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Encyclopedia > Seli

The Souliotes (Greek: Σουλιώτες) are the inhabitants of Souli (Σούλι) who live in the mountains of Mourgas in Epirus in northwestern Greece. They are also known as Souliots/Suliots and in ancient times were called Selloi (Σελλοί). During the 17th century, they established the Souliot Confederacy and became villagers of the "Τετραχώρι" (Τetrahori -- four villages). They made themselves famous in the 19th century due to their resilience against the Ottoman Empire. Epirus (Greek Ήπειρος, Ípiros) is a geographical and historical region of the Balkan peninsula in south-eastern Europe. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Söğüt (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Ä°stanbul (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanl...


Ptolemy (Geographica, 3, 15) calls Epirus "primordial Hellas" and Aristotle (Meteorologica, I.352a) reports that an ancient cataclysm was most severe "in ancient Hellas, in between Dodona and the Achelous river [...], the land occupied by Selloi (or Helloi) and Graeci who later came to be known as Hellenes." The Souli were addressed by the Greek poet Andreas Kalvos (1792 - 1869) as the modern descendants of the Selloi, in his ode "Eis Souli" or "To the Souli". In support of the poet's belief, a Greek historian named Constantine Pantazis proved that the area that is currently Epirus in northwestern Greece was populated by one of the first ancient Hellenic tribes, the Selloi since 800 BC. The area was called Thesprotia by the Selloi. About 1600 AD, the Souliotes migrated from the plains of Thesprotia up into the mountains of Mourgas, where a confederacy of clans presented a united front against the Ottomans [1]. Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: ; c. ... Aristotle (Ancient Greek: AristotélÄ“s 384 – March 7, 322 BCE) was an ancient Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The Greeks (Hellenes) are an ethnic group found in the southern Balkan peninsula of southeastern Europe and are speakers of the Greek language. ... Andreas Kalvos (Greek: Ανδρέας Κάλβος, 1792-November 3, 1869) was one of the greatest Greek writers. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Epirus (Greek: Ήπειρος, Ípiros), is a periphery in northwestern Greece. ... Ancient Greece is the period of Greek history spanning much of the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins and lasting for close to a millennium, until the rise of Christianity. ... Centuries: 10th century BC - 9th century BC - 8th century BC Decades: 850s BC 840s BC 830s BC 820s BC 810s BC - 800s BC - 790s BC 780s BC 770s BC 760s BC 750s BC Events and Trends 804 BC - Hadad-nirari IV of Assyria conquers Damascus. ... Thesprotia (Greek: Θεσπρωτία) is one of the fifty-one prefectures of Greece. ... 1597 1598 1599 - 1600 - 1601 1602 1603 |- | align=center colspan=2 | Decades: 1570s 1580s 1590s - 1600s - 1610s 1620s 1630s |- | align=center | Centuries: 15th century - 16th century - 17th century |} // Events January January 1 - Scotland adopts January 1st as being New Years Day February February 17 - Giordano Bruno burned at the...


The Ottoman Turks attempted numerous times to conquer the territories of the Souliot Confederacy. In 1731, Hadji Achmet, pasha of Ioannina, received orders from the Sultan to subdue the Souliotes and he lost his army of 8000 men. In 1754, Mustafa Pasha lost his army to the Souliotes too. In the following years, Mustafa Kokka came in with 4000 soldiers and Bekir Pasha with 5000. In the end, both failed to defeat the Souliotes. In 1759, Dost Bey, commander of Dhelvinou, was defeated by the Souliotes and Mahmoud Aga of Margariti, the governor of Arta, suffered the same fate in 1762. In 1772, Suleyman Tsapari attacked the Souliotes with his army of 9000 men and was defeated. In 1775, Kurt Pasha sent a military expedition to Souli that ultimately failed. When Ali became pasha of Ioannina in 1788, he tried for 15 years to destroy the Souliotes. In 1792, his army of 3000 Turk-Albanians (Τουρκαλβανοί, a pejorative term meaning Muslim Albanians) was eliminated. Although he had hostages (such as Fotos Tzavellas who was the son of Lambros Tzavellas), the Souliotes fought very bravely under the command of Georgios Botsaris, Lambros Tzavellas, and Dimos Drakos. Even women under the command of Moscho (Lambros Tzavellas' wife) participated in the battle. Eventually, 2000 Turk-Albanians and 74 Souliotes were killed [2]. Events 10 Downing Street becomes the official residence of the United Kingdoms Prime Minister when Robert Walpole moves in. ... Pasha (or pascha, bashaw; Turkish: paÅŸa) originally from Persian padshah or padeshah meaning king) was a high rank in the Ottoman Empire political system, typically granted to governors and generals. ... Ioannina (Greek: [Ιωάννινα], often Γιάννενα /janena/ or Γιάννινα /janina/; anglicized to Janina or Yanina) is a city in Epirus, north-western Greece, with a population of approximately 100,000 including suburbs. ... 1754 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1759 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Arta may refer to: Djibouti Arta District Arta, Djibouti Greece Arta Prefecture Arta, Greece Italy Piano dArta Ancient People Arta Kamuia or Arta Kamuio This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... 1762 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Catherine IIs soldiers in the Russo-Turkish War, by Alexandre Benois. ... 1775 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Engraving of Ali Pasha Ali Pashë Tepelena, commonly known as Ali Pasha, (1741 – January 24, 1822) was the military ruler (pasha) of a large area of the Ottoman Empires European territories. ... Ioannina (Greek: [Ιωάννινα], often Γιάννενα /janena/ or Γιάννινα /janina/; anglicized to Janina or Yanina) is a city in Epirus, north-western Greece, with a population of approximately 100,000 including suburbs. ... 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Look up pejorative in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish:Müslüman, Persian:مسلمان, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of Islam. ...

A painting by Ary Scheffer (1795 - 1858), "The women, entrapped, turned towards the steep cliff. It was December 16, 1803 when the dance began. As the enemy charged against them, the women one-by-one threw their children from the cliff before jumping after them themselves. The decision: to choose death over enslavement" (1827 - Oil on canvas, Musιe du Louvre, Paris, France).
A painting by Ary Scheffer (1795 - 1858), "The women, entrapped, turned towards the steep cliff. It was December 16, 1803 when the dance began. As the enemy charged against them, the women one-by-one threw their children from the cliff before jumping after them themselves. The decision: to choose death over enslavement" (1827 - Oil on canvas, Musιe du Louvre, Paris, France).

The Souliotes obtained all of their supplies from Parga, and also acquired support from Europe. Russia and France provided weapons and ammunition to them. For the European powers, the Souliotes were seen as an instrument to weaken the Ottoman Empire. When the British politicians turned to the Ottoman Empire in order to strengthen their forces against Napoleon, the weapons and ammunition supplies were interrupted. Without support from outside and wearied by years of siege, the unity of the Souliot clans started to split. The Botsaris family for political reasons left Souli and parleyed with Ali Pasha. However, the remaining Souliotes in Souli gathered together in Saint George's Greek Orthodox Church and decided either to win or die. The remaining Souliotes numbered at no more than 2000 armed men. The main leaders were Fotos Tzavellas, Dimos Drakos, Tousas Zervas, Koutzonikas, Gogkas Daglis, Yiannakis Sehos, Fotomaras, Tzavaras, Veikos, Panou, Zigouris Diamadis, and Yorgos Bousbos. The Souliotes won all of the decisive battles, which forced Ali Pasha to build castles in neighboring villages so as to prepare himself for a long siege. The Souliotes stayed without food and ammunition, but they could have held longer if not for a traitor named Pelios Gouses who helped the Ottomans to enter into the village of Souli. The Souliotes withdrew to the fortresses of Kiafa and Kughi, where they fought their last battle on December 7, 1803. They eventually capitulated and Ali Pasha promised to release them with all of their property and even weapons to the Ionian Islands [3]. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (820x651, 148 KB) Summary The Souliot Women 1827 Oil on canvas Musιe du Louvre, Paris, France-Ary Scheffer (1795-1858) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (820x651, 148 KB) Summary The Souliot Women 1827 Oil on canvas Musιe du Louvre, Paris, France-Ary Scheffer (1795-1858) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Slavery is any of a number of related conditions involving control of a person against his or her will, enforced by violence or other clear forms of coercion. ... There is also a Parga in the Galician Autonomous Region in Spain, see Parga, Galicia, Spain Parga (Greek: Πάργα, Albanian: Parga, Pargë), is a town and a municipality located in the northwestern part of Preveza in northwestern Greece being surrounded entirely by the prefecture of Thesprotia and is the only municipality... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Pentecost is considered in Eastern Orthodoxy to be the birth of the Church. ... December 7 is the 341st day (342nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The Ionian Islands (Modern Greek: Ionia Nisia, Ιόνια Νησιά; Ancient Greek: Ionioi Nesoi, Ιόνιοι Νήσοι) are a group of islands in Greece. ...


On December 12, 1803, the Souliotes left Souli towards the coast of Epirus. A monk named Samuel remained in Kughi and set fire to the powder magazines with a massive explosion that cost him his life. In the meantime, the Turkish army attacked the other Souliotes, neglecting the promises Ali Pasha had made to them. December 12 is the 346th day (347th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 19 days remaining. ...


It was December 16, 1803, and 22 Souliot women were trapped on the cliffs of Zalongo. They turned towards the steep cliff while their dance began. As the enemy charged against them, the women one-by-one threw their children from the cliff of Zalongo before jumping after them. The women ultimately chose death over enslavement. Today, a monument stands on the cliffs of Zalongo as a tribute to the indomitable spirit of the Souliot women, and the popular Dance of Zalongo is danced throughout Greece. A number of Souliotes also reached the harbor of Parga, which was under Russian control at the time. The Souliotes either settled down in Parga or set off for the Ionian Islands. December 16 is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... It was December 16, 1803, and 22 Souliot women were trapped on the cliffs of Zalongo. ...


Many Souliotes entered service with the Russians on Corfu, where they became an important component of the Legion of Light Riflemen. This was a regiment of irregulars organized by the Russians among mainland refugees; it not only included Souliotes, but also Himariotes, Maniots, klephts (Greek bandits) and armatoli (Greek anti-klepht militias created by the Ottomans that actually supported the klephts). The Souliotes participated in campaigns in Naples in 1805, Tenedos in 1806, Dalmatia in 1806, and during the defense of Lefkas in 1807. Pontikonisi Island in the background with the Vlaheraina Monastery in the foreground. ... The Maniots (also known as Maniates) are the inhabitants of the Mani peninsula in southern Peloponnese within the Greek prefecture of Laconia. ... Klephts (Greek κλέφτης, pl. ... An armatolos patrols near the ruins of Corinth during the Greek War of Independence. ... 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


With the Treaty of Tilsit in 1807 and the détente between Russia and France, the Russian forces withdrew from the Ionian Islands and the French occupied them. The Souliotes and other components of Russian units entered service with the French in a unit known as the Souliot Regiment (Régiment Souliot). During the Anglo-French struggle over the Ionian Islands between 1810 and 1814, the Souliotes in French service faced off against other refugees organized by the British into the Greek Light Infantry Regiment. Since the Souliotes were mostly garrisoned on Corfu, which remained under French control until 1814, very few entered British service. The Treaties of Tilsit were two agreements signed by Napoleon I of France in the town of Tilsit in July, 1807. ... 1807 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1814 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...

Enlarge
Souliotes in traditional costume. Oil painting by Eugene Delacroix 1824 - 1825; Louvre Museum, France.

The British disbanded the remnants of the Souliot Regiment in 1815 and subsequently decommissioned their own two Greek Light Regiments. This left many of the Souliotes and other military refugees without livelihoods. In 1817, a group of veterans of Russian service on the Ionian Islands traveled to Russia to see if they could get patents of commission and employment in the Russian army. While unsuccessful in this endeavor, they joined the Philike Etaireia ("Company of Friends"), the secret society founded in Odessa in 1814 for the purpose of liberating Greek lands from Ottoman rule. They returned to the Ionian Islands and elsewhere and began to recruit fellow veterans into the Philike Etaireia, including a number of Souliot leaders. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (725x611, 79 KB) Summary Souliots in traditional costume - Deux ιtudes de costumes souliotes – Artist- Eugene Delacroix Place - 46 cm x 31 cm-Date -approx. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (725x611, 79 KB) Summary Souliots in traditional costume - Deux ιtudes de costumes souliotes – Artist- Eugene Delacroix Place - 46 cm x 31 cm-Date -approx. ... Eugène Delacroix (portrait by Nadar) Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (April 26, 1798 - August 13, 1863) was an important painter from the French romantic period. ... The Battle of New Orleans 1815 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1817 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Filiki Eteria (spelt also Philikí Etaireía), meaning Friendly Society in Greek, was a secret organisation working in the early 19th century, whose purpose was to overthrow the Ottoman rule over Greece and to establish an independent Greek state. ...


When there were clear signs for the beginning of a Greek insurrection against Turkish rule, Ali Pasha saw an opportunity to make Epirus into an independent state. In 1820, he called upon the Souliotes for help, and they returned to the mainland to support their former enemy against the Sultan. However, Ali Pasha's plans failed and he was killed while the Turks occupied Ioannina. The Souliotes eventually gave their support for the Greek Revolution, which started on March 25, 1821. The Souliot leaders Markos Botsaris and Kitsos Tzavellas became famous generals in the Greek War of Independence. Many Souliotes lost their lives while defending the city of Messolongi. Lord Byron, the most prominent European philhellene volunteer and commander-in-chief of the Greek army in Western Greece, tried to integrate the Souliotes into a regular army. Until 1909, the Turks kept a military base on the fortress of Kiafa. Finally in 1913, during the Balkan Wars, the Greek army liberated the southern part of Epirus [4]. 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The coronation banquet for George IV 1821 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants Greek revolutionaries, Great Britain, Russia, France Ottoman Empire, Egyptian troops Commanders Theodoros Kolokotronis, Alexander Ypsilanti Omer Vrionis, Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt. ... Messolonghi, also Messolongi, Mesolongi (Greek, Modern: Μεσολόγγι, Ancient/Katharevousa: -on), older forms Messolongio, Mesolongio, Messolongion, Messolonghion is a town of about 12,000 people (as of 1991 census) in central Greece. ... Lord Byron, English poet Lord Byron (1803), as painted by Elisabeth Vigee-Lebrun George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron, (January 22, 1788 – April 19, 1824) was the most widely read English language poet of his day. ... Philhellenism (the love of Greek culture) was the intellectual fashion at the turn of the 19th century that led Europeans like Lord Byron to lend their support for the Greek movement towards independence from the Ottoman Empire. ... 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... The outcome as of April 1913 Boundaries on the Balkans after the First and the Second Balkan War (1912-1913) Distribution of races in the Balkan Peninsula and Asia Minor in 1923, Historical Atlas by William R. Shepherd, New York (The map does not reflect the results of the 1923...


External links

  • Souli: The Impregnable Fortress
  • Suli - Epirus
  • Suli / Epirus / Greece

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