After the death of Alexander the Great in the afternoon of 11 June 323 BC, his empire was divided by his generals, the Diadochi(successors). One of them was his friend Seleucus, who became king of the eastern provinces - more or less modern Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Lebanon, together with parts of Turkey, Armenia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan. His kingdom had two capitals, which he founded in c.300: Antioch in Syria and Seleucia in Mesopotamia. Babylon was a third important city. The empire was, like the empire of Alexander, actually the continuation of the empires before: the Assyrian, Babylonian, and the Achaemenid Empire. The empire ended in 64 BC when the Romans made Syria a Roman province . Alexander the Great fighting the Persian king Darius (Pompei mosaic, from a 3rd century BC original Greek painting, now lost). ...
Seleucus was the name of several Macedonian kings of the Seleucid dynasty ruling in the area of Syria. ...
The city of Antioch-on-the-Orontes (modern Antakya; Greek Î‘Î½Ï„Î¹ÏŒÏ‡ÎµÎ¹Î±) is located in what is now Turkey. ...
The name Seleucia may denote any one of several cities in the Seleucid Empire. ...
Mesopotamia [mesuputÄmÄ“u] (Greek: ÎœÎµÏƒÎ¿Ï€Î¿Ï„Î±Î¼Î¯Î±, translated from Old Persian Miyanrudan the Land between the Rivers or the Aramaic name Beth-Nahrin House of Two Rivers) is a region of Southwest Asia. ...
Assyrians are a Christian Syriac-speaking minority inhabiting northern Iraq, northeastern Syria, southeastern Turkey and northwestern Iran, some of whom are also identified as Aramaeans, Syriacs and Chaldeans. ...
Babylonia was an ancient state in Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ...
Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon...
Golden Rhyton from Irans Achaemenid period. ...
An Elamite Man in Persepolis The ancient Elamite Empire (تمدن عیلام in Persian) lay to the east of Sumer and Akkad, in what is now southwestern Iran. ...
The Medes were an Iranian people of Indo-Iranian origin who lived in the western and north-western portion of present-day Iran. ...
Achaemenid empire in its greatest extent The Achaemenid Dynasty (Hakamanishiya in the Avestan language, Ù‡Ø®Ø§Ù…Ù†Ø´ÛŒ - transliterated Hakamanshee in Modern Persian) was an iranian dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus the Great, Darius the Great and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled...
Parthian Empire at its greatest extent, c60 BC. The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Parthia was the arch-enemy of the Roman Empire in the East and...
Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia (Iran) during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad...
Tomb of Ghaboos ebne Voshmgir, built in 1007AD, rises 160 ft from its base. ...
The Samanid dynasty (819-999) was a Persian dynasty in Central Asia, named after its founder Saman Khuda. ...
The Buwayhids were a Shiite Muslim tribal confederation from the southern shore of the Caspian Sea. ...
The Ghaznavid Empire was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 963 to 1187. ...
The Seljuk Turks (Turkish: SelÃ§uk; Arabic: Ø³Ù„Ø¬ÙˆÙ‚ SaljÅ«q, Ø§Ù„Ø³Ù„Ø§Ø¬Ù‚Ø© al-SalÄjiqa; Persian: Ø³Ù„Ø¬ÙˆÙ‚ÙŠØ§Ù† SaljÅ«qiyÄn; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that occupied parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th centuries. ...
The Khwarezmid Empire (also known as the Khwarezmian Empire) was a Muslim state formed by Oghuz Turks in the 11th century in Khwarezmia that lasted until the Mongol invasion in 1220. ...
The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ...
The Muzaffarids were a Sunni Arab family that came to power in Iran following the breakup of the Ilkhanate in the 14th century. ...
Timurids Map The Timurids were a Turkic-Mongol dynasty of Iran established by the Mongol Timur (Tamerlane). ...
The Safavid Empire at its 1512 borders. ...
Tomb of Nader Shah Afshar, a popular tourist attraction in Mashad. ...
Vakeel mosque, Shiraz. ...
Mullahs in the court of a Safavid monarch, Iran. ...
The Pahlavi dynasty was the ruling dynasty of Iran from 1925 to 1979, from which two Shahs were drawn. ...
Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ...
## The Empire
The death of Alexander the Great (323 BC) saw the Macedonian army in a great confusion. The centralised Persian Empire was easy to govern once it was conquered, and the Macedonian military hegemony was by and large unthreatened, but the king had died without appointing a successor. Even a powerful heir would have found it hard to maintain Alexander's unifying authority, but as things were the kingship was divided between his feeble half-brother Philip III and his posthumous son Alexander IV. None of them were more than puppets in the hands of the Macedonian generals, the Diadochs, who soon sliced up the empire between them. File links The following pages link to this file: Seleucid dynasty Categories: GFDL images ...
File links The following pages link to this file: Seleucid dynasty Categories: GFDL images ...
Seleucus I (surnamed for later generations Nicator, in Greek:Σέλευκος Νικάτωρ) (c. ...
The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ...
Their wars started soon after Ptolemy I seceded from the empire in the province of Egypt, but the complicated details of the fighting could not be accounted for here. Suffice to say that Persia proper was divided between various Macedonian satraps, who tried as best as they could to gain local support but relied mostly on their Greek mercenaries. In the outskirts of the empire, Persian satraps managed to claim independence during the wars; small kingdoms were established in Cappadocia and in the so-called Media Atropatene (today's Azerbaijan). For the unrelated astronomer, see Ptolemy Ptolemy I Soter (367 BC–283 BC), ruler of Egypt (reigned 323 BC - 283 BC) and founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty. ...
Cappadocia in 188 BC In ancient geography, Cappadocia was an extensive inland district of Asia Minor (modern Turkey). ...
The satrap of Babylonia, the focal point between east and west, was called Seleucus and was a formidable administrator who soon formed a solid network of local supporters. After several wars with the leading Diadoch Antigonos the One-eyed, Seleucus crowned himself king in Babylonia in the year 306 BC. A few years after, all the satrapies to the east of Babylonia had yielded to him. In 301 BC, Antigonos was defeated by a coalition of other generals, and Seleucus became master of Syria as well, and in 281 BC he took Asia Minor and the wars of the Diadochs ended. At the age of eighty Seleukos was murdered by a fugitive Egyptian prince, but the throne passed on to Antiochus I (281-261 BC), his son by Persian noblewoman Apamea, and after that to his son Antiochus II (261-246 BC), who ruled as Great Kings from Samarkhand to the Aegean Sea.
## System of Governing The Seleucids built hundreds of cities and maintained or reformed the infrastructure of the Persian kings. The cities were based on the Greek polis-model with gymnasiums, amphitheatres and squares. Members of the indigenous upper classes often became hellenised, but the demotic languages were used in administration as well. The Greek influence was strictly limited to the cities and did not affect the countryside at all. File links The following pages link to this file: Seleucid dynasty Categories: GFDL images ...
File links The following pages link to this file: Seleucid dynasty Categories: GFDL images ...
Silver coin of Antiochus I Antiochus I Soter ( 324/323_262/261 BC reigned 281 BC - 261 BC) was half Persian, his mother Apame being one of those eastern princesses whom Alexander had given as wives to his generals in 324 BC. On the assassination of his father Seleucus I in...
Though the army was based on Greek soldiers, a wide array of troops from Persia and Babylonia were incorporated, among them the cataphracts, the heavy cavalry of the Achaemenids. There were several nationalistic outbursts in Persis, but they were all suppressed, and the Seleucids strived for acceptance by acting as protectors for Persian and Babylonian cults. Ethnically the dynasty became partly Persian by marriages into the Persian kings of Cappadocia, who claimed ancestry from one of the seven followers of Darius I the Great. Sarmatian Cataphract The cataphract (Greek ÎºÎ±Ï„Î¬Ï†ÏÎ±ÎºÏ„Î¿Ï‚) was a type of heavy cavalryman used primarily in eastern and southeastern Europe, in Anatolia and Iran from late antiquity up through the High Middle Ages. ...
Cappadocia in 188 BC In ancient geography, Cappadocia was an extensive inland district of Asia Minor (modern Turkey). ...
Seal of Darius I, showing the king hunting on his chariot, and the symbol of Ahuramazda Darius the Great (Pers. ...
Greek settlements in the empire were largely centered in Syria, the capital Antiochia being the most important, and to some extent Babylonia where the city Seleucia on Tigris succeeded Babylon as eastern city of residence. Paradoxically, many Greeks also lived in the outmost province of Bactria (Afghanistan/eastern Iran) many of them ethnic Greeks as opposed to ethnic Macedonians. Alexander had left his Greek infantry there, since he did not trust them, but historians also suggest that the Achaemenids used to deport rebellious Greek subjects there. This is about one of the cities called Antioch in Asia Minor, now Turkey. ...
Unlike Alexandria in Egypt, the Seleucid Empire was no center of Hellenistic culture and science, but some of the Stoic philosophers came from Syria, and the world-leading physician Erasistratos lived at the court of Seleucus I. The Babylonian chronicles are the main source to the ancient Middle East history and was written by native Babylonian Berossos. The empire was the center of several important trade routes which gave the kings large revenues. Seleucid coins were a well renowned currency along the Silk route. Friendly relations were kept with the Mauryan kings of northern India, to whom Seleucus I had ceded eastern Pakistan in exchange for war elephants to use against his opponents in the west.
## The first crisis and brief restoration The mid-3rd century BC saw great turmoil in the Seleucid state after one of its many wars with Ptolemaic Egypt had gone terribly wrong. King Seleucus II, a son of Antiochus II, faced a civil war and during his reign the easternmost provinces broke free: This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ...
Approximate extent of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom circa 220 BCE. The Greco-Bactrians were a dynasty of Greek kings who controlled Bactria and Sogdiana, an area comprising todays northern Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia, the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world, from 250 to 125 BCE. Their expansion...
The founder of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom, Diodotus ca. ...
Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC - 250s BC - 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC Years: 255 BC 254 BC 253 BC 252 BC 251 BC - 250 BC - 249 BC 248 BC...
- At the extreme east of Seleucid territory, in Bactria, the military governor Diodotus wrestled independence for his territory around 250 BC, where he founded the Greco-Bactrian kingdom.
- In the province of Parthia nomads led by the Arsacid dynasty (from 247 BC) formed a small but warlike state on the verges of northern Iran.
By and large though, most of Iran seems to have remained in the Seleucid fold even if the empire was continuously shaken by wars in all directions. Sadly the sources on the Seleucid empire focus on its western parts since most of the authors lived west of Syria. In the last years of the 3rd century BC the king Antiochus III, who was the last to claim the Persian title of Great King and therefore is called "the Great", brought the Seleucid army to the borders of India in a legendary campaign called the anabasis, during which the Parthian were defeated and Seleucid hegemony restored throughout the eastern dominions. He then defeated Egypt soundly and then invaded Greece to reclaim almost the entire part of Alexander's empire. Bactria (Bactriana) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush (Caucasus Indicus) and the Amu Darya (Oxus), with the capital Bactra (now Balkh) in Afghanistan. ...
The founder of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom, Diodotus ca. ...
Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC - 250s BC - 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC Years: 255 BC 254 BC 253 BC 252 BC 251 BC - 250 BC - 249 BC 248 BC...
Approximate extent of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom circa 220 BCE. The Greco-Bactrians were a dynasty of Greek kings who controlled Bactria and Sogdiana, an area comprising todays northern Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia, the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world, from 250 to 125 BCE. Their expansion...
Parthian Empire at its greatest extent, c60 BC. The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Parthia was the arch-enemy of the Roman Empire in the East and...
The Arsacid Dynasty ruled Persia. ...
## Defeat and civil wars This over ambitious scheme did however bring him to a war with the rising Romans, and after the disastrous battle of Magnesia in 190 BC, the Seleucid main army was annihilated and the empire had to accept a paralysing war indemnity, give up Asia Minor and send hostages to Rome. The Battle of Magnesia was fought in 190 BC near Magnesia ad Sipylum, between the Romans and their ally Eumenes of Pergamum against the army of Antiochus III the Great of Syria resulting in a Roman victory. ...
Antiochus the Great now plundered temple treasures, but this policy got him killed in Luristan in western Persia (Iran) and seriously damaged loyalty to the dynasty. The weak empire could do little to prevent central Iran to break loose, led by the Parthians who expanded in all directions. In Bactria, the kings were Greek and long independent. These kings now invaded Pakistan and northern India to form a legendary but almost forgotten empire, the farthest outreach of Hellenistic culture. This article needs cleanup. ...
Antiochus IV Epiphanes (175-164 BC), notorious in history for his conflict with the Jews (the Maccabean insurrection) carried out an initially successful campaign in Persia but died along the way. After his death, the Seleucids collapsed into devastating civil wars which were encouraged by the Romans and the Ptolemies. There are several monarchs known by the title of Antiochus IV: Antiochus IV of Syria, who ruled during the time of Caligula; Antiochus Epiphanes, the Seleucid oppressor of the Jews who provoked the revolt of the Maccabees. ...
## The Parthian conquest of Persia
Bagadates coin, c. BC 222 Persis, the heartland of the Persian kings, had begun its route back to independence in the late 3rd century when the first indigenous Seleucid satraps were appointed. The earliest is supposed to be Bagadates, whose coin is shown here. The reverse depicts a king standing before a Zoroastrian sacred edifice or a fire-altar. With the weakening of the Seleucid Empire, the satraps became kings, some of which used names like Darius and Artaxerxes as tokens of their nationalistic spirit. Several other small kingdoms emerged as mushrooms in the temporary power vacuum. File links The following pages link to this file: Seleucid dynasty Categories: GFDL images ...
File links The following pages link to this file: Seleucid dynasty Categories: GFDL images ...
External links Official website of Fars Governorship Categories: Iran geography stubs | Provinces of Iran ...
Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ...
Artaxerxes was the name of several rulers of the Achaemenid dynasty of Persia: Artaxerxes I Artaxerxes II Artaxerxes III Arses of Persia is believed to have taken the royal title of Artaxerxes IV. Bessus, the Persian nobleman who murdered Darius III of Persia, renamed himself Artaxerxes when he claimed the...
It was however Parthia under its king Mithradates I that now rose as the main power in Persia, after having defeated the Medians and the Greco-Bactrians in the middle of the 2nd century BC. The latter disappeared soon afterwards, crushed by civil wars and the pressure of nomadic tribes, although they continued for about one more century in India, where they are known as Indo-Greeks. The other kingdoms of Iran were now turned into Parthian vassals. Coin of the 6th Arsacid, Mitradates I Mithridates I or Mithradates (c. ...
In probability theory and statistics, the median is a number that separates the highest half of a sample, a population, or a probability distribution from the lowest half. ...
Approximate extent of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom circa 220 BCE. The Greco-Bactrians were a dynasty of Greek kings who controlled Bactria and Sogdiana, an area comprising todays northern Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia, the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world, from 250 to 125 BCE. Their expansion...
Maximum extent of Indo-Greek territory circa 175 BCE. The Indo-Greeks (or sometimes Greco-Indians) designate a series of Greek kings, who invaded and controlled parts of northwest and northern India from 180 BCE to around 10 BCE. They are the continuation of the Greco-Bactrian dynasty of Greek...
## Decline Image:Antiochus3 the great.jpg In 140 BC, the Seleucid king Demetrius II deciced that enough was enough and summoned whatever resources he had to check the Parthian advance. He was initially victorious and several vassals seceded from Mithradates I. The Parthians were however well-known for their defensive strength in their own country, and soon managed to ambush the Seleucid army and take Demetrious II captive. Babylonia now became a Parthian province. Silver coin of Antiochus III. The reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ...
Demetrius II is either: Demetrius II of Macedon Demetrius II of Syria This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...
Coin of the 6th Arsacid, Mitradates I Mithridates I or Mithradates (c. ...
The last round of the war came after the able Antiochus VII, the brother of Demetrius II, finally managed to win the civil wars in the remaining Seleucid dominions. He summoned a huge army of mercenaries and attacked the Parthians with great vigor. After three victories he had liberated Babylonia and western Iran and was already compared with Antiochus the Great. Antiochus VII Eumenes, nick-named Sidetes (from Sidon), reigned from 138â€“129 BC over the Seleucid Empire. ...
The inhabitants had been happy to shake off the severe Parthian rule, but when the giant Seleucid army was divided put into winter quarters this turned out to be just as bad for the hosting cities. Parthian spies were able to stir up rebellions against the Seleucids, and when Antiochus VII tried to assemble his troops he was routed and killed by the Parthian king Phraates II in a battle outside Hamadan. The rest of the leaderless army was shattered or put into the Parthian ranks. This was the definite end of the Hellenistic period in Iran. Ecbatana (HaÃ±gmatana in Old Persian, Agbatana in Aeschylus, written Agamtanu by Nabonidos, and Agamatanu at Behistun) was the capital of Astyages (IstuvegÃ¼), which was taken by Cyrus the Great in the sixth year of Nabonidos (549 BC). ...
The last remaining Seleucid kings only controlled ever-decreasing parts of Syria. Their last half-century was plagued by unending civil wars, until the Romans made Syria a Roman province in 64 BC. The Greek influence in the east survived its rulers for a while, even though few of the Hellenistic cities were found east of Babylonia. The Parthian rulers continued throughout their reign to strike coins in Greek, and several of them gave themselves the epithet Philhellenos (friend of the Greeks). This was probably to ensure support from the Greek societies, which were still important (and heavily fortified) centers of commerce. But eventually Greek impact faded. The Roman campaigns in Parthia in the 2nd century AD seems to have swept away the last of the Greek colonists. It is as mentioned odd to note that Bactria, the hinterland on the eastern Iranian plateau, despite its distance to Greece boasted a numerous and prospering Greek colony. The Greeks here also seemed to have been better integrated and even managed to expand beyond the former Achaemenid frontiers beyond Punjab and Kashmir, as well as becoming masters of today's Pakistan in the early 2nd century BC. Even though the empire soon collapsed, the Greeks left a pronounced cultural heritage, the so-called Gandhara culture. Buddhas First Sermon at Sarnath, Kushan Period, ca. ...
The dream of reuniting Alexander's empire was long alive among the Hellenistic kings, and the references to him were legion in Hellenistic kingship. At the donations of Alexandria in 34 BC, queen Cleopatra and the Roman general Marcus Antonius even went so far as to crown their son Alexander Helios (the Sun) to Great King of Parthia and Media. This was however but an arrogant empty gesture, since these countries were by that time far beyond the grasp of Greeks as well as Romans.
*This article incorporates text from "Seleucid Empire, 306 - c.150 BC" by Jens Jakobsson, from Iranchamber.com*
## Seleucid rulers Silver coin of Seleucus. ...
Satrap (Greek ÏƒÎ±Ï„ÏÎ¬Ï€Î·Ï‚ satrÃ¡pÄ“s, Latinization Satrapes, from Old Persian xÅ¡aÎ¸rapÄ(van), i. ...
Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 316 BC 315 BC 314 BC 313 BC 312 BC 311 BC 310 BC 309 BC 308...
Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 310 BC 309 BC 308 BC 307 BC 306 BC 305 BC 304 BC 303 BC 302...
Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 310 BC 309 BC 308 BC 307 BC 306 BC 305 BC 304 BC 303 BC 302...
Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC - 280s BC - 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 286 BC 285 BC 284 BC 283 BC 282 BC 281 BC 280 BC 279 BC 278...
Silver coin of Antiochus I. The reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ...
Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 296 BC 295 BC 294 BC 293 BC 292 BC 291 BC 290 BC 289 BC 288...
Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC - 280s BC - 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 286 BC 285 BC 284 BC 283 BC 282 BC 281 BC 280 BC 279 BC 278...
Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC - 260s BC - 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC Years: 266 BC 265 BC 264 BC 263 BC 262 BC - 261 BC - 260 BC 259 BC...
Coin of Antiochus II Theos (261-246 BC) Antiochus II Theos (286 - 246 BC reigned 261 - 246 BC) succeeded his father Antiochus I Soter as head of the Seleucid dynasty on 261 BC. He was the son of Antiochus I and princess Stratonice, the daughter of Demetrius Poliorcetes He inherited...
Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC - 260s BC - 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC Years: 266 BC 265 BC 264 BC 263 BC 262 BC - 261 BC - 260 BC 259 BC...
Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC - 240s BC - 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC Years: 251 BC 250 BC 249 BC 248 BC 247 BC - 246 BC - 245 BC 244 BC...
Coin of Seleucus II. Reverse shows Apollo leaning on a tripod. ...
Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC - 240s BC - 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC Years: 251 BC 250 BC 249 BC 248 BC 247 BC - 246 BC - 245 BC 244 BC...
Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC - 220s BC - 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 230 BC 229 BC 228 BC 227 BC 226 BC - 225 BC - 224 BC 223 BC...
Coin of Seleucus III (243-223 BC) Seleucus III Ceraunus or Soter (c. ...
Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC - 220s BC - 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 230 BC 229 BC 228 BC 227 BC 226 BC - 225 BC - 224 BC 223 BC...
Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC - 220s BC - 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 228 BC 227 BC 226 BC 225 BC 224 BC - 223 BC - 222 BC 221 BC...
Silver coin of Antiochus III. The reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ...
Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC - 220s BC - 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 228 BC 227 BC 226 BC 225 BC 224 BC - 223 BC - 222 BC 221 BC...
Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC - 180s BC - 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC Years: 192 BC 191 BC 190 BC 189 BC 188 BC - 187 BC - 186 BC 185 BC...
Seleucus IV Philopator reigned from 187 BC to 176 BC over the Seleucid kingdom consisting of Syria (now including Cilicia and Palestine), Mesopotamia, Babylonia and Nearer Iran (Media and Persia). ...
Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC - 180s BC - 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC Years: 192 BC 191 BC 190 BC 189 BC 188 BC - 187 BC - 186 BC 185 BC...
Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC - 170s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 180 BC 179 BC 178 BC 177 BC 176 BC - 175 BC - 174 BC 173 BC 172...
Coin of Antiochus IV. Reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ...
Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC - 170s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 180 BC 179 BC 178 BC 177 BC 176 BC - 175 BC - 174 BC 173 BC 172...
Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC - 160s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 169 BC 168 BC 167 BC 166 BC 165 BC - 164 BC - 163 BC 162 BC 161...
Antiochus V Eupator (reigned 164-162 BC), was only nine when he succeeded as head of the Seleucid dynasty. ...
Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC - 160s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 169 BC 168 BC 167 BC 166 BC 165 BC - 164 BC - 163 BC 162 BC 161...
Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC - 160s BC - 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 167 BC 166 BC 165 BC 164 BC 163 BC - 162 BC - 161 BC 160 BC...
Demetrius I (d. ...
Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC - 160s BC - 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 166 BC 165 BC 164 BC 163 BC 162 BC - 161 BC 160 BC 159 BC...
Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC - 150s BC - 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC Years: 155 BC 154 BC 153 BC 152 BC 151 BC - 150 BC - 149 BC 148 BC...
Silver coin of Alexander I Balas Alexander Balas (i. ...
Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC - 150s BC - 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC Years: 159 BC 158 BC 157 BC 156 BC 155 BC - 154 BC - 153 BC 152 BC...
Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC - 140s BC - 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC Years: 150 BC 149 BC 148 BC 147 BC 146 BC - 145 BC - 144 BC 143 BC...
Coin of Demetrius II Demetrius II (d. ...
Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC - 140s BC - 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC Years: 150 BC 149 BC 148 BC 147 BC 146 BC - 145 BC - 144 BC 143 BC...
Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC - 130s BC - 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC Years: 143 BC 142 BC 141 BC 140 BC 139 BC - 138 BC - 137 BC 136 BC...
Coin of Antiochus VI Antiochus VI Dionysus (c. ...
Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC - 140s BC - 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC Years: 150 BC 149 BC 148 BC 147 BC 146 BC - 145 BC - 144 BC 143 BC...
Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC - 140s BC - 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC Years: 145 BC 144 BC 143 BC 142 BC 141 BC - 140 BC - 139 BC 138 BC...
Categories: Stub | Seleucid rulers ...
Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC - 140s BC - 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC Years: 145 BC 144 BC 143 BC 142 BC 141 BC - 140 BC - 139 BC 138 BC...
Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC - 130s BC - 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC Years: 143 BC 142 BC 141 BC 140 BC 139 BC - 138 BC - 137 BC 136 BC...
Antiochus VII Eumenes, nick-named Sidetes (from Sidon), reigned from 138–129 BC over the Seleucid Empire. ...
Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC - 130s BC - 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC Years: 143 BC 142 BC 141 BC 140 BC 139 BC - 138 BC - 137 BC 136 BC...
Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 134 BC 133 BC 132 BC 131 BC 130 BC - 129 BC - 128 BC 127 BC...
Coin of Demetrius II Demetrius II (d. ...
Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 134 BC 133 BC 132 BC 131 BC 130 BC - 129 BC - 128 BC 127 BC...
Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 131 BC 130 BC 129 BC 128 BC 127 BC - 126 BC - 125 BC 124 BC...
Alexander II Zabinas was a counter-king who emerged in the chaos following the Seleucidian loss of Mesopotamia to the Parthians. ...
Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 134 BC 133 BC 132 BC 131 BC 130 BC - 129 BC - 128 BC 127 BC...
Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 128 BC 127 BC 126 BC 125 BC 124 BC - 123 BC - 122 BC 121 BC...
Coin of Cleopatra Thea. ...
Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 131 BC 130 BC 129 BC 128 BC 127 BC - 126 BC - 125 BC 124 BC...
Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 128 BC 127 BC 126 BC 125 BC 124 BC - 123 BC - 122 BC 121 BC...
The Seleucid king Seleucus V Philometor (126 - 125 BC) was the eldest son of Demetrius II Nicator and Cleopatra Thea. ...
Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 131 BC 130 BC 129 BC 128 BC 127 BC - 126 BC - 125 BC 124 BC...
Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 130 BC 129 BC 128 BC 127 BC 126 BC - 125 BC - 124 BC 123 BC...
Coin of Antiochus VIII Antiochus VIII Epiphanes/Callinicus/Philometor, nicknamed Grypus (hook-nose) was son of Demetrius II Nicator and was crowned as a boy in 125 BC after his mother Cleopatra Thea had killed his elder brother Seleucus V Philometor, ruling jointly with her. ...
Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 130 BC 129 BC 128 BC 127 BC 126 BC - 125 BC - 124 BC 123 BC...
Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC - 90s BC - 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC Years: 101 BC 100 BC 99 BC 98 BC 97 BC - 96 BC - 95 BC 94 BC 93...
Coin of Antiochus IX Antiochus IX Eusebes was the son of Antiochus VII Sidetes and Cleopatra Thea. ...
Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC - 110s BC - 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC Years: 119 BC 118 BC 117 BC 116 BC 115 BC - 114 BC - 113 BC 112 BC...
Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC - 90s BC - 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC Years: 101 BC 100 BC 99 BC 98 BC 97 BC - 96 BC - 95 BC 94 BC 93...
Seleucus VI Epiphanes was the oldest son of Antiochus VIII Grypus. ...
Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC - 90s BC - 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC Years: 101 BC 100 BC 99 BC 98 BC 97 BC - 96 BC - 95 BC 94 BC 93...
Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC - 90s BC - 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC Years: 100 BC 99 BC 98 BC 97 BC 96 BC - 95 BC - 94 BC 93 BC 92...
Antiochus X Eusebes Philopator was another contestant in the tangled-up family feuds among the last Seleucids. ...
Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC - 90s BC - 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC Years: 100 BC 99 BC 98 BC 97 BC 96 BC - 95 BC - 94 BC 93 BC 92...
Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC - 90s BC - 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC Years: 97 BC 96 BC 95 BC 94 BC 93 BC - 92 BC - 91 BC 90 BC 89...
Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC Years: 88 BC 87 BC 86 BC 85 BC 84 BC - 83 BC - 82 BC 81 BC 80...
Demetrius III (d. ...
Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC - 90s BC - 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC Years: 100 BC 99 BC 98 BC 97 BC 96 BC - 95 BC - 94 BC 93 BC 92...
Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC Years: 92 BC 91 BC 90 BC 89 BC 88 BC - 87 BC - 86 BC 85 BC 84...
Antiochus XI Epiphanes or Philadelphus, son of Antiochus VIII Grypus and brother of Seleucus VI Epiphanes was a minor participant in the civil wars which clouded the last years of the once glorious Seleucids, now reduced to local dynasts in Syria. ...
Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC - 90s BC - 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC Years: 100 BC 99 BC 98 BC 97 BC 96 BC - 95 BC - 94 BC 93 BC 92...
Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC - 90s BC - 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC Years: 97 BC 96 BC 95 BC 94 BC 93 BC - 92 BC - 91 BC 90 BC 89...
Philip I Philadelphus was the 3rd son of Antiochus VIII Grypus and took the diadem in the 95 BC together with his twin brother Antiochus XI Ephiphanes, after the eldest son Seleucus VI Epiphanes was killed by their cousin Antiochus X Eusebes. ...
Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC - 90s BC - 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC Years: 100 BC 99 BC 98 BC 97 BC 96 BC - 95 BC - 94 BC 93 BC 92...
Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC Years: 89 BC 88 BC 87 BC 86 BC 85 BC - 84 BC - 83 BC 82 BC 81...
Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC Years: 88 BC 87 BC 86 BC 85 BC 84 BC - 83 BC - 82 BC 81 BC 80...
Antiochus XII Dionysus (87-84 BC) was the fifth son of Antiochus VIII Grypus to take up the diadem, and succeeded his brother Demetrius III Eucaerus as separatist ruler of the southern parts of the last remaining Seleucidian realms, basically Damascus and its surroundings. ...
Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC Years: 92 BC 91 BC 90 BC 89 BC 88 BC - 87 BC - 86 BC 85 BC 84...
Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC Years: 89 BC 88 BC 87 BC 86 BC 85 BC - 84 BC - 83 BC 82 BC 81...
This article is about a king of Armenia in the first century B.C. For other historical figures with the same name (including other kings of Armenia) see Tigranes Coin of Tigranes II Tigranes the Great (ruled 95-56 BC) (also called Tigranes II and sometimes Tigranes I) was a...
Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC Years: 88 BC 87 BC 86 BC 85 BC 84 BC - 83 BC - 82 BC 81 BC 80...
Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 74 BC 73 BC 72 BC 71 BC 70 BC 69 BC 68 BC 67 BC 66...
Antiochus XIII was son of Syrian king Antiochus X Eusebes and Egyptian princess Kleopatra Selene, who acted as regent for the boy after his fathers death sometime between 92 and 85 BC. In 75 BC, after Tigranes had conquered Syria, she travelled to Rome to have her sons recognized...
Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 74 BC 73 BC 72 BC 71 BC 70 BC 69 BC 68 BC 67 BC 66...
Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 69 BC 68 BC 67 BC 66 BC 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62 BC 61...
Philip II Philoromaeus (Rome-lover) or Barypos (heavy-foot) was son of the Seleucid king Philip I Philadelphus. ...
Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 70 BC 69 BC 68 BC 67 BC 66 BC 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62...
Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 68 BC 67 BC 66 BC 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62 BC 61 BC 60...
The last members of the once mighty Seleucid dynasty are shadowy figures; local dynasts with complicated family ties whose identities are hard to ascertain: many of them also bore the same names. ...
Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC - 110s BC - 100s BC - 90s BC _ 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC _ 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC - 10s BC Years: 79 BC 78 BC 77 BC 76 BC 75 BC 74 BC 73...
Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC - 100s BC - 90s BC - 80s BC _ 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC _ 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC - 10s BC Years: 69 BC 68 BC 67 BC 66 BC 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62...
## See also |