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Encyclopedia > Seleucid Empire
Seleucid Empire

Territories of the Seleucid Empire (in yellow).
First king Seleucus I Nicator (305-281 BC)
Last king Philip II Philoromaeus (65-63 BC)
Languages Greek
Aramaic
Religions Ancient Greek religion
Zoroastrianism
Capitals Seleucia on the Tigris (305-240 BC), Antioch (240-64 BC)
Succeeding states Parthia, Greco-Bactrian Kingdom, Roman Empire
Area Middle East, Central Asia, northwestern India
Existed 323 BC–60 BC

The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Great's dominion. At its greatest extent, the Empire comprised central Anatolia, Syria, Palestina, Mesopotamia, Persia, Turkmenistan, Pamir and Indus valley. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2000x961, 2700 KB) La bildo estas kopiita de wikipedia:de. ... Silver coin of Seleucus. ... Philip II Philoromaeus (Rome-lover) or Barypos (heavy-foot) was son of the Seleucid king Philip I Philadelphus. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs and rituals practiced in Ancient Greece in form of cult practices, thus the practical counterpart of Greek mythology. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... In politics, a capital (also called capital city or political capital — although the latter phrase has a second meaning based on an alternative sense of capital) is the principal city or town associated with a countrys government. ... The name Seleucia may denote any one of several cities in the Seleucid Empire. ... Antioch on the Orontes (Greek: Αντιόχεια η επί Δάφνη, Αντιόχεια η επί Ορόντου or Αντιόχεια η Μεγάλη; Latin: Antiochia ad Orontem, also Antiochia dei Siri), the Great Antioch or Syrian Antioch was an ancient city located on the eastern side (left bank) of the Orontes River about 30 km from the sea and its port, Seleucia Pieria. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Approximate extent of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom circa 220 BCE. The Greco-Bactrians were a dynasty of Greek kings who controlled Bactria and Sogdiana, an area comprising todays northern Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia, the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world, from 250 to 125 BCE. Their expansion... The Roman Empire is the name given to both the domain obtained by the city-state of Rome and also the corresponding phase of that civilization, characterized by an autocratic form of government. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... This page attempts to list the many extinct states, countries, nations, lands or territories that have ceased to exist as political entities, grouped geographically and by constitutional nature. ... The term Hellenistic (derived from Héllēn, the Greeks traditional self-described ethnic name) was established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to refer to the spreading of Greek culture over the non-Greek peoples that were conquered by Alexander the Great. ... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The historic Philistines (see note Philistines below) were a people that inhabited the southern coast of Canaan around the time of the arrival of the Israelites, their territory being named Philistia in later contexts. ... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... A photograph of Ismail Samani Peak (then known as Peak Communism) taken in 1989. ... The position of the Sindhu River in Iron Age (Vedic) India. ...


There were over 30 kings of the Seleucid dynasty from 323 to 60 BC. On his way from Ecbatana to Babylon, Alexander the Great fights and crushes the Cossaeans. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62 BC 61 BC 60 BC 59 BC 58 BC 57...

Contents

The partition of Alexander's empire (323-281 BC)

Alexander the Great had conquered the Persian Empire within a short time-frame and died young, leaving an expansive empire of partly Hellenized culture without an adult heir. The empire was put under the authority of a regent in the person of Perdiccas in 323 BC, and the territories were divided between Alexander's generals, who thereby became satraps, at the Partition of Babylon in 323 BC. Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau (Irān - Land of the Aryans[1]) and beyond. ... Perdiccas (d. ... On his way from Ecbatana to Babylon, Alexander the Great fights and crushes the Cossaeans. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Partition of Babylon designates the attribution of the territories by Alexander the Great between his generals, soon after his death in 323 BCE. The partition was a result of a compromise, essentially brokered by Eumenes, following a conflict of opinion between the party of Meleager, who wished to give...


The rise of Seleucus

Alexander's generals (the Diadochi) jostled for supremacy over parts of his empire, and Ptolemy, one of his generals and satrap of Egypt, was the first to challenge the new rule, leading to the demise of Perdiccas. His revolt led to a new partition of the empire with the Partition of Triparadisus in 320 BC. Seleucus, who had been "Commander-in-Chief of the camp" under Perdiccas since 323 BC but helped to assassinate the latter, received Babylonia, and from that point continued to expand his dominions ruthlessly. Seleucus established himself in Babylon in 312 BC, used as the foundation date of the Seleucid Empire. He ruled over not only Babylonia, but the entire enormous eastern part of Alexander's empire: In general Diadochi (in Greek Διάδοχοι, transcripted Diadochoi) means successors, such that the neoplatonic refounders of Platos Academy in Late Antiquity referred to themselves as diadochi (of Plato). ... Silver coin depicting Ptolemy I (r. ... The Partition of Triparadasus was a power-sharing agreement passed at Triparadisus in 320 BCE between the generals (diadochi) of Alexander the Great, in which they named a new regent and established the repartition of their satrapies. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC - 320s BC - 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 325 BC 324 BC 323 BC 322 BC 321 BC - 320 BC - 319 BC 318 BC 317... Silver coin of Seleucus. ... On his way from Ecbatana to Babylon, Alexander the Great fights and crushes the Cossaeans. ... Babylonia, named for its capital city, Babylon, an ancient state in the south part of Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Babylon was an ancient city in Mesopotamia (modern Al Hillah, Iraq), the ruins of which can be found in present-day Babil Province, about 50 miles (80 km) south of Baghdad. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC Years: 317 BC 316 BC 315 BC 314 BC 313 BC _ 312 BC _ 311 BC...

"Always lying in wait for the neighboring nations, strong in arms and persuasive in council, he [Seleucus] acquired Mesopotamia, Armenia, 'Seleucid' Cappadocia, Persis, Parthia, Bactria, Arabia, Tapouria, Sogdia, Arachosia, Hyrcania, and other adjacent peoples that had been subdued by Alexander, as far as the river Indus, so that the boundaries of his empire were the most extensive in Asia after that of Alexander. The whole region from Phrygia to the Indus was subject to Seleucus."[1]

Appian, The Syrian Wars Appian (c. ...

Seleucus went as far as India, where he reached an agreement with Chandragupta Maurya, in which he exchanged his eastern territories for a considerable force of 500 war elephants, which were to play a decisive role at Ipsus: Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Bindusara Maurya Reign: 322 BC-298 BC Place of birth: India Chandragupta Maurya (Sanskrit: चन्द्रगुप्त मौर्य; Greek: Sandrakottos) (born c. ... The battle of Ipsus was fought between some of the successors of Alexander the Great in 301 BC near the village of that name in Phrygia. ...

"The Indians occupy [in part] some of the countries situated along the Indus, which formerly belonged to the Persians: Alexander deprived the Ariani of them, and established there settlements of his own. But Seleucus Nicator gave them to Sandrocottus in consequence of a marriage contract, and received in return five hundred elephants."[2] Seleucus I (surnamed for later generations Nicator, in Greek:Σέλευκος Νικάτωρ) (c. ... This article deals with the fourth century BC founder of the Maurya dynasty. ...

Strabo, Geographica The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... The Geographika is an extensive work by Strabo, spanning 17 volumes, and can be regarded as an encyclopedia of the geographical knowledge of his time; except for parts of Book 7, it has come down to us complete. ...

Battle of Ipsus (301 BC)

Silver coin of Seleucus I Nicator, founder of the Seleucid Dynasty in 323 BC
Silver coin of Seleucus I Nicator, founder of the Seleucid Dynasty in 323 BC

Following his and Lysimachus' victory over Antigonus Monophthalmus at the Battle of Ipsus in 301 BC, Seleucus took control over eastern Anatolia and northern Syria. In the latter area he founded a new capital at Antioch on the Orontes, a city he named after his father. An alternative capital was established at Seleucia on the Tigris, north of Babylon. Seleucus' empire reached its greatest extent following his defeat of his erstwhile ally, Lysimachus, at Corupedion in 281 BC. Seleucus expanded his control to encompass western Anatolia. He hoped further to take control of Lysimachus' lands in Europe - primarily Thrace and even Macedonia itself, but was assassinated by Ptolemy Ceraunus on landing in Europe. His son and successor, Antiochus I Soter, proved unable to pick up where his father had left off in conquering the European portions of Alexander's empire, but was left, nevertheless, with an enormous realm consisting of nearly all of the Asian portions of the Empire. His competitors were Antigonus II Gonatas in Macedonia and Ptolemy II Philadelphus in Egypt. Coin of Seleucus I Nicator. ... Coin of Seleucus I Nicator. ... Silver coin of Seleucus. ... After the death of Alexander the Great in the afternoon of 11 June 323 BC, his empire was divided by his generals, the Diadochi(successors). ... Lysimachus (c. ... Antigonus I Cyclops or Monophthalmos (the One-eyed, so called from his having lost an eye) (382 BC - 301 BC) was a Macedonian nobleman, general, and satrap under Alexander the Great. ... Combatants Antigonids Macedonians Seleucids Commanders Antigonus I† Demetrius I of Macedon Prepelaus Lysimachus Seleucus I Nicator Pleistarchus Strength 45,000 heavy infantry 25,000 light infantry 10,000 cavalry 75 elephants 40,000 heavy infantry 20,000 light infantry 12,000 Iranian cavalry 3,000 heavy cavalry 400 elephants 100... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - Decades: 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 306 BC 305 BC 304 BC 303 BC 302 BC 301 BC 300 BC 299 BC 298 BC 297 BC Battle of Ipsus: King... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This is about one of the cities called Antioch in Asia Minor, now Turkey. ... The name Seleucia may denote any one of several cities in the Seleucid Empire. ... The Battle of Corupedium (also called Corupedion) is the name of the last battle of the Diadochi, the rival successors to Alexander the Great. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC - 280s BC - 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 286 BC 285 BC 284 BC 283 BC 282 BC 281 BC 280 BC 279 BC 278... Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Ptolemy Keraunos (Ceraunus) (? - 279 BC), King of Macedon from 281 BC to 279 BC. He was the eldest son of Ptolemy I Soter (ruler of Egypt) and his third wife Eurydice (daughter of Antipater). ... Silver coin of Antiochus I. The reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ... Coin of Antigonus II Gonatas Antigonus II Gonatas (c. ... Head of Ptolemy II Philadelphus (309-246 BC), with Arsinoë II. Ptolemy II Philadelphus (309-246 BC), was the ruler of Egypt (he was not technically the pharaoh because he was not ethnically Egyptian) from 281 BC to 246 BC. He was of a delicate constitution, no Macedonian warrior-chief...


Cultural exchanges

The Seleucid empire's geographic span, from the Aegean Sea to Afghanistan, brought together a multitude of races: Greeks, Persians, Medes, Jews, Indians, to mention only some. Its rulers were in the position of having a governing interest to implement a policy of racial unity initiated by Alexander. By 313 BC, Hellenic ideas had begun their almost 250-year expansion into the Near East, Middle East, and Central Asian cultures. It was the empire's governmental framework to rule by establishing hundreds of cities for trade and occupational purposes. Many of the existing cities began — or were compelled by force — to adopt Hellenized philosophic thought, religious sentiments, and politics. Synthesizing Hellenic and indigenous cultural, religious, and philosophical ideas met with varying degrees of success — resulting in times of simultaneous peace and rebellion in various parts of the empire. For the ship Aegean Sea, see Aegean Sea (oil spill) The Aegean Sea (Greek: Αιγαίο Πέλαγος, Aigaío Pélagos; Turkish: Ege Denizi) is a sea arm of the Mediterranean Sea located between the southern Balkan and Anatolian peninsulas, i. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Medea (Medea Proper), ca. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 318 BC 317 BC 316 BC 315 BC 314 BC 313 BC 312 BC 311 BC 310...


An overextended domain

 ██ Kingdom of Seleucus Other diadochi ██ Kingdom of Cassander ██ Kingdom of Lysimachus ██ Kingdom of Ptolemy ██ Epirus Other ██ Carthage ██ Rome ██ Greek colonies
██ Kingdom of Seleucus Other diadochi ██ Kingdom of Cassander ██ Kingdom of Lysimachus ██ Kingdom of Ptolemy ██ Epirus Other ██ Carthage ██ Rome ██ Greek colonies

Nevertheless, even before Seleucus' death, the vast eastern domains of the Seleucids were proving difficult to assert control over. Seleucus invaded India (modern Punjab Pakistan) in 304 BC, confronting Chandragupta Maurya (Sandrokottos), founder of the Maurya empire. It is said that Chandragupta fielded an army of 100,000 men and 9,000 war elephants. The two monarchs ultimately sealed a treaty, by which Seleucus ceded territories from the Indus to present-day Afghanistan. In exchange Chandragupta gave him no less than 500 elephants, an addition to his army that was to play a prominent part in his victory at Ipsus. The peace was complemented by a "marriage alliance" (Epigamia in ancient sources), implying either a dynastic alliance (in which a Seleucid princess may have been bethrothed to the Maurya dynasty) or the recognition of marriage between Greeks and Indians. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2000x961, 2700 KB) La bildo estas kopiita de wikipedia:de. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2000x961, 2700 KB) La bildo estas kopiita de wikipedia:de. ... Seleucus was the name of several Macedonian kings of the Seleucid dynasty ruling in the area of Syria. ... In general Diadochi (in Greek Διάδοχοι, transcripted Diadochoi) means successors, such that the neoplatonic refounders of Platos Academy in Late Antiquity referred to themselves as diadochi (of Plato). ... Cassander (c. ... Lysimachus (c. ... Silver coin depicting Ptolemy I (r. ... Epirus (Greek Ήπειρος, Ípeiros; see also List of traditional Greek place names), is a province or periphery in northwestern Greece, bounded by West Macedonia and Thessaly to the east, by the province of Sterea Ellada (Central Greece) to the south, the Ionian Sea and the Ionian Islands to the west and... Ruins of Roman-era Carthage For other uses, see Carthage (disambiguation). ... The Roman Forum was the central area around which ancient Rome developed. ... Colonies in antiquity were city-states founded from a mother-city, not from a territory-at-large. ... Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 Punjab (Persian: ‎, meaning Land of the five Rivers) (c. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 309 BC 308 BC 307 BC 306 BC 305 BC 304 BC 303 BC 302 BC 301... Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Bindusara Maurya Reign: 322 BC-298 BC Place of birth: India Chandragupta Maurya (Sanskrit: चन्द्रगुप्त मौर्य; Greek: Sandrakottos) (born c. ... People named Chandragupta: Chandragupta Maurya. ... The Maurya Empire, ruled by the Mauryan dynasty, was the largest and most powerful political and military empire of ancient India. ... The Indus is a river; the Indus River. ... The battle of Ipsus was fought between some of the successors of Alexander the Great in 301 BC near the village of that name in Phrygia. ... In ancient Greece Epigamia (Greek language: Επιγαμια), designated the legal right to contract a marriage. ...


Seleucus also sent an ambassador named Megasthenes to Chandragupta's court, who repeatedly visited Pataliputra (modern Patna in Bihar state), capital of Chandragupta. Megasthenes wrote detailed descriptions of India and Chandragupta's reign, which have been partly preserved to us through Diodorus Siculus. He also later sent Deimakos to the court of Chandragupta's son, Bindusara. Megasthenes (c. ... ... Patna is the capital of the state of Bihar, in north-eastern India. ... Diodorus Siculus (c. ... Deimakos (3rd century BCE), also Deimachus, was a Greek of the Seleucid Empire. ... Bindusara was the second Mauryan emperor (297 - c. ...


Other territories lost before Seleucus' death were Gedrosia in the south-east of the Iranian plateau, and, to the north of this, Arachosia on the west bank of the Indus River. Gedrosia is the ancient name of an area that corresponds to the southernwestern part of today s Pakistan, from the Indus River to the areas of Baluchistan and Makran. ... Arachosia is the ancient name of an area that corresponds to the southern part of today s Afghanistan, around the city of Kandahar. ... The position of the Sindhu River in Iron Age (Vedic) India. ...


Antiochus I (reigned 281-261 BC) and his son and successor Antiochus II Theos (reigned 261-246 BC) were faced with challenges in the west, including repeated wars with Ptolemy II and a Celtic invasion of Asia Minor — distracting attention from holding the eastern portions of the Empire together. Towards the end of Antiochus II's reign, various provinces simultaneously asserted their independence, such as Bactria under Diodotus, Parthia under Arsaces, and Cappadocia under Ariarathes III. Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC - 280s BC - 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 286 BC 285 BC 284 BC 283 BC 282 BC 281 BC 280 BC 279 BC 278... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC - 260s BC - 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC Years: 266 BC 265 BC 264 BC 263 BC 262 BC - 261 BC - 260 BC 259 BC... Coin of Antiochus II. The Greek inscription reads ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ (of king Antiochus). ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC - 260s BC - 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC Years: 266 BC 265 BC 264 BC 263 BC 262 BC - 261 BC - 260 BC 259 BC... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC - 240s BC - 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC Years: 251 BC 250 BC 249 BC 248 BC 247 BC - 246 BC - 245 BC 244 BC... Head of Ptolemy II Philadelphus (309-246 BC), with Arsinoë II. Ptolemy II Philadelphus (309-246 BC), was of a delicate constitution, no Macedonian warrior-chief of the old style. ... It has been suggested that Ta-Hsia be merged into this article or section. ... The founder of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom, Diodotus ca. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Reproduction of a coin of Arsaces Arsaces is a Persian name, which occurs on a Persian seal, where it is written in cuneiform characters. ... Map showing Cappadocia as a province of the Armenian Empire under Tigranes the Great Photo of a 15th Century map showing Capadocia. In ancient geography, Cappadocia (or Capadocia) (from Persian: Katpatuka meaning the land of beautiful horses, Greek: Καππαδοκία; see also List of traditional Greek place names; Turkish Kapadokya) was an... Ariarathes III (in Greek Aριαραθης; reigned 255–220 BC), son of Ariamnes, ruler of Cappadocia, and grandson of Ariarathes II, married Stratonice, a daughter of Antiochus II, king of Syria, and obtained a share in the government during the life-time of his father. ...


Greco-Bactrian secession (250 BC)

In Bactria, the satrap Diodotus asserted independence to form the Greco-Bactrian kingdom c. 250 BC.
In Bactria, the satrap Diodotus asserted independence to form the Greco-Bactrian kingdom c. 250 BC.

Diodotus, governor for the Bactrian territory, asserted independence in 250 BC to form the Greco-Bactrian kingdom. This kingdom was characterized by a rich Hellenistic culture, and was to continue its domination of Bactria until around 125 BC, when it was overrun by the invasion of northern nomads. One of the Greco-Bactrian kings, Demetrius I of Bactria, invaded India around 180 BC to form the Greco-Indian kingdom, lasting until around AD 20. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... It has been suggested that Ta-Hsia be merged into this article or section. ... The founder of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom, Diodotus ca. ... Approximate extent of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom circa 220 BCE. The Greco-Bactrians were a dynasty of Greek kings who controlled Bactria and Sogdiana, an area comprising todays northern Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia, the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world, from 250 to 125 BCE. Their expansion... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC - 250s BC - 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC Years: 255 BC 254 BC 253 BC 252 BC 251 BC - 250 BC - 249 BC 248 BC... The founder of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom, Diodotus ca. ... It has been suggested that Ta-Hsia be merged into this article or section. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC - 250s BC - 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC Years: 255 BC 254 BC 253 BC 252 BC 251 BC - 250 BC - 249 BC 248 BC... Approximate extent of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom circa 220 BCE. The Greco-Bactrians were a dynasty of Greek kings who controlled Bactria and Sogdiana, an area comprising todays northern Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia, the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world, from 250 to 125 BCE. Their expansion... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... Silver coin depicting the Greco-Bactrian king Demetrius (r. ... Maximum extent of Indo-Greek territory circa 175 BCE. The Indo-Greeks (or sometimes Greco-Indians) designate a series of Greek kings, who invaded and controlled parts of northwest and northern India from 180 BCE to around 10 BCE. They are the continuation of the Greco-Bactrian dynasty of Greek...


Parthian secession (250 BC)

The Seleucid satrap of Parthia, named Andragoras, first claimed independence, in a parallel to the secession of his Bactrian neighbour. Soon after however, a Parthian tribal chief called Arsaces took over the Parthian territory around 250 BC to form the Arsacid Dynasty — the starting point of the powerful Parthian Empire. Coin of Andragoras. ... Coin of Arsaces I. The reverse shows a seated archer carrying a bow. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Iran Under the Arsacid Dynasty. ... Parthian Empire at its greatest extent, c60 BCE. The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Parthia was the arch-enemy of the Roman Empire in the east and...


Eclipse and revival

By the time Antiochus II's son Seleucus II Callinicus came to the throne around 246 BC, the Seleucids seemed to be at a low ebb indeed. Aside from the secessions of Parthia and Bactria, Seleucus II was soon dramatically defeated in the Third Syrian War against Ptolemy III of Egypt, then had to fight a civil war against his own brother Antiochus Hierax. In Asia Minor too, the Seleucid dynasty seemed to be losing control — Gauls had fully established themselves in Galatia, semi-independent semi-Hellenized kingdoms had sprung up in Bithynia, Pontus, and Cappadocia, and the city of Pergamum in the west was asserting its independence under the Attalid Dynasty. Coin of Seleucus II. Reverse shows Apollo leaning on a tripod. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC - 240s BC - 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC Years: 251 BC 250 BC 249 BC 248 BC 247 BC - 246 BC - 245 BC 244 BC... Coele-Syria, site of the violent Syrian Wars. ... Ptolemy III Euergetes I, (Ptolemaeus III) (Evergetes, Euergetes) (reigned 246 BC-222 BC). ... Antiochus Hierax (in Greek AντιoχoÏ‚ Ιεραξ; killed 227 BC), so called from his grasping and ambitious character, was the younger son of Antiochus II, Seleucid king of Syria. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Bithynia was an ancient region, kingdom and Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine (today Black Sea). ... Traditional rural Pontic house A man in traditional clothes from Trabzon, illustration Pontus is the name which was applied, in ancient times, to extensive tracts of country in the northeast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) bordering on the Euxine (Black Sea), which was often called simply Pontos (the main), by... Map showing Cappadocia as a province of the Armenian Empire under Tigranes the Great Photo of a 15th Century map showing Capadocia. In ancient geography, Cappadocia (or Capadocia) (from Persian: Katpatuka meaning the land of beautiful horses, Greek: Καππαδοκία; see also List of traditional Greek place names; Turkish Kapadokya) was an... Acropolis of Pergamon as seen from above Sketched reconstruction of ancient Pergamon Temple of Trajan at the Acropolis of Pergamon The Asklepeion of Pergamon was the worlds first hospital Pergamon or Pergamum (Greek: Πέργαμος, modern day Bergama in Turkey, ) was an ancient Greek city, in Mysia, northwestern Anatolia, 16 miles... The Attalid dynasty was a Greek dynasty that ruled the city of Pergamon after the death of Lysimachus, a general of Alexander the Great. ...

Silver coin of Antiochus III.
Silver coin of Antiochus III.

But a revival would begin when Seleucus II's younger son, Antiochus III the Great, took the throne in 223 BC. Although initially unsuccessful in the Fourth Syrian War against Egypt, which led to an embarrassing defeat at the Battle of Raphia (217 BC), Antiochus would prove himself to be the greatest of the Seleucid rulers after Seleucus I himself. Following his defeat at Raphia, he spent the next ten years on his Anabasis through the eastern parts of his domain — restoring rebellious vassals like Parthia and Greco-Bactria to at least nominal obedience, and even emulating Alexander with an expedition into India where he met with king Sophagasenus. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Silver coin of Antiochus III. The reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ... Silver coin of Antiochus III. The reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC - 220s BC - 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 228 BC 227 BC 226 BC 225 BC 224 BC - 223 BC - 222 BC 221 BC... Coele-Syria, site of the violent Syrian Wars. ... The Battle of Raphia, also known as the Battle of Gaza, was a battle of the Syrian Wars between Ptolemy IV of Egypt and Antiochus III the Great of the Seleucid kingdom. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC - 210s BC - 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC Years: 222 BC 221 BC 220 BC 219 BC 218 BC - 217 BC - 216 BC 215 BC... Approximate extent of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom circa 220 BCE. The Greco-Bactrians were a dynasty of Greek kings who controlled Bactria and Sogdiana, an area comprising todays northern Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia, the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world, from 250 to 125 BCE. Their expansion... Sophagasenus was an Indian Mauryan governor or king of the 3rd century BCE, described in ancient Greek sources, and named Subhagsena or Subhashsena in Prakrit. ...


When he returned to the west in 205 BC, Antiochus found that with the death of Ptolemy IV, the situation now looked propitious for another western campaign. Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC - 200s BC - 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC Years: 210 BC 209 BC 208 BC 207 BC 206 BC - 205 BC - 204 BC 203 BC... Under the reign of Ptolemy IV Philopator (reigned 221-204 BC), son of Ptolemy III, the decline of the Ptolemaic kingdom began. ...


Antiochus and Philip V of Macedon then made a compact to divide the Ptolemaic possessions outside of Egypt, and in the Fifth Syrian War, the Seleucids ousted Ptolemy V from control of Coele-Syria. The Battle of Panium (198 BC) definitively transferred these holdings from the Ptolemies to the Seleucids. Antiochus appeared, at the least, to have restored the Seleucid Kingdom to glory. Coin of Philip V. The Greek inscription reads ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ ([coin] of King Philip). ... Coele-Syria, site of the violent Syrian Wars. ... Ptolemy V Epiphanes (reigned 204-181 BC), son of Ptolemy IV Philopator and Arsinoë, was not more than five years old when he came to the throne, and under a series of regents the kingdom was paralysed. ... Coele-Syria, meaning hollow Syria, was the region of southern Syria disputed between the Seleucid dynasty and the Ptolemaic dynasty. ... The Battle of Panium was fought in 198 BC between Seleucid and Ptolemaic forces. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC - 190s BC - 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC Years: 203 BC 202 BC 201 BC 200 BC 199 BC - 198 BC - 197 BC 196 BC...


The power of Rome and renewed disintegration

But Antiochus' glory was not to last for long. Following his erstwhile ally Philip's defeat at the hands of Rome in 197 BC, Antiochus now saw the opportunity for expansion into Greece. Encouraged by the exiled Carthaginian general Hannibal, and making an alliance with the disgruntled Aetolian League, Antiochus invaded Greece. Unfortunately, this decision led to his downfall: he was defeated by the Romans at Thermopylae (191 BC) and Magnesia (190 BC), and was forced to make peace with the Romans by the embarrassing Treaty of Apamea (188 BC) — which forced him to abandon all European territories, ceded all of Asia Minor north of the Taurus Mountains to Pergamum, and set a large indemnity to be paid. Antiochus died in 187 BC on another expedition to the east, where he sought to extract money to pay the indemnity. Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC - 190s BC - 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC Years: 202 BC 201 BC 200 BC 199 BC 198 BC - 197 BC - 196 BC 195 BC... Ruins of Roman-era Carthage For other uses, see Carthage (disambiguation). ... Hannibal is one of the most common prenames in Punic and we know several military commanders (strategos) with this prename during the Punic Wars, while their family names or nicknames are often not recorded. ... The Aetolian League was a confederation in ancient Greece centering on the cities of Aetolia in central Greece. ... Thermopylae - thurMAH-puh-ly, thuhr-MOP-uh-lee (Ancient & Katharevousa Greek Θερμοπύλαι, Demotic Θερμοπύλες) is a mountain pass in Greece. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC - 190s BC - 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC Years: 196 BC 195 BC 194 BC 193 BC 192 BC - 191 BC - 190 BC 189 BC... Combatants Roman Republic Seleucid Empire Commanders Lucius Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus Scipio Africanus Eumenes II of Pergamum Antiochus III the Great Strength 50. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC - 190s BC - 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC Years: 195 BC 194 BC 193 BC 192 BC 191 BC - 190 BC - 189 BC 188 BC... The Treaty of Apamea of 188 BC, between the Roman Republic and Antiochus III (the Great) had to give Romans control over the west side of Anatolia and placed under the control of a client king at Pergamum. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC - 180s BC - 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC Years: 193 BC 192 BC 191 BC 190 BC 189 BC - 188 BC - 187 BC 186 BC... The Taurus Mountains (Taurus=bull in greek) (Turkish Toros, also known as Ala-Dagh or Bulghar-Dagh) are a mountain range in Eastern Anatolian plateau, from which the Euphrates (Turkish Fırat) River descends into Syria. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC - 180s BC - 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC Years: 192 BC 191 BC 190 BC 189 BC 188 BC - 187 BC - 186 BC 185 BC...

The reign of his son and successor Seleucus IV Philopator (187-175 BC) was largely spent in attempts to pay the large indemnity, and Seleucus was ultimately assassinated by his minister Heliodorus. Seleucus' younger brother, Antiochus IV Epiphanes, now seized the throne. He attempted to restore Seleucid prestige with a successful war against Egypt; but despite driving the Egyptian army back to Alexandria itself, he was forced to withdraw by the Roman envoy Popilius Laenus, who famously drew a circle in the sand around the king and told him he had to decide whether or not to withdraw from Egypt before leaving the circle. Antiochus chose to withdraw. Antiochus IV Epiphanes. ... Antiochus IV Epiphanes. ... Coin of Antiochus IV. Reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ... Seleucus IV Philopator reigned from 187 BC to 176 BC over the Seleucid kingdom consisting of Syria (now including Cilicia and Palestine), Mesopotamia, Babylonia and Nearer Iran (Media and Persia). ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC - 180s BC - 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC Years: 192 BC 191 BC 190 BC 189 BC 188 BC - 187 BC - 186 BC 185 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC - 170s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 180 BC 179 BC 178 BC 177 BC 176 BC - 175 BC - 174 BC 173 BC 172... Several persons named Heliodorus are known to us from ancient times, the best known of which is Heliodorus of Emesa, author of the novel Aethiopica. ... Coin of Antiochus IV. Reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ... Alexandria Modern Alexandria. ...


The latter part of his reign saw the further disintegration of the Empire. The Eastern areas remained nearly uncontrollable, as Parthians began to take over the Persian lands; and Antiochus' aggressive Hellenizing (or de-Judaizing) activities led to armed rebellion in Judaea — the Maccabee revolt (see the story of Chanukah, Shabbat 21b, Babylonian Talmud). Efforts to deal with both the Parthians and the Jews proved fruitless, and Antiochus himself died during an expedition against the Parthians in 164 BC. Desert hills in southern Judea, looking east from the town of Arad Judea or Judaea (יהודה Praise, Standard Hebrew Yəhuda, Tiberian Hebrew Yəhûḏāh) is a term used for the mountainous southern part of historic Palestine, an area now divided... The Maccabees were a Jewish family who fought against the rule of Antiochus IV Epiphanes of the Hellenistic Seleucid dynasty, who was succeeded by his infant son Antiochus V Eupator. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC - 160s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 169 BC 168 BC 167 BC 166 BC 165 BC - 164 BC - 163 BC 162 BC 161...


Civil war and further decay

Silver coin of Alexander Balas.
Silver coin of Alexander Balas.

After the death of Antiochus IV Epiphanes, the Seleucid Empire became increasingly unstable. Frequent civil wars made central authority tenuous at best. Epiphanes' young son, Antiochus V Eupator, was first overthrown by Seleucus IV's son, Demetrius I Soter in 161 BC. Demetrius I attempted to restore Seleucid power in Judea particularly, but was overthrown in 150 BC by Alexander Balas — an impostor who (with Egyptian backing) claimed to be the son of Epiphanes. Alexander Balas reigned until 145 BC, when he was overthrown by Demetrius I's son, Demetrius II Nicator. Demetrius II proved unable to control the whole of the kingdom, however. While he ruled Babylonia and eastern Syria from Damascus, the remnants of Balas' supporters — first supporting Balas' son Antiochus VI, then the usurping general Diodotus Tryphon — held out in Antioch. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Silver coin of Alexander I Balas Alexander Balas (i. ... Coin of Antiochus IV. Reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ... Antiochus V Eupator (reigned 164-162 BC), was only nine when he succeeded as head of the Seleucid dynasty. ... Demetrius I (d. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC - 160s BC - 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 166 BC 165 BC 164 BC 163 BC 162 BC - 161 BC 160 BC 159 BC... Map of the southern Levant, c. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC - 150s BC - 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC Years: 155 BC 154 BC 153 BC 152 BC 151 BC - 150 BC - 149 BC 148 BC... Silver coin of Alexander I Balas Alexander Balas (i. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC - 140s BC - 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC Years: 150 BC 149 BC 148 BC 147 BC 146 BC - 145 BC - 144 BC 143 BC... Coin of Demetrius II. The reverse shows Zeus bearing Nike. ... Babylonia, named for its capital city, Babylon, an ancient state in the south part of Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Damascus at sunset Damascus ( translit: Also commonly: الشام ash-Shām) is the largest city of Syria and is also the capital. ... Coin of Antiochus VI. The reverse shows Castor and Polydeuces on horseback. ... Categories: Stub | Seleucid rulers ... Antioch on the Orontes (Greek: Αντιόχεια η επί Δάφνη, Αντιόχεια η επί Ορόντου or Αντιόχεια η Μεγάλη; Latin: Antiochia ad Orontem, also Antiochia dei Siri), the Great Antioch or Syrian Antioch was an ancient city located on the eastern side (left bank) of the Orontes River about 30 km from the sea and its port, Seleucia Pieria. ...


Meanwhile, the decay of the Empire's territorial possessions continued apace. By 143 BC, the Jews had fully established their independence. Parthian expansion continued as well. In 139 BC, Demetrius II was defeated in battle by the Parthians and was captured. By this time, the entire Iranian Plateau had been lost to Parthian control. Demetrius Nicator's brother, Antiochus VII, was ultimately able to restore a fleeting unity and vigour to the Seleucid domains, but he too proved unequal to the Parthian threat: he was killed in battle with the Parthians in 129 BC, leading to the final collapse of the Seleucid hold on Babylonia. After the death of Antiochus VII, all effective Seleucid rule collapsed, as multiple claimants contested control of what was left of the Seleucid realm in almost unending civil war. Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC - 140s BC - 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC Years: 148 BC 147 BC 146 BC 145 BC 144 BC - 143 BC - 142 BC 141 BC... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC - 130s BC - 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC Years: 144 BC 143 BC 142 BC 141 BC 140 BC - 139 BC - 138 BC 137 BC... Antiochus VII Eumenes, nick-named Sidetes (from Sidon), reigned from 138–129 BC over the Seleucid Empire. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 134 BC 133 BC 132 BC 131 BC 130 BC - 129 BC - 128 BC 127 BC...


Collapse of the Seleucid Empire

History of Greater Iran
Empires of Persia - Kings of Persia

Modern period: File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... History of Iran and Greater Iran (also referred to as the Iranian Cultural Continent by the Encyclopedia Iranica)—- consisting of the modern nations Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, and surrounding regions which is one of the worlds oldest continuous major civilizations. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau (Irān - Land of the Aryans[1]) and beyond. ... REDIRECT Template:History of ICC The following is a comprehensive list of all Persian Empires and their rulers: // The Elamites were a people located in Susa, in what is now Khuzestan province. ... The 5500 year old skeletons and other unearthed artifacts here are preserved and off access to visitors. ... The Jiroft Kingdom or Jiroft Civilization (تمدن جيرفت) is a relatively recent and ongoing multinational archeological project that aims to uncover an unknown civilization in a series of newly discovered sites in Irans Kerman Province, located at 28° 48 N latitude and 57° 46 E Longitude, known as Jiroft or Halilrud... Silver cup from Marvdasht, Fars, with Proto-Elamite inscription on it. ... Elam (Persian: تمدن ایلام) is one of the oldest recorded civilizations. ... The Mannaeans (or Mannai, Mannae, Biblical Minni) were an ancient people of unknown origin, who lived in the territory of present-day Iranian Azerbaijan around the 10th to 7th century BC. At that time they were neighbours of the empires of Assyria and Urartu, as well as other small buffer... Medea (Medea Proper), ca. ... The Achaemenid Empire (Old Persian: Hakhāmanishiya, هخامنشیان also frequently, the Achaemenid Persian Empire.) (559 BC–338 BC) was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of Greater Iran. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Empire (Persian: ‎ Sasanian) is the name used for the fourth Iranian dynasty, and the second Persian Empire (226 - 651). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islamic conquest of Afghanistan. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid (Arabic: العبّاسيّون, AbbāsÄ«yÅ«n) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... The Tahirid dynasty ruled the northeastern Persian region of Khorasan between AD 821-873. ... The Alavids (سلسله علویان طبرستان in Persian) were a Shia emirate based in Tabaristan of Iran. ... The Saffarid dynasty of Persia ruled a short-lived empire centred on Seistan, a border district between modern-day Afghanistan and Iran, between 861-1003. ... The Samanids (875-999) (in Persian: Samanian) were a Persian dynasty in Central Asia and eastern Iran, named after its founder Saman Khoda. ... The tomb of Ghaboos ebne Voshmgir, built in 1007AD, rises 160 ft from its base. ... The Buwayhids or Buyyids or Ä€l-i Buyeh, were a Yazdani tribal confederation from Daylam, a region on the southern shore of the Caspian Sea. ... The Ghaznavid Empire (سلسله غزنویان in Persian) was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 962 to 1187. ... The Ghurids (or Ghoris) were rulers from Ghor in Central Afghanistan. ... The Seljuqs (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuk, sometimes also Seljuq Turks; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a dynasty that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th centuries. ... The Khwarezmid dynasty also known as the Shahs of Khwarezm (in Persian: Khwarezmshahian) was a Muslim Iranian state in the 11th century in Khwarezmia that lasted until the Mongol invasion in 1220. ... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... The Muzaffarids were a Sunni Arab family that came to power in Iran following the breakup of the Ilkhanate in the 14th century. ... The Chupanids, also known as the Chobanids, (سلسله امرای چوپانی, Amir Chupani), were descendants of a Mongol family that came to prominence in 14th century Persia. ... The Jalayirids were a Mongol dynasty which ruled over Iraq and western Persia after the breakup of the Mongol Khanate of Persia (or Ilkhanate) in the 1330s. ... Flag of the Timurid Empire according to the Catalan Atlas c. ... The Karakoyunlu or the Black Sheep Turkomans (Azeri-Turkish: Qaraqoyunlular/Karakoyunlular) were a Turkoman tribal federation that ruled what is today Azerbaijan, including present-day northwestern Iran and Iraq from 1375 to 1468. ... Flag of the Ak Koyunlu (Colours are speculative) The Akkoyunlu or the White Sheep Turkomans (Azeri-Turkish: AÄŸqoyunlular/Akkoyunlular) were a Turkoman tribal federation that ruled present-day Azerbaijan, eastern Anatolia, northern Iraq and western Iran from 1378 to 1508. ... The Safavid Empire at its 1512 borders. ... The Hotaki dynasty (1709-1736) was founded by Afghans (Pashuns) from the Ghilzai clan. ... Tomb of Nader Shah Afshar, a popular tourist attraction in Mashad. ...

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  • Azerbaijan
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By 100 BC, the once formidable Seleucid Empire encompassed little more than Antioch and some Syrian cities. Despite the clear collapse of their power, and the decline of their kingdom around them, nobles continued to play kingmakers on a regular basis, with occasional intervention from Ptolemaic Egypt and other outside powers. The Seleucids existed solely because no other nation wished to absorb them — seeing as they constituted a useful buffer between their other neighbours. In the wars in Anatolia between Mithridates VI of Pontus and Sulla of Rome, the Seleucids were largely left alone by both major combatants. The Durrani Empire was a state in present day Afghanistan. ... // The Rise of Dost Mohammad It was not until 1826 that the energetic Dost Mohammad was able to exert sufficient control over his brothers to take over the throne in Kabul, where he proclaimed himself amir. ... Reign of King Amanullah, 1919-1929 Amanullah Khan reigned in Afghanistan from 1919, achieving full independence from the British Empire shortly afterwards. ... // Reign of Mohammed Nadir Shah, 1929-1933 Mohammed Nadir Shah quickly abolished most of Amanullah Khans reforms, but despite his efforts to rebuild an army that had just been engaged in suppressing a rebellion, the forces remained weak while the religious and tribal leaders grew strong. ... Sardar Mohammed Daoud Khan[1] (July 18, 1909 – April 28, 1978), son of Sardar Mohammed Aziz Khan and grandson of Sardar Mohammed Yusuf Khan was an Afghan statesman and President of the Republic of Afghanistan from 1973 until his assassination in 1978 as a result of a revolution led by... This article is about Communist rule in Afghanistan (1978-1992), which is separate, although slightly so, from the Soviet war in Afghanistan. ... // The Islamic State of Afghanistan After the Soviets withdrew completely from Afghanistan in February 1989, fighting between the communist backed government and mujahideen continued. ... Azerbaijan or Azarbeijan (Azerbaijani: Azerbaycan, Azerbeycan) is historically and geographically Eurasian and stretches from the Caucasus region, which is adjacent to the Caspian Sea, to the Zagros in Iran. ... Azerbaijan or Azarbeijan (Azerbaijani: Azerbaycan, Azerbeycan) is historically and geographically Eurasian and stretches from the Caucasus region, which is adjacent to the Caspian Sea, to the Zagros in Iran. ... Motto: None Anthem: AzÉ™rbaycan Respublikasının DövlÉ™t Himni March of Azerbaijan Map of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic from 1919 to 1920. ... State motto: Бүтүн өлкәләрин пролетарлары, бирләшин! Workers of the world, unite! Official language None. ... // The Dilmun Era The history of Bahrain goes back more than five thousand years to its role as the centre of the ancient civilisation of Dilmun, which dominated the trade routes between Sumeria and the Indus Valley. ... // The Dilmun Era The history of Bahrain goes back more than five thousand years to its role as the centre of the ancient civilisation of Dilmun, which dominated the trade routes between Sumeria and the Indus Valley. ... Vakeel mosque, Shiraz. ... The Qajar dynasty ( ) (Persian: ‎ - or دودمان قاجار - Qâjâr) was the ruling family of Persia from 1781 to 1925. ... The Pahlavi dynasty(سلسله پهلوی) of Iran began with the crowning of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925 and ended with the Iranian Revolution of 1979, and the subsequent collapse of the ancient tradition of Iranian monarchy. ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... The Interim Government of Iran (1979-1980) was the first government established in Iran after the Islamic Revolution. ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... This article includes an overview from prehistory to the present in the region of the current state of Iraq in Mesopotamia. ... This article includes an overview from prehistory to the present in the region of the current state of Iraq in Mesopotamia. ... The Emirate of Bukhara (1747-1920) was a state in Central Asia, with its capital in Bukhara and was a Russian protectorate from 1868. ... State motto: Uzbek: Бутун дунё пролетарлари, бирлашингиз! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Tashkent Official language None. ... State motto: Пролетарҳои ҳамаи мамлакатҳо, як шавед! Official language None. ... State motto: Пролетарҳои ҳамаи мамлакатҳо, як шавед! Official language None. ... The Emirate of Bukhara (1747-1920) was a state in Central Asia, with its capital in Bukhara and was a Russian protectorate from 1868. ... State motto: Uzbek: Бутун дунё пролетарлари, бирлашингиз! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Tashkent Official language None. ... Antioch on the Orontes (Greek: Αντιόχεια η επί Δάφνη, Αντιόχεια η επί Ορόντου or Αντιόχεια η Μεγάλη; Latin: Antiochia ad Orontem, also Antiochia dei Siri), the Great Antioch or Syrian Antioch was an ancient city located on the eastern side (left bank) of the Orontes River about 30 km from the sea and its port, Seleucia Pieria. ... Ptolemaic Egypt refers to the time period of hellenistic rule in Egypt. ... Mithridates VI of Pontus, (132 BC- 63 BC), called Eupator Dionysius, was the king of Pontus in Asia Minor and one of Romes most formidable and successful enemies. ... Traditional rural Pontic house A man in traditional clothes from Trabzon, illustration Pontus is the name which was applied, in ancient times, to extensive tracts of country in the northeast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) bordering on the Euxine (Black Sea), which was often called simply Pontos (the main), by... Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L·CORNELIVS·L·F·P·N·SVLLA·FELIX) ¹ (ca. ...


Mithridates' ambitious son-in-law, Tigranes the Great, king of Armenia, however, saw opportunity for expansion in the constant civil strife to the south. In 83 BC, at the invitation of one of the factions in the interminable civil wars, he invaded Syria, and soon established himself as ruler of Syria, putting Seleucid rule virtually at an end. Coin of Tigranes II. The Greek inscription reads ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΤΙΓΡΑΝΟΥ ([coin] of King Tigranes). Tigranes the Greats Empire Tigranes the Great (Armenian: Տիգրան Մեծ) (ruled 95 BCE-55 BCE) (also called Tigranes II and sometimes Tigranes I and also known to be called Tigranes Karapietyan) was a king of Armenia. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC Years: 88 BC 87 BC 86 BC 85 BC 84 BC - 83 BC - 82 BC 81 BC 80...


Seleucid rule was not entirely over, however. Following the Roman general Lucullus' defeat of both Mithridates and Tigranes in 69 BC, a rump Seleucid kingdom was restored under Antiochus XIII. Even now, civil wars could not be prevented, as another Seleucid, Philip II, contested rule with Antiochus. After the Roman conquest of Pontus, the Romans became increasingly alarmed at the constant source of instability in Syria under the Seleucids. Once Mithridates was defeated by Pompey in 63 BC, Pompey set about the task of remaking the Hellenistic East, by creating new client kingdoms and establishing provinces. While client nations like Armenia and Judea were allowed to continue some degree of autonomy under local kings, Pompey saw the Seleucids as too troublesome to continue; and doing away with both rival Seleucid princes, he made Syria into a Roman province. Lucius Licinius Lucullus (c. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 74 BC 73 BC 72 BC 71 BC 70 BC 69 BC 68 BC 67 BC 66... Antiochus XIII Asiaticus was son of Syrian king Antiochus X Eusebes and Egyptian princess Cleopatra Selene, who acted as regent for the boy after his fathers death sometime between 92 and 85 BC. In 75 BC, after Tigranes had conquered Syria, she travelled to Rome to have her sons... Pompey, Pompey the Great or Pompey the Triumvir [1] (Classical Latin abbreviation: CN·POMPEIVS·CN·F·SEX·N·MAGNVS[2], Gnaeus or Cnaeus Pompeius Magnus) (September 29, 106 BC – September 29, 48 BC), was a distinguished military and political leader of the late Roman republic. ... Map of the southern Levant, c. ...


Seleucid rulers

History of Greater Iran
Empires of Persia - Kings of Persia

Modern period: File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... History of Iran and Greater Iran (also referred to as the Iranian Cultural Continent by the Encyclopedia Iranica)—- consisting of the modern nations Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, and surrounding regions which is one of the worlds oldest continuous major civilizations. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau (Irān - Land of the Aryans[1]) and beyond. ... REDIRECT Template:History of ICC The following is a comprehensive list of all Persian Empires and their rulers: // The Elamites were a people located in Susa, in what is now Khuzestan province. ... The 5500 year old skeletons and other unearthed artifacts here are preserved and off access to visitors. ... The Jiroft Kingdom or Jiroft Civilization (تمدن جيرفت) is a relatively recent and ongoing multinational archeological project that aims to uncover an unknown civilization in a series of newly discovered sites in Irans Kerman Province, located at 28° 48 N latitude and 57° 46 E Longitude, known as Jiroft or Halilrud... Silver cup from Marvdasht, Fars, with Proto-Elamite inscription on it. ... Elam (Persian: تمدن ایلام) is one of the oldest recorded civilizations. ... The Mannaeans (or Mannai, Mannae, Biblical Minni) were an ancient people of unknown origin, who lived in the territory of present-day Iranian Azerbaijan around the 10th to 7th century BC. At that time they were neighbours of the empires of Assyria and Urartu, as well as other small buffer... Medea (Medea Proper), ca. ... The Achaemenid Empire (Old Persian: Hakhāmanishiya, هخامنشیان also frequently, the Achaemenid Persian Empire.) (559 BC–338 BC) was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of Greater Iran. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Empire (Persian: ‎ Sasanian) is the name used for the fourth Iranian dynasty, and the second Persian Empire (226 - 651). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islamic conquest of Afghanistan. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid (Arabic: العبّاسيّون, AbbāsÄ«yÅ«n) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... The Tahirid dynasty ruled the northeastern Persian region of Khorasan between AD 821-873. ... The Alavids (سلسله علویان طبرستان in Persian) were a Shia emirate based in Tabaristan of Iran. ... The Saffarid dynasty of Persia ruled a short-lived empire centred on Seistan, a border district between modern-day Afghanistan and Iran, between 861-1003. ... The Samanids (875-999) (in Persian: Samanian) were a Persian dynasty in Central Asia and eastern Iran, named after its founder Saman Khoda. ... The tomb of Ghaboos ebne Voshmgir, built in 1007AD, rises 160 ft from its base. ... The Buwayhids or Buyyids or Ä€l-i Buyeh, were a Yazdani tribal confederation from Daylam, a region on the southern shore of the Caspian Sea. ... The Ghaznavid Empire (سلسله غزنویان in Persian) was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 962 to 1187. ... The Ghurids (or Ghoris) were rulers from Ghor in Central Afghanistan. ... The Seljuqs (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuk, sometimes also Seljuq Turks; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a dynasty that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th centuries. ... The Khwarezmid dynasty also known as the Shahs of Khwarezm (in Persian: Khwarezmshahian) was a Muslim Iranian state in the 11th century in Khwarezmia that lasted until the Mongol invasion in 1220. ... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... The Muzaffarids were a Sunni Arab family that came to power in Iran following the breakup of the Ilkhanate in the 14th century. ... The Chupanids, also known as the Chobanids, (سلسله امرای چوپانی, Amir Chupani), were descendants of a Mongol family that came to prominence in 14th century Persia. ... The Jalayirids were a Mongol dynasty which ruled over Iraq and western Persia after the breakup of the Mongol Khanate of Persia (or Ilkhanate) in the 1330s. ... Flag of the Timurid Empire according to the Catalan Atlas c. ... The Karakoyunlu or the Black Sheep Turkomans (Azeri-Turkish: Qaraqoyunlular/Karakoyunlular) were a Turkoman tribal federation that ruled what is today Azerbaijan, including present-day northwestern Iran and Iraq from 1375 to 1468. ... Flag of the Ak Koyunlu (Colours are speculative) The Akkoyunlu or the White Sheep Turkomans (Azeri-Turkish: AÄŸqoyunlular/Akkoyunlular) were a Turkoman tribal federation that ruled present-day Azerbaijan, eastern Anatolia, northern Iraq and western Iran from 1378 to 1508. ... The Safavid Empire at its 1512 borders. ... The Hotaki dynasty (1709-1736) was founded by Afghans (Pashuns) from the Ghilzai clan. ... Tomb of Nader Shah Afshar, a popular tourist attraction in Mashad. ...

  • Afghanistan
  • Azerbaijan
  • Bahrain
  • Iran
  • Iraq
  • Tajikistan
  • Uzbekistan
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The Durrani Empire was a state in present day Afghanistan. ... // The Rise of Dost Mohammad It was not until 1826 that the energetic Dost Mohammad was able to exert sufficient control over his brothers to take over the throne in Kabul, where he proclaimed himself amir. ... Reign of King Amanullah, 1919-1929 Amanullah Khan reigned in Afghanistan from 1919, achieving full independence from the British Empire shortly afterwards. ... // Reign of Mohammed Nadir Shah, 1929-1933 Mohammed Nadir Shah quickly abolished most of Amanullah Khans reforms, but despite his efforts to rebuild an army that had just been engaged in suppressing a rebellion, the forces remained weak while the religious and tribal leaders grew strong. ... Sardar Mohammed Daoud Khan[1] (July 18, 1909 – April 28, 1978), son of Sardar Mohammed Aziz Khan and grandson of Sardar Mohammed Yusuf Khan was an Afghan statesman and President of the Republic of Afghanistan from 1973 until his assassination in 1978 as a result of a revolution led by... This article is about Communist rule in Afghanistan (1978-1992), which is separate, although slightly so, from the Soviet war in Afghanistan. ... // The Islamic State of Afghanistan After the Soviets withdrew completely from Afghanistan in February 1989, fighting between the communist backed government and mujahideen continued. ... Azerbaijan or Azarbeijan (Azerbaijani: Azerbaycan, Azerbeycan) is historically and geographically Eurasian and stretches from the Caucasus region, which is adjacent to the Caspian Sea, to the Zagros in Iran. ... Azerbaijan or Azarbeijan (Azerbaijani: Azerbaycan, Azerbeycan) is historically and geographically Eurasian and stretches from the Caucasus region, which is adjacent to the Caspian Sea, to the Zagros in Iran. ... Motto: None Anthem: AzÉ™rbaycan Respublikasının DövlÉ™t Himni March of Azerbaijan Map of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic from 1919 to 1920. ... State motto: Бүтүн өлкәләрин пролетарлары, бирләшин! Workers of the world, unite! Official language None. ... // The Dilmun Era The history of Bahrain goes back more than five thousand years to its role as the centre of the ancient civilisation of Dilmun, which dominated the trade routes between Sumeria and the Indus Valley. ... // The Dilmun Era The history of Bahrain goes back more than five thousand years to its role as the centre of the ancient civilisation of Dilmun, which dominated the trade routes between Sumeria and the Indus Valley. ... Vakeel mosque, Shiraz. ... The Qajar dynasty ( ) (Persian: ‎ - or دودمان قاجار - Qâjâr) was the ruling family of Persia from 1781 to 1925. ... The Pahlavi dynasty(سلسله پهلوی) of Iran began with the crowning of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925 and ended with the Iranian Revolution of 1979, and the subsequent collapse of the ancient tradition of Iranian monarchy. ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... The Interim Government of Iran (1979-1980) was the first government established in Iran after the Islamic Revolution. ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... This article includes an overview from prehistory to the present in the region of the current state of Iraq in Mesopotamia. ... This article includes an overview from prehistory to the present in the region of the current state of Iraq in Mesopotamia. ... The Emirate of Bukhara (1747-1920) was a state in Central Asia, with its capital in Bukhara and was a Russian protectorate from 1868. ... State motto: Uzbek: Бутун дунё пролетарлари, бирлашингиз! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Tashkent Official language None. ... State motto: Пролетарҳои ҳамаи мамлакатҳо, як шавед! Official language None. ... State motto: Пролетарҳои ҳамаи мамлакатҳо, як шавед! Official language None. ... The Emirate of Bukhara (1747-1920) was a state in Central Asia, with its capital in Bukhara and was a Russian protectorate from 1868. ... State motto: Uzbek: Бутун дунё пролетарлари, бирлашингиз! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Tashkent Official language None. ... Silver coin of Seleucus. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 316 BC 315 BC 314 BC 313 BC 312 BC 311 BC 310 BC 309 BC 308... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 310 BC 309 BC 308 BC 307 BC 306 BC 305 BC 304 BC 303 BC 302... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 310 BC 309 BC 308 BC 307 BC 306 BC 305 BC 304 BC 303 BC 302... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC - 280s BC - 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 286 BC 285 BC 284 BC 283 BC 282 BC 281 BC 280 BC 279 BC 278... Silver coin of Antiochus I. The reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 296 BC 295 BC 294 BC 293 BC 292 BC 291 BC 290 BC 289 BC 288... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC - 280s BC - 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 286 BC 285 BC 284 BC 283 BC 282 BC 281 BC 280 BC 279 BC 278... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC - 260s BC - 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC Years: 266 BC 265 BC 264 BC 263 BC 262 BC - 261 BC - 260 BC 259 BC... Coin of Antiochus II. The Greek inscription reads ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ (of king Antiochus). ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC - 260s BC - 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC Years: 266 BC 265 BC 264 BC 263 BC 262 BC - 261 BC - 260 BC 259 BC... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC - 240s BC - 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC Years: 251 BC 250 BC 249 BC 248 BC 247 BC - 246 BC - 245 BC 244 BC... Coin of Seleucus II. Reverse shows Apollo leaning on a tripod. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC - 240s BC - 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC Years: 251 BC 250 BC 249 BC 248 BC 247 BC - 246 BC - 245 BC 244 BC... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC - 220s BC - 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 230 BC 229 BC 228 BC 227 BC 226 BC - 225 BC - 224 BC 223 BC... Coin of Seleucus III (243-223 BC) Seleucus III Ceraunus or Soter (c. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC - 220s BC - 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 230 BC 229 BC 228 BC 227 BC 226 BC - 225 BC - 224 BC 223 BC... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC - 220s BC - 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 228 BC 227 BC 226 BC 225 BC 224 BC - 223 BC - 222 BC 221 BC... Silver coin of Antiochus III. The reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC - 220s BC - 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 228 BC 227 BC 226 BC 225 BC 224 BC - 223 BC - 222 BC 221 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC - 180s BC - 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC Years: 192 BC 191 BC 190 BC 189 BC 188 BC - 187 BC - 186 BC 185 BC... Seleucus IV Philopator reigned from 187 BC to 176 BC over the Seleucid kingdom consisting of Syria (now including Cilicia and Palestine), Mesopotamia, Babylonia and Nearer Iran (Media and Persia). ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC - 180s BC - 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC Years: 192 BC 191 BC 190 BC 189 BC 188 BC - 187 BC - 186 BC 185 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC - 170s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 180 BC 179 BC 178 BC 177 BC 176 BC - 175 BC - 174 BC 173 BC 172... Coin of Antiochus IV. Reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC - 170s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 180 BC 179 BC 178 BC 177 BC 176 BC - 175 BC - 174 BC 173 BC 172... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC - 160s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 169 BC 168 BC 167 BC 166 BC 165 BC - 164 BC - 163 BC 162 BC 161... Antiochus V Eupator (reigned 164-162 BC), was only nine when he succeeded as head of the Seleucid dynasty. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC - 160s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 169 BC 168 BC 167 BC 166 BC 165 BC - 164 BC - 163 BC 162 BC 161... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC - 160s BC - 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 167 BC 166 BC 165 BC 164 BC 163 BC - 162 BC - 161 BC 160 BC... Demetrius I (d. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC - 160s BC - 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 166 BC 165 BC 164 BC 163 BC 162 BC - 161 BC 160 BC 159 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC - 150s BC - 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC Years: 155 BC 154 BC 153 BC 152 BC 151 BC - 150 BC - 149 BC 148 BC... Silver coin of Alexander I Balas Alexander Balas (i. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC - 150s BC - 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC Years: 159 BC 158 BC 157 BC 156 BC 155 BC - 154 BC - 153 BC 152 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC - 140s BC - 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC Years: 150 BC 149 BC 148 BC 147 BC 146 BC - 145 BC - 144 BC 143 BC... Coin of Demetrius II. The reverse shows Zeus bearing Nike. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC - 140s BC - 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC Years: 150 BC 149 BC 148 BC 147 BC 146 BC - 145 BC - 144 BC 143 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC - 130s BC - 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC Years: 143 BC 142 BC 141 BC 140 BC 139 BC - 138 BC - 137 BC 136 BC... Coin of Antiochus VI Antiochus VI Dionysus (c. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC - 140s BC - 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC Years: 150 BC 149 BC 148 BC 147 BC 146 BC - 145 BC - 144 BC 143 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC - 140s BC - 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC Years: 145 BC 144 BC 143 BC 142 BC 141 BC - 140 BC - 139 BC 138 BC... Categories: Stub | Seleucid rulers ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC - 140s BC - 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC Years: 145 BC 144 BC 143 BC 142 BC 141 BC - 140 BC - 139 BC 138 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC - 130s BC - 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC Years: 143 BC 142 BC 141 BC 140 BC 139 BC - 138 BC - 137 BC 136 BC... Antiochus VII Eumenes, nick-named Sidetes (from Sidon), reigned from 138–129 BC over the Seleucid Empire. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC - 130s BC - 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC Years: 143 BC 142 BC 141 BC 140 BC 139 BC - 138 BC - 137 BC 136 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 134 BC 133 BC 132 BC 131 BC 130 BC - 129 BC - 128 BC 127 BC... Coin of Demetrius II. The reverse shows Zeus bearing Nike. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 134 BC 133 BC 132 BC 131 BC 130 BC - 129 BC - 128 BC 127 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 131 BC 130 BC 129 BC 128 BC 127 BC - 126 BC - 125 BC 124 BC... Alexander II Zabinas was a counter-king who emerged in the chaos following the Seleucidian loss of Mesopotamia to the Parthians. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 134 BC 133 BC 132 BC 131 BC 130 BC - 129 BC - 128 BC 127 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 128 BC 127 BC 126 BC 125 BC 124 BC - 123 BC - 122 BC 121 BC... Coin of Cleopatra Thea. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 131 BC 130 BC 129 BC 128 BC 127 BC - 126 BC - 125 BC 124 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 128 BC 127 BC 126 BC 125 BC 124 BC - 123 BC - 122 BC 121 BC... The Seleucid king Seleucus V Philometor (126 - 125 BC) was the eldest son of Demetrius II Nicator and Cleopatra Thea. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 131 BC 130 BC 129 BC 128 BC 127 BC - 126 BC - 125 BC 124 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 130 BC 129 BC 128 BC 127 BC 126 BC - 125 BC - 124 BC 123 BC... Coin of Antiochus VIII Antiochus VIII Epiphanes/Callinicus/Philometor, nicknamed Grypus (hook-nose) was son of Demetrius II Nicator and was crowned as a boy in 125 BC after his mother Cleopatra Thea had killed his elder brother Seleucus V Philometor, ruling jointly with her. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 130 BC 129 BC 128 BC 127 BC 126 BC - 125 BC - 124 BC 123 BC... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC - 90s BC - 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC Years: 101 BC 100 BC 99 BC 98 BC 97 BC - 96 BC - 95 BC 94 BC 93... Coin of Antiochus IX Antiochus IX Eusebes was the son of Antiochus VII Sidetes and Cleopatra Thea. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC - 110s BC - 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC Years: 119 BC 118 BC 117 BC 116 BC 115 BC - 114 BC - 113 BC 112 BC... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC - 90s BC - 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC Years: 101 BC 100 BC 99 BC 98 BC 97 BC - 96 BC - 95 BC 94 BC 93... Seleucus VI Epiphanes was the oldest son of Antiochus VIII Grypus. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC - 90s BC - 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC Years: 101 BC 100 BC 99 BC 98 BC 97 BC - 96 BC - 95 BC 94 BC 93... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC - 90s BC - 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC Years: 100 BC 99 BC 98 BC 97 BC 96 BC - 95 BC - 94 BC 93 BC 92... Antiochus X Eusebes Philopator was another contestant in the tangled-up family feuds among the last Seleucids. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC - 90s BC - 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC Years: 100 BC 99 BC 98 BC 97 BC 96 BC - 95 BC - 94 BC 93 BC 92... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC - 90s BC - 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC Years: 97 BC 96 BC 95 BC 94 BC 93 BC - 92 BC - 91 BC 90 BC 89... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC Years: 88 BC 87 BC 86 BC 85 BC 84 BC - 83 BC - 82 BC 81 BC 80... Coin of Demetrius III. Obv: Diademed head of Demetrius III. Greek legend BASILEWS DHMHTRIOU QEOU FILOPATOROS SWTHROS King Demetrius, Loving son and Saviour. Rev: Figure of Atargatis, veiled, holding flower, barley stalks at each shoulder. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC - 90s BC - 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC Years: 100 BC 99 BC 98 BC 97 BC 96 BC - 95 BC - 94 BC 93 BC 92... Lucius Cornelius Cinna is elected consul of Rome, thus returning the rule of Rome back to the democrats. ... Antiochus XI Epiphanes or Philadelphus, son of Antiochus VIII Grypus and brother of Seleucus VI Epiphanes was a minor participant in the civil wars which clouded the last years of the once glorious Seleucids, now reduced to local dynasts in Syria. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC - 90s BC - 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC Years: 100 BC 99 BC 98 BC 97 BC 96 BC - 95 BC - 94 BC 93 BC 92... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC - 90s BC - 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC Years: 97 BC 96 BC 95 BC 94 BC 93 BC - 92 BC - 91 BC 90 BC 89... Philip I Philadelphus was the 3rd son of Antiochus VIII Grypus and took the diadem in the 95 BC together with his twin brother Antiochus XI Ephiphanes, after the eldest son Seleucus VI Epiphanes was killed by their cousin Antiochus X Eusebes. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC - 90s BC - 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC Years: 100 BC 99 BC 98 BC 97 BC 96 BC - 95 BC - 94 BC 93 BC 92... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC Years: 89 BC 88 BC 87 BC 86 BC 85 BC - 84 BC - 83 BC 82 BC 81... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC Years: 88 BC 87 BC 86 BC 85 BC 84 BC - 83 BC - 82 BC 81 BC 80... Antiochus XII Dionysus (87-84 BC) was the fifth son of Antiochus VIII Grypus to take up the diadem, and succeeded his brother Demetrius III Eucaerus as separatist ruler of the southern parts of the last remaining Seleucidian realms, basically Damascus and its surroundings. ... Lucius Cornelius Cinna is elected consul of Rome, thus returning the rule of Rome back to the democrats. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC Years: 89 BC 88 BC 87 BC 86 BC 85 BC - 84 BC - 83 BC 82 BC 81... This article is about a king of Armenia in the first century B.C. For other historical figures with the same name (including other kings of Armenia) see Tigranes Coin of Tigranes II Tigranes the Great (ruled 95-56 BC) (also called Tigranes II and sometimes Tigranes I) was a... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC Years: 88 BC 87 BC 86 BC 85 BC 84 BC - 83 BC - 82 BC 81 BC 80... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 74 BC 73 BC 72 BC 71 BC 70 BC 69 BC 68 BC 67 BC 66... The last members of the once mighty Seleucid dynasty are shadowy figures; local dynasts with complicated family ties whose identities are hard to ascertain: many of them also bore the same names. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC - 110s BC - 100s BC - 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC - 10s BC Years: 79 BC 78 BC 77 BC 76 BC 75 BC 74 BC 73 BC 72... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC - 100s BC - 90s BC - 80s BC _ 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC _ 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC - 10s BC Years: 69 BC 68 BC 67 BC 66 BC 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62... Antiochus XIII Asiaticus, a ruler of the Greek Seleucid kingdom, was son of king Antiochus X Eusebes and Ptolemaic princess Cleopatra Selene, who acted as regent for the boy after his fathers death sometime between 92 and 85 BC. In 83 BC, after Tigranes had conquered Syria, she travelled... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 74 BC 73 BC 72 BC 71 BC 70 BC 69 BC 68 BC 67 BC 66... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 69 BC 68 BC 67 BC 66 BC 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62 BC 61... Philip II Philoromaeus (Rome-lover) or Barypos (heavy-foot) was son of the Seleucid king Philip I Philadelphus. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 70 BC 69 BC 68 BC 67 BC 66 BC 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 68 BC 67 BC 66 BC 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62 BC 61 BC 60...

In modern media

  • The Seleucid Empire is one of a number of factions in the 2004 PC game Rome: Total War. The Seleucid Empire main military force is similar to that of the Macedonians (another faction in the game), containing the same powerful Macedonian phalangites and shock cavalry (including Companion Cavalry).

2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Rome: Total War is a grand strategy computer game where players fight historical and fictious battles during the era of the Roman Republic, from 270 BCE to 14 CE. The game was developed by Creative Assembly and released on September 22, 2004. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Appian, History of Rome, The Syrian Wars 55
  2. ^ Strabo 15.2.1(9)

See also

The Hellenistic period of Greek history was the period between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the annexation of the Greek peninsula and islands by Rome in 146 BC. Although the establishment of Roman rule did not break the continuity of Hellenistic society and culture, which... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Approximate extent of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom circa 220 BCE. The Greco-Bactrians were a dynasty of Greek kings who controlled Bactria and Sogdiana, an area comprising todays northern Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia, the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world, from 250 to 125 BCE. Their expansion... The Indo-Greek Kingdom (or sometimes Graeco-Indian Kingdom[1]) covered various parts of the northwest and northern Indian subcontinent from 180 BCE to around 10 CE, and was ruled by a succession of more than thirty Hellenistic kings,[2] often in conflict with each other. ... The Hasmonean Kingdom (Hebrew: Hashmonai) in ancient Judea and its ruling dynasty from 140 BCE to 37 BCE was established under the leadership of Simon Maccabaeus, two decades after Judah the Maccabee defeated the Seleucid army in 165 BCE. // The origin of the Hasmonean dynasty is recorded in the books...

External links

  • Livius, The Seleucid Empire by Jona Lendering
  • Seleukids.org: An Online Sourcebook for the History, Numismatics, Epigraphy, Art and Archaeology of the Seleukid Empire, by Oliver D. Hoover
  • Genealogy of the Seleucids

  Results from FactBites:
 
empire - definition of empire - Labor Law Talk Dictionary (1660 words)
An empire (also known technically, abstractly or disparagingly as an imperium, and with powers known among Romans as "imperium") comprises a set of regions locally ruled by governors, viceroys or client kings in the name of an emperor.
For many centuries, the term "Empire" in the West applied exclusively to states which considered themselves to be successors to the Roman Empire, such as the Byzantine Empire, the Holy Roman Empire, or, later, the Russian Empire ruled from the "Third Rome" (Moscow).
Many ancient empires maintained control of their subject peoples by controlling the supply of a vital resource, usually water; historians refer to such régimes as "hydraulic empires".
Seleucid Empire (2010 words)
The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic Greek successor state of Alexander the Great's dominion.
It was the empire's governmental framework to rule by establishing hundreds of cities for trade and occupational purposes.
Demetrius Nicator's brother, Antiochus VII, was ultimately able to restore a fleeting unity and vigour to the Seleucid domains, but he too proved unequal to the Parthian threat: he was killed in battle with the Parthians in 129 BC, leading to the final collapse of the Seleucid hold on Babylonia.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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