abaaq al-Khwarazmi. ... // May - El Cid completes his conquest of Valencia, Spain, and begins his rule of Valencia. ... Events The country of Portugal is established for the second time. ... Fakhr al-Mulk Radwan (also Ridwan; probably died in 1113) was a Seljuk ruler of Syria from 1095 to 1113 and the son in law of Yaghi-Siyan, the Atabeg of Antioch. ... Events The country of Portugal is established for the second time. ... Events Pierre Abélard opens his school in Paris End of Kyanzitthas reign in Myanmar Alaungsithus reign begins in Myanmar Suryavarman Is reign begins in the Khmer Empire Bridlington Priory founded Births August 24 - Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou (died 1151) Stefan Nemanja, Serbian Grand Zupan Deaths... Events Pierre Abélard opens his school in Paris End of Kyanzitthas reign in Myanmar Alaungsithus reign begins in Myanmar Suryavarman Is reign begins in the Khmer Empire Bridlington Priory founded Births August 24 - Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou (died 1151) Stefan Nemanja, Serbian Grand Zupan Deaths... Events January 7 - Matilda, daughter of Henry I of England, marries Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor Births Deaths Categories: 1114 ... Events January 7 - Matilda, daughter of Henry I of England, marries Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor Births Deaths Categories: 1114 ... Events First Council of the Lateran confirms Concordat of Worms and demands that priests remain celibate End of the reign of Emperor Toba of Japan. ... The Ortoqid dynasty was an Oghuz Turk dynasty that ruled in the Jezirah (northern Iraq) in the 11th and 12th centuries. ...


Sultans/Emirs of Damascus: Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... Entrance to the emirs palace in Bukhara. ... Nickname: The Seal of the Damascus Governorate Syria Syria Governorates Damascus Governorate Government  - Governor Bishr Al Sabban Area  - City 573 km²  (221. ...

Damascus seized by the Burid Toghtekin Aziz ibn Abaaq al-Khwarazmi (died in 1079) was the first Seljuk ruler to gain his independence from the Great Seljuk Empire under Malik Shah I. He founded a state (a sultanate or emirate) in Damascus in 1076. ... Events February 14 - Pope Gregory VII excommunicates Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor. ... Events Persian astronomer, Omar Khayyám, computed the length of the year as 365. ... Abu Said Taj ad-Dawla Tutush I (died in 1095) was the Seljuk ruler (probably sultan or emir) of Damascus from 1079 to 1095, succeeding Abaaq al-Khwarazmi. ... Events Persian astronomer, Omar Khayyám, computed the length of the year as 365. ... Events The country of Portugal is established for the second time. ... Abu Nasr Shams al-Muluk Duqaq (probably died in 1104) was the Seljuk ruler of Damascus from 1095 to 1104. ... Events The country of Portugal is established for the second time. ... Events September 3 - St. ... Events September 3 - St. ... Events September 3 - St. ... The Burid Dynasty was a Turkish dynasty which ruled over Damascus in the early 12th century. ...


Seljuk sultans of Rüm (Anatolia) 1077-1307

The Seljuk line, already having been deprived of any significant power, effectively ends in the early thirteenth century Kutalmish (alternative spellings; Kutalmysh Qutulmush) was the name of two different personalities in Turkish history, the first having lived in the 11th century and the second 12th century, each of which had a son named Süleyman, and whose descendants founded, respectively, the Sultanate of Rum and the Ottoman Empire. ... May — The Norman leader Robert Guiscard conquers Taranto. ... Events January 26 - Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor visits Pope Gregory VII as a penitent, asking him remove sentence of excommunication Robert Curthose instigates his first insurrection against his father, William the Conqueror Seljuk Turks capture Nicaea Süleyman I of Rüm becomes the leader of the Sultanate of... Süleyman Ibn Kutalmish (سليمان بن قتلمش Sulāyman bin Qutalmish, also Suleiman ibn Kutalmish; died in 1086) was the Seljuk ruler of the Sultanate of Rüm in Anatolia from 1077 until his death. ... Events January 26 - Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor visits Pope Gregory VII as a penitent, asking him remove sentence of excommunication Robert Curthose instigates his first insurrection against his father, William the Conqueror Seljuk Turks capture Nicaea Süleyman I of Rüm becomes the leader of the Sultanate of... Events Domesday Book is completed in England Emperor Shirakawa of Japan starts his cloistered rule Imam Ali Mosque is rebuilt by the Seljuk Malik Shah I after being destroyed by fire. ... Dawud Kılıj Arslan ibn Süleyman ibn Kutalmish (in Turkish Kılıç Arslan, قلج أرسلان Qïlïj Arslān d. ... Events May 9 - Lincoln Cathedral is consecrated. ... Events William Warelwast becomes Bishop of Exeter. ... Events William Warelwast becomes Bishop of Exeter. ... Events Baldwin I of Jerusalem undertakes an invasion of Egypt The modern book of separate pages stitched together is invented in China Construction starts on the Chennkesava temple The Aztecs leave Aztlán searching for the site of what will eventually become Tenochtitlán and later Mexico City Births Deaths... Rukn ad-Din Masud (died in 1156) was the Seljuk sultan of Rüm (Anatolia) from 1116 until his death. ... Events Baldwin I of Jerusalem undertakes an invasion of Egypt The modern book of separate pages stitched together is invented in China Construction starts on the Chennkesava temple The Aztecs leave Aztlán searching for the site of what will eventually become Tenochtitlán and later Mexico City Births Deaths... Events Prince Yuriy Dolgorukiy fortifies Moscow, regarded as the date of the founding of the city Establishment of the Carmelite Order Hogen Rebellion in Japan January 20 - According to legend, freeholder Lalli slays English crusader Bishop Henry with an axe on the ice of the lake Köyliönjärvi... Izz ad-Din Kılıj Arslan II (also Qïlïch Arslan; died in 1192) was a Seljuk sultan of Rüm. ... Events Prince Yuriy Dolgorukiy fortifies Moscow, regarded as the date of the founding of the city Establishment of the Carmelite Order Hogen Rebellion in Japan January 20 - According to legend, freeholder Lalli slays English crusader Bishop Henry with an axe on the ice of the lake Köyliönjärvi... // Events The Third Crusade ends in disaster. ... Kaykhusraw I (Arabic/Persian: , GhÄ«yāth al-DÄ«n Kaykhusraw bin Kilij Arslān; Turkish: ), the eleventh and youngest son of Kilij Arslan II, was a Seljuk sultan of Rüm. ... // Events The Third Crusade ends in disaster. ... Events Spring, London, popular uprising of the poor against the rich led by William Fitz Osbern. ... Suleiman II aka Rukn ad-Din Suleiman Shah (1196-1204), was the Seljuk sultan of Rüm in 1196-1204. ... Events Spring, London, popular uprising of the poor against the rich led by William Fitz Osbern. ... [Neilhughandafriendlypeasant. ... Kilij Arslan III aka Kılıç Arslan III was the sultan of the Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate (Sultanate of Rûm) in 1204-1205. ... [Neilhughandafriendlypeasant. ... January 6 - Philip of Swabia becomes King of the Romans April 14 - Battle of Adrianople between Bulgars and Latins August 20 - Following certain news of Baldwin Is death, Henry of Flanders is crowned Emperor of the Latin Empire April 1 - King Amalric II of Jerusalem (born 1145) May 7... Kaykhusraw I (Arabic/Persian: , GhÄ«yāth al-DÄ«n Kaykhusraw bin Kilij Arslān; Turkish: ), the eleventh and youngest son of Kilij Arslan II, was a Seljuk sultan of Rüm. ... January 6 - Philip of Swabia becomes King of the Romans April 14 - Battle of Adrianople between Bulgars and Latins August 20 - Following certain news of Baldwin Is death, Henry of Flanders is crowned Emperor of the Latin Empire April 1 - King Amalric II of Jerusalem (born 1145) May 7... // Events The oldest extant double entry bookkeeping record dates from 1211 Canons regular of the Order of the Holy Cross founded September 14 1211 Troops led by Estonian resistance fighter Lembitu of Lehola destroy a garrison of missionaries in the historical Estonian region of Sakala and raid the Russian town... Kaykaus I or Kaykaus I or Keykavus I (Arabic/Persian: , Izz al-DÄ«n Kaykāũs bin Kaykhusraw; Turkish: ) was the sultan of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum from 1211 until his death in 1220. ... // Events The oldest extant double entry bookkeeping record dates from 1211 Canons regular of the Order of the Holy Cross founded September 14 1211 Troops led by Estonian resistance fighter Lembitu of Lehola destroy a garrison of missionaries in the historical Estonian region of Sakala and raid the Russian town... // The world in 1220 Middle Ages in Europe Fifth Crusade (1217-1221) Events Mongols first invade Abbasid caliphate - Bukhara and Samarkand taken End of the Kara-Khitan Khanate, destroyed by Genghis Khans Mongolian cavalry Dominican Order approved by Pope Honorius III Frederick II crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope... ‘Alā’ ad-DÄ«n Kay-Qubād I (, also rendered as Alaadin, Alauddin, Kay-Kubad, Kaykubad, or Kay-Ghobad; also Kay-Qubādh) was a Seljuq emperor who reigned from 1220 to 1237). ... // The world in 1220 Middle Ages in Europe Fifth Crusade (1217-1221) Events Mongols first invade Abbasid caliphate - Bukhara and Samarkand taken End of the Kara-Khitan Khanate, destroyed by Genghis Khans Mongolian cavalry Dominican Order approved by Pope Honorius III Frederick II crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope... // Events Thomas II of Savoy becomes count of Flanders. ... Kaykhusraw II (Arabic/Persian: , GhÄ«yāth al-DÄ«n Kaykhusraw bin Kayqubād; Turkish: ) was the sultan of the Seljuqs of Rum from 1237 until his death in 1246. ... // Events Thomas II of Savoy becomes count of Flanders. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Saga, emperor of Japan. ... Kaykaus II or Kaykaus II or Keykavus II (Arabic/Persian: , Izz al-DÄ«n Kaykāũs bin Kaykhusraw; Turkish: ) was the eldest of three sons of Kaykhusraw II. He was a minor at the time of his father’s death in 1246 and could do little to prevent the... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Saga, emperor of Japan. ... The magnificent Cathedral of Chartres was dedicated in 1260. ... Kilij Arslan IV was one of the Seljuq sultans of Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate (Sultanate of Rûm), with its dynasty split after the Battle of Kose Dag, from 1248 until his death in 1265. ... For broader historical context, see 1240s and 13th century. ... For broader historical context, see 1260s and 13th century. ... Kayqubad II (Arabic/Persian: , Alā al-DÄ«n Kayqubād bin Kaykhusraw; Turkish: ) was the youngest of the three sons of the Seljuk Sultan of Rum Kaykhusraw II. As son of the sultan’s favorite wife, the Georgian princess Tamar, he was designated heir. ... Events University, the first College at Oxford founded Births Emperor Kameyama of Japan Pope John XXII Frederick I, Margrave of Baden Deaths July 6 - Alexander II of Scotland (b. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... Kaykhusraw III (Arabic/Persian: , GhÄ«yāth al-DÄ«n Kaykhusraw bin Kilij Arslān; Turkish: ) was between two and six years old when in 1265 he was named Seljuq Sultan of Rum. ... For broader historical context, see 1260s and 13th century. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... Masud II or Masud II (Arabic: , GhÄ«yāth al-DÄ«n MasÅ«d bin Kaykāūs) bore the title of Seljuq Sultan of Rum at various times between 1284 and 1308. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... // Events War and politics King Charles II of Naples is captured in a naval battle off Naples by Roger of Lauria, admiral to King Peter III of Aragon. ... Kayqubad III (Arabic: , Alā al-DÄ«n Kayqubād bin Ferāmurz; Turkish: ) was briefly sultan of the Seljuqs of Rum between the years of 1298 and 1302. ... // Events War and politics King Charles II of Naples is captured in a naval battle off Naples by Roger of Lauria, admiral to King Peter III of Aragon. ... Masud II or Masud II (Arabic: , GhÄ«yāth al-DÄ«n MasÅ«d bin Kaykāūs) bore the title of Seljuq Sultan of Rum at various times between 1284 and 1308. ... // Events War and politics King Charles II of Naples is captured in a naval battle off Naples by Roger of Lauria, admiral to King Peter III of Aragon. ... Events May 20 - King Sancho IV of Castile creates the Study of General Schools of Alcala The Minoresses (Franciscan nuns) are first introduced into England Births Deaths Categories: 1293 ... Kayqubad III (Arabic: , Alā al-DÄ«n Kayqubād bin Ferāmurz; Turkish: ) was briefly sultan of the Seljuqs of Rum between the years of 1298 and 1302. ... Events May 20 - King Sancho IV of Castile creates the Study of General Schools of Alcala The Minoresses (Franciscan nuns) are first introduced into England Births Deaths Categories: 1293 ... For broader historical context, see 1290s and 13th century. ... Masud II or Masud II (Arabic: , GhÄ«yāth al-DÄ«n MasÅ«d bin Kaykāūs) bore the title of Seljuq Sultan of Rum at various times between 1284 and 1308. ... For broader historical context, see 1290s and 13th century. ... Events February 7 - Edward of Caernarvon (later King Edward II of England) becomes the first Prince of Wales End of the reign of Emperor Go-Fushimi, emperor of Japan Emperor Go-Nijō ascends to the throne of Japan Dante was sent into Exile in Florence. ... Kayqubad III (Arabic: , Alā al-DÄ«n Kayqubād bin Ferāmurz; Turkish: ) was briefly sultan of the Seljuqs of Rum between the years of 1298 and 1302. ... Events February 7 - Edward of Caernarvon (later King Edward II of England) becomes the first Prince of Wales End of the reign of Emperor Go-Fushimi, emperor of Japan Emperor Go-Nijō ascends to the throne of Japan Dante was sent into Exile in Florence. ... // Events 24 February: Battle of Roslin 20 April: Pope Boniface VIII founds the University of Rome La Sapienza Edward I of England reconquers Scotland (see also: William Wallace, Wars of Scottish Independence) The Khilji Dynasty conquers time travel Births Saint Birgitta, Swedish saint (died 1373) Gegeen Khan, Mongol emperor of... Masud II or Masud II (Arabic: , GhÄ«yāth al-DÄ«n MasÅ«d bin Kaykāūs) bore the title of Seljuq Sultan of Rum at various times between 1284 and 1308. ... // Events 24 February: Battle of Roslin 20 April: Pope Boniface VIII founds the University of Rome La Sapienza Edward I of England reconquers Scotland (see also: William Wallace, Wars of Scottish Independence) The Khilji Dynasty conquers time travel Births Saint Birgitta, Swedish saint (died 1373) Gegeen Khan, Mongol emperor of... January 18 - German king Albrecht I makes his son Rudolf king of Bohemia. ...


Notes

  1. ^ a b O.Özgündenli, "Persian Manuscripts in Ottoman and Modern Turkish Libraries", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK)
  2. ^ a b Encyclopaedia Britannica, "Seljuq", Online Edition, (LINK): "... Because the Turkish Seljuqs had no Islamic tradition or strong literary heritage of their own, they adopted the cultural language of their Persian instructors in Islam. Literary Persian thus spread to the whole of Iran, and the Arabic language disappeared in that country except in works of religious scholarship ..."
  3. ^ a b M. Ravandi, "The Seljuq court at Konya and the Persianisation of Anatolian Cities", in Mesogeios (Mediterranean Studies), vol. 25-6 (2005), pp. 157-69
  4. ^ Previte-Orton (1971), vol. 1, pg.278
  5. ^ Concise Britannica Online Seljuq Dynasty article
  6. ^ Merriam-Webster Online - Definition of Seljuk
  7. ^ The History of the Seljuq Turks: From the Jami Al-Tawarikh (LINK)
  8. ^ History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey - Stanford Shaw (LINK)
  9. ^ Wink, Andre, Al Hind the Making of the Indo Islamic World, Brill Academic Publishers, Jan 1, 1996, ISBN 90-04-09249-8 pg.9
  10. ^ M.A. Amir-Moezzi, "Shahrbanu", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK): "... here one might bear in mind that non-Persian dynasties such as the Ghaznavids, Saljuqs and Ilkhanids were rapidly to adopt the Persian language and have their origins traced back to the ancient kings of Persia rather than to Turkish heroes or Muslim saints ..."
  11. ^ F. Daftary, Sectarian and National Movements in Iran, Khorasan, and Trasoxania during Umayyad and Early Abbasid Times, in History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol 4, pt. 1; edited by M.S. Asimov and C.E. Bosworth; UNESCO Publishing, Institute of Ismaili Studies: "... Not only did the inhabitants of Khurasan not succumb to the language of the nomadic invaders, but they imposed their own tongue on them. The region could even assimilate the Turkic Ghaznavids and Seljuks (eleventh and twelfth centuries), the Timurids (fourteenth–fifteenth centuries), and the Qajars (nineteenth–twentieth centuries) ..."

Encyclopædia Iranica is a project in Columbia Universitys Center for Iranian studies, to create an English language encyclopedia about Iran and Persia. ... ... Encyclopædia Iranica is a project in Columbia Universitys Center for Iranian studies, to create an English language encyclopedia about Iran and Persia. ... Clifford Edmund Bosworth (born December 29, 1928, Sheffield, United Kingdom) is a British historian and orientalist, specializing in Arabic studies. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... The Institute of Ismaili Studies, founded by Aga Khan, promotes scholarship and learning on Islam, with an emphasis on Shi‘ism in general and its Ismaili tariqah in particular, and a better understanding of their relationship with other faiths and societies. ...

References

  • Previte-Orton, C. W (1971). The Shorter Cambridge Medieval History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

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