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Selenography is the study of the surface and physical features of the Moon, especially the mapping of the features according to the Moon's latitude and longitude. The major lunar maria, craters, and mountain ranges of the Moon are the features that are studied and mapped in selenography. Jump to: navigation, search Crust composition Oxygen 43% Silicon 21% Aluminium 10% Calcium 9% Iron 9% Magnesium 5% Titanium 2% Nickel 0. ... Jump to: navigation, search Latitude, sometimes denoted by the Greek letter φ, gives the location of a place on Earth north or south of the Equator. ... Jump to: navigation, search Map of Earth showing lines of longitude, which appear curved and vertical in this projection, but are actually halves of great circles Longitude, sometimes denoted by the Greek letter λ, describes the location of a place on Earth east or west of a north-south line called... The Lunar maria (singular: mare, pronounced MAH-ray) are large, dark, basaltic plains on Earths Moon, formed by ancient basaltic flood eruptions caused by extremely large meteoroid impacts. ... This article is about impact craters, also known as meteor craters. ...


The word is derived from the Greek Selene (a lunar deity) + -ography (to write). Roman statue of the goddess Luna/Selene In Greek mythology, Selene (Σελήνη, moon) (the Roman moon goddess being Luna ) was an ancient lunar deity, and the daughter of the Titans Hyperion and Theia. ... Jump to: navigation, search A deity or a god, is a postulated preternatural being, usually, but not always, of significant power, worshipped, thought holy, divine, or sacred, held in high regard, or respected by human beings. ... Informally, an ography, (noun form -graphic) is a field of study or academic discipline ending in the noun combining form -ography. ...

Contents


Ancient History

At the beginning of recorded history, it was known that the passage of time could be determined by observing the positions and phases of the Moon. The idea that the Moon was not perfectly smooth can be traced as far back as approximately 450 BC, when Democritus believed that there were "lofty mountains and hollow valleys" on the Moon. Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 500s BC 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC - 450s BC - 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC Years: 455 BC 454 BC 453 BC 452 BC 451 BC - 450 BC - 449 BC 448 BC... Jump to: navigation, search Bust of Democritus Democritus was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher (born at Abdera in Thrace around 460 BC; died in 370 BC). ...


Selenology (not be confused with selenography), which is the astronomical study of the Moon, began around the year 300 BC, when the Babylonian astronomers accumulated enough observational data about the Moon that they were able to predict the time of lunar eclipses. This appears to be the first time that events could be predicted based on observations occurring over a long period of time. It took until approximately 450 BC however, before the phases of the Moon and the phenomena of the lunar eclipses could be explained correctly. Jump to: navigation, search Exploring Shorty crater during the Apollo 17 mission to the Moon. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC - 300s BC - 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC Years: 305 BC 304 BC 303 BC 302 BC 301 BC - 300 BC - 299 BC 298 BC... Babylonia was an ancient state in Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... An astronomer or astrophysicist is a scientist whose area of research is astronomy or astrophysics. ... Jump to: navigation, search An eclipse occurs whenever the Sun, Earth and Moon line up exactly. ...


At approximately the same time that the phases and eclipses were being understood, the Greek astronomer Hipparchus, using observations and mathematical formulae, measured the distances to the Moon as well as the sun with surprising accuracy. Clearly, the age of scientific observation of the Moon was slowly picking up interest. Jump to: navigation, search Hipparchus (Greek Ἳππαρχος) (ca. ...


The Age of Discovery

The end of the 15th century was apparently when serious study of the Moon began. Around 1603, William Gilbert compiled the first lunar drawing based on naked-eye observations. Others soon followed, and when the telescope made its appearance on the scene, drawings were begun that at first were not very accurate, but soon became better as optics improved. In 1687, Isaac Newton stated that the Moon's motion was due to the forces of gravity. (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... King James I of England/VII of Scotland, the first monarch to rule the Kingdoms of England and Scotland at the same time Events March 24 - Elizabeth I of England dies and is succeeded by her cousin King James VI of Scotland, uniting the crowns of Scotland and England April... William Gilbert (or William Gylberde) born May 24, 1544, Colchester, England died of bubonic plague December 10, 1603, London? English physician to Elizabeth I and James I and scientific researcher into magnetism and electricity. ... Jump to: navigation, search 50 cm refracting telescope at Nice Observatory. ... Optics (appearance or look in ancient Greek) is a branch of physics that describes the behavior and properties of light and the interaction of light with matter. ... Jump to: navigation, search Sir Isaac Newton at 46 in Godfrey Knellers 1689 portrait Sir Isaac Newton, PRS (25 December 1642 (OS) – 20 March 1727 (OS) / 4 January 1643 (NS) – 31 March 1727 (NS)) was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, philosopher, and alchemist. ... Jump to: navigation, search It has been suggested that Gravitational constant be merged into this article or section. ...


Other theories and discoveries were soon to come. In the early 1700s, the librations of the Moon were measured, showing that more than 50 percent of the lunar surface was visible to observers. In 1750, Johann Meyer produced the first relatively reliable set of lunar coordinates. This would enable astronomers to locate certain features on the Moon by their coordinates, making measurements of lunar features easier. Jump to: navigation, search Events and trends The Bonneville Slide blocks the Columbia River near the site of present-day Cascade Locks, Oregon with a land bridge 200 feet (60 m) high. ... Although the Moon keeps the same side towards Earth, careful observations will reveal you can actually see 59% of the Moons surface. ... Events March 2 - Small earthquake in London, England April 4 - Small earthquake in Warrington, England August 23 - Small earthquake in Spalding, England September 30 - Small earthquake in Northampton, England November 16 – Westminster Bridge officially opened Jonas Hanway is the first Englishman to use an umbrella James Gray reveals her sex... See Cartesian coordinate system or Coordinates (elementary mathematics) for a more elementary introduction to this topic. ...


Selenography, the study of the physical features of the Moon, officially began in 1779 when Johann Schröter started making meticulous observations and measurements of the lunar features. Others soon joined him, and the systematic measurement of craters and other features was under way. Jump to: navigation, search 1779 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Johann Hieronymus Schröter (August 30, 1745 – August 29, 1816) was a German astronomer. ...


All of the measurements were done by direct observation, with detailed drawings supplementing the observations. Then, in March of 1840, J.W. Draper, using a five-inch reflector, produced a daguerreotype of the Moon and thus introduced photography to the astronomical world. At first, the images were of very poor quality, but like with the telescope two hundred years earlier, they very quickly became better. By 1890 lunar photography had become a recognized branch of astronomical research. Now the astronomers could use lunar photographs to obtain precise measurements without having to stare through the telescope. 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Jump to: navigation, search An early daguerreotype, claimed by some to be Abraham Lincoln, although many experts disagree with this claim. ... 1890 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Ushering in the Space Age

The 20th century brought more advances to study of the Moon. In 1946, scientists turned a radar dish to the Moon and for the first time received a return signal, thus enabling astronomers to use this new technology for things other than for military means. Telescopes became bigger and better, computers were beginning to be used, and rockets and missiles were being launched to study the upper atmosphere of the earth. Then in 1957, the Soviet Union launched Sputnik into orbit, beginning the race for space. The United States soon followed suit, orbiting their own satellite, Explorer I. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... Jump to: navigation, search 1946 was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Jump to: navigation, search This long range radar antenna (approximately 40m (130ft) in diameter) rotates on a track to observe activities near the horizon. ... Saturns atmosphere is made up of hydorgen, helium and methane ... Jump to: navigation, search 1957 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sputnik 1 The Sputnik program was a series of unmanned space missions launched by the Soviet Union in the late 1950s to demonstrate the viability of artificial satellites. ... In physics, an orbit is the path that an object makes, around another object, whilst under the influence of a source of centripetal force, such as gravity. ... Explorer-I, officially known as Satellite 1958 Alpha, was the first United States Earth satellite and was sent aloft as part of the United States program for the International Geophysical Year 1957-1958. ...


Soon even bigger rockets and heavier payloads were launched, and on September 13, 1959, the Russian spacecraft Luna 2 impacted in the Mare Imbrium area of the Moon. Scarcely one month later, Russia's Luna 3 sent back the first photographs of the other side of the Moon, giving the world the first glimpse of the until-then unseen side of our satellite. Jump to: navigation, search September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... Jump to: navigation, search 1959 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Luna 2 was the second of the Soviet Unions Luna program spacecraft launched in the direction of the Moon. ... Oblique view of Mare Imbrium looking south towards Copernicus crater. ... Luna 3, an automatic interplanetary station of the Luna program, was the third spacecraft successfully launched to the Moon and the first to return images of the lunar far side. ... Jump to: navigation, search A satellite is any object that orbits another object (which is known as its primary). ...


Other missions followed. The United States sent Orbiters to photograph the Moon, Rangers to take photographs right down to the instant they impacted on the surface, and Surveyors to take photos and soft land on the lunar surface. All of these missions sent back photographs that were of increasingly better resolution. Then on December 24, 1968 Apollo 8, with astronauts Anders, Borman, and Lovell, became the first humans to orbit the Moon, giving the people back on Earth their own impressions and observations of the lunar surface. They were followed by Apollo 10, which stayed in lunar orbit far longer, giving us a glimpse of things to come. Lunar orbiter spacecraft (NASA) The Lunar Orbiter program was a series of five unmanned Lunar orbiter missions launched by the United States in 1966 through 1967 with the purpose of mapping the lunar surface before the Apollo landings. ... The Ranger program of unmanned space missions was the first United States attempt to obtain close-up images of the lunar surface. ... Diagram of Surveyor lunar landing spacecraft (NASA) The Surveyor Program comprised unmanned spaceflights to the Moon, with soft landings, without returning (although Surveyor 6 became the first spacecraft to lift off the moon). ... Jump to: navigation, search December 24 is the 358th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (359th in leap years). ... Jump to: navigation, search 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... Apollo 8 was the second manned mission of the Apollo space program that was launched. ... Jump to: navigation, search U.S. Space Shuttle astronaut Bruce McCandless II using a manned maneuvering unit (MMU) outside the Challenger in 1984. ... Jump to: navigation, search William A. Anders (born October 17, 1933) former National Aeronautics and Space Administration astronaut. ... Frank Borman (right) poses with Jim Lovell (left) and Bill Anders (center) for an Apollo 8 publicity photo Frank Borman (born March 14, 1928) was a NASA astronaut, best remembered as one of the three crewmembers of Apollo 8, the first mission to fly around the Moon. ... Jump to: navigation, search Portrait of Apollo 13 Commander James A. Lovell, Jr. ... Apollo 10 was the fourth manned mission in the Apollo program, and the first (and only manned Saturn V) mission to launch from pad 39B. The mission included the second crew to orbit the Moon, and the test of the lunar module in lunar orbit. ...


Then on July 20, 1969, the world held its collective breath until finally, in the middle of the afternoon, Neil Armstrong said, "Houston, Tranquillity Base here. The Eagle has landed." signifying that man had landed upon the surface of the Moon. Then, at 10:56 PM Eastern Time, Neil Armstrong stepped onto the surface with the now familiar words, "That's one small step for a Man, one giant leap for Mankind." Soon afterwards, Edwin Aldrin joined Armstrong outside the Lunar Module to set up experiments and obtain samples. Jump to: navigation, search July 20 is the 201st day (202nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 164 days remaining. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday For other uses, see Number 1969. ... Jump to: navigation, search Neil Alden Armstrong (born August 5, 1930) is a former American test pilot and astronaut who was the first man to walk on the Moon. ... Tranquillity Base was the name given by Astronaut Neil Armstrong to the landing site on the moon where the Apollo 11 Lunar Module Eagle landed. ... Jump to: navigation, search Buzz Aldrin Colonel Edwin Eugene Buzz Aldrin, Jr. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Apollo Lunar Module was the lander portion of the Apollo spacecraft built for the US Apollo program to achieve the transit from Moon orbit to the surface and back. ...


Apollo 11, and the missions that followed, marked the peak of lunar observation and exploration. The samples that Apollo 11 returned to the Earth were found to be made of mostly basaltic rock, approximately 3.7 billion years old. Based on any samples returned by the other missions, there does not seem to be much (if any) sedimentary structure in the Moon. Jump to: navigation, search The Apollo 11 mission was the first manned lunar landing. ... Basalt Basalt is an extrusive igneous rock, sometimes porphyritic, and is often both fine-grained and dense. ...


Many other items of data were obtained over the years. The diameter of the Moon is approximately 3,476 kilometers, and its orbit ranges from an apogee of 406,730 km to 356,400 km at perigee, with a mean distance from the earth of 384,400 km. This article is about several astronomical terms (apogee & perigee, aphelion & perihelion, generic equivalents based on apsis, and related but rarer terms. ... This article is about several astronomical terms (apogee & perigee, aphelion & perihelion, generic equivalents based on apsis, and related but rarer terms. ...


Lunar Anomalies

Certain aspects of the Moon continue to baffle astronomers. It has been found that the full Moon, instead of having twice the illumination of the first or last quarter Moon, is in fact almost 19 percent brighter.


Other mysteries concern lunar features that have apparently changed. One of the most famous cases concerns the lunar crater Linne in the are of Mare Serenitatis. In 1834, the German astronomer Lohrmann stated that the crater can be seen under all angles of illumination, and is the second most conspicuous crater on the Moon. The astronomer Johann Madler observed an interior shadow when the sun had attained an angle of 30 degrees, so the crater must be deep. Johann Schmidt also showed the crater on drawings during the years 18411843. Then on October 16, 1866, Schmidt observed that Linne had somehow disappeared. Where once was a larger crater, there was instead a small whitish patch. It remains like this to this day. This is a subset of the list of craters on the Moon. ... A map of Mare Serenitatis. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1834 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... J. H. von Mädler. ... Johann Friedrich Julius Schmidt (October 25, 1825 – February 7, 1884) was a German astronomer. ... 1841 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1843 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Jump to: navigation, search October 16 is the 289th day of the year (290th in Leap years). ... 1866 is a common year starting on Monday. ...


Another subject concerns transient lunar phenomena. For years, amateur astronomers have reported seeing strange colors on the Moon, especially in the Alphonsus and Aristarchus regions. These types of observations gained credibility when on November 13, 1958, the Soviet astronomer Nikolai Kozyrev saw a brightening at the central peak in the crater Alphonsus. He photographed its spectrum, which showed carbon-vapor emissions. Suddenly amateurs appeared to been vindicated. These areas are still of interest today. During the Apollo 11 missions, Houston Control asked the astronauts to observe Aristarchus, as events had recently been reported by astronomers. These areas are still under observation by the lunar section of the British Astronomical Association and the Association of Lunar and Planetary Observers in the United States. A transient lunar phenomenon (TLP) is a sometimes inexplicable change of color or shape seen on the surface of the moon. ... The word amateur has at least two connotations. ... Alphonsus is an ancient impact crater on Earths Moon that dates from the immediate post-Nectarian era. ... Aristarchus is a prominent lunar impact crater that lies in the northwest part of the Moons near side. ... Jump to: navigation, search November 13 is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 48 days remaining. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1958 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jump to: navigation, search Nikolai Alexandrovich Kozyrev (1908–1983) was a Russian astronomer. ... A materials emission spectrum is the amount of electromagnetic radiation of each frequency it emits when it is heated (or more generally when it is excited). ... An aerial view of the complete Johnson Space Center facility in Houston, Texas in 1989. ... The British Astronomical Association, BAA, is the main national association of amateur astronomers in the UK. It was founded in London in 1890. ...


Source

  • The Rise And Fall of Lunar Observing – by Kevin S. Jung, Argo Navis Observatory (used by permission)

See also

Jump to: navigation, search Exploring Shorty crater during the Apollo 17 mission to the Moon. ... The Lunar maria (singular: mare, pronounced MAH-ray) are large, dark, basaltic plains on Earths Moon, formed by ancient basaltic flood eruptions caused by extremely large meteoroid impacts. ... This is a list of maria (singular mare) on the Moon. ... This is a list of the craters on the Moon. ... The Moons surface is covered in many interesting geologic features. ... This is a list of mountains on the Moon: // Mountains These are isolated mountains or massifs. ... The Moons surface is covered in many interesting features. ... The first serious attempts at naming the features of the Earths moon as seen through a telescope were made by Michel Florent van Langren in 1645. ... Planetary science, also known as planetology or planetary astronomy, is the science of planets and the solar system, and incorporates an interdisciplinary approach drawing from diverse sciences. ... Jump to: navigation, search Selenographic coordinates are used to refer to locations on the surface of Earths moon. ...

Selenographers

Edmund Neison, whose real name was Edmund Neville Nevill, wrote a key text in selenography called The Moon and the condition and configuration of its surface and later set up an observatory in Durban, Natal Province. ...

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