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Encyclopedia > Selective breeding

Selective breeding in domesticated animals is the process of a breeder developing a cultivated breed over time, and selecting qualities within individuals of the breed that will be best to pass on to the next generation. The term is synonymous with "Artificial selection". Breeding techniques such as inbreeding, linebreeding and outcrossing are utilized by breeders in the maintenance and improvement of their chosen breeds. Domesticated animals, plants, and other organisms are those whose collective behavior, life cycle, or physiology has been altered as a result of their breeding and living conditions being under human control for multiple generations. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... This article concerns Breeder, an occupation in agriculture, animal husbandry, or animal fancy. ... A breed is a domesticated subspecies or infrasubspecies of an animal. ... This Chihuahua mix and Great Dane show the wide range of dog breed sizes created using artificial selection. ... Breeding has several meanings related to procreation: In animal husbandry and in horticulture the selection of stock for propagation and the act of insemination by natural or artificial means is called breeding. ... Inbreeding is breeding between close relatives, whether plant or animal. ... Linebreeding is a form of inbreeding practiced by some animal breeders to fix desirable traits in a breed of animal, without as high a risk of producing undesirable traits that may occur with close inbreeding. ... Outcrossing is the practice of introducing unrelated genetic material into a breeding line. ...


Charles Darwin discussed how selective breeding had been successful in producing change over time in his book, Origin of Species. The first chapter of the book discusses selective breeding and domestication of such animals as pigeons, dogs and cattle. Selective breeding was used by Darwin as a springboard to introduce the theory of natural selection, and to support it.[1] For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... The 1859 edition of On the Origin of Species First published in 1859, The Origin of Species (full title On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life) by British naturalist Charles Darwin is one of the pivotal... Dogs and sheep were among the first animals to be domesticated. ... Pigeon redirects here. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domestic subspecies of the wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Breeding stock

"Breeding stock" is a term used to describe a group of animals used for purpose of planned breeding. When individuals are looking to breed animals, they look for certain valuable traits in purebred stock for a certain purpose, or may intend to use some type of crossbreeding to produce a new type of stock with different, and presumably superior abilities in a given area of endeavor. Purebreds, also called purebreeds, are cultivated varieties or cultivars of an animal species, achieved through the process of selective breeding. ... Crossbreeding is the process of creating hybrids (also known as crossbreeds, or a description of the lineage of that which has undergone hybridization. ...


For example, to breed chickens, a typical breeder intends to receive eggs, meat, and new, young birds for further reproduction. Thus the breeder has to study different breeds and types of chickens and analyze what can be expected from a certain set of characteristics before he or she starts breeding them. Accordingly, when purchasing initial breeding stock, the breeder seeks a group of birds that will most closely fit the purpose intended. A breed is a domesticated subspecies or infrasubspecies of an animal. ...


Purebred breeding

See also: Purebred

Mating animals of the same breed for maintaining such breed is referred to as purebred breeding. Opposite to the practice of mating animals of different breeds, purebred breeding aims to establish and maintain stable traits, that animals will pass to the next generation. By "breeding the best to the best," employing a certain degree of inbreeding, considerable culling, and selection for "superior" qualities, one could develop a bloodline or "breed" superior in certain respects to the original base stock. Purebreds, also called purebreeds, are cultivated varieties or cultivars of an animal species, achieved through the process of selective breeding. ... Inbreeding is breeding between close relatives, whether plant or animal. ... A breed is a domesticated subspecies or infrasubspecies of an animal. ...


Such animals can be recorded with a breed registry, the organisation that maintains pedigrees and/or stud books. A breed registry, also known as a stud book or register, in animal husbandry and the hobby of animal fancy, is an official list of animals within a specific breed whose parents are known. ... A pedigree is a list of ancestors (usually implying distinguished), a list of ancestors of the same breed (usually in the case of animals), the purity of a breed, individual, or strain, or a document proving any of these things. ... A breed registry, also known as a stud book, is an official list of animals within a specific breed whose parents are known. ...


The observable phenomenon of hybrid vigor stands in contrast to the notion of breed purity. However, on the other hand, indiscriminate breeding of crossbred or hybrid animals may also result in degradation of quality.[citation needed] Heterosis is increased strength of different characteristics in hybrids; the possibility to obtain a better individual by combining the virtues of its parents. ... This article is about a biological term. ...


Backyard breeding

The term backyard breeder is a general term, sometimes considered derogatory, used in USA to describe people who breed animals without selection for important genetic traits. Usually describes those who allow animals, particularly dogs or horses, to procreate regardless of physical or genetic health as opposed to breeders who intentionally screen and select their brood for important characteristics. Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized...


Scientific research

Selective breeding is also used in research to produce transgenic animals that breed "true" (i.e. are homozygous) for artificially inserted or deleted genes.[citation needed] A genetically modified organism is an organism whose genetic material has been deliberately altered. ... Homozygote cells are diploid or polyploid and have the same alleles at a locus (position) on homologous chromosomes. ... A gene knockout is a genetically engineered organism that carries one or more genes in its chromosomes that has been made inoperative. ...


See also

This Chihuahua mix and Great Dane show the wide range of dog breed sizes created using artificial selection. ... A breed registry, also known as a stud book or register, in animal husbandry and the hobby of animal fancy, is an official list of animals within a specific breed whose parents are known. ... Breeding has several meanings related to procreation: In animal husbandry and in horticulture the selection of stock for propagation and the act of insemination by natural or artificial means is called breeding. ... Breeding back is an attempt to assemble the genes of an extinct subspecies or domesticated breed, which may still be present in the larger gene pool of the overall species or other interbreedable species. ... In evolutionary biology, the field of experimental evolution is concerned with testing the theory of evolution in controlled experiments. ... Marker assisted selection or marker aided selection (MAS) is a process whereby a marker (morphological, biochemical or one based on DNA/RNA variation) is used for indirect selection of a genetic determinant or determinants of a trait of interest (i. ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... Quantitative genetics is the study of continuous traits (such as height or weight) and its underlying mechanisms. ...

References

  1. ^ *Darwin, Charles (2004). The Origin of Species. London: CRW Publishing Limited. ISBN 1904633781. 

For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ...

External links

  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: In situ conservation of livestock and poultry, 1992.
  • Source for scientific research on animal breeding
Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Selective breeding (724 words)
Selective breeding in domesticated animals is the process of developing a cultivated breed over time.
Selective breeding is used as a springboard to introduce the theory of natural selection, and to support it.
Selective breeding is also used in research to produce transgenic animals that breed true (i.e.
Subcommittee A: Selective Breeding and Hybridization (607 words)
Through processes known as selective breeding and hybridization, farmers and other plant breeders create crops that have many desirable characteristics and few undesirable ones.
Selective breeding uses plants that exhibit the most desirable traits to pollinate for seed.
Other plants are selectively chosen for their ability to survive on less water and are planted in areas prone to drought.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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