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Encyclopedia > Selective Service System
Selective Service System

Seal of the Selective Service System Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (763 × 762 pixel, file size: 147 KB, MIME type: image/gif) This image is a work of a United States Selective Service System employee, taken or made during the course of the persons...

Created: May 18, 1917
(By the Selective Service Act)
Established: September 16, 1940 (By Selective Training and Service Act of 1940)
Deactivated: March 25, 1975 (By the Presidential Proclamation 4360: Terminating Registration Procedures Under Military Selective Service Act)
Reactivated: July 2, 1980
(By the Military Selective Service Act)
Director: William A. Chatfield
Budget: $24.3 million
(2007 Estimate)
Employees: 139 civilian
250 part-time military reserve officers
(2007 Estimate)

The Selective Service System is the means by which the United States administers military conscription. It entails registering all men between the ages of 18 and 25 with the system for the purpose of having information available about potential soldiers in the event of war. May 18 is the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (139th in leap years). ... Year 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... September 16 is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years). ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... March 25 is the 84th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (85th in leap years). ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... July 2 is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 182 days remaining. ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ...

Contents

History

Main article: Selective Service Act

The Selective Service Act (40 Stat. 76) was passed by the Congress of the United States on 18 May 1917 creating the Selective Service System. The Act gave the President the power to draft men for military service. It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Congress in Joint Session. ... May 18 is the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (139th in leap years). ... Year 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ...


The Selective Training and Service Act of 1940 was passed by the Congress of the United States on September 16, 1940, becoming the first peacetime conscription in United States history. September 16 is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years). ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ...


The original Act was allowed to expire in 1947 because it was thought that a sufficient number of volunteers would enlist for the nation's defense. The number of volunteers was not enough, however, and a new draft act was passed in 1948. Between 1948 and 1967 several draft laws were enacted.


On March 25, 1975, Pres. Gerald Ford signed Proclamation 4360, Terminating Registration Procedures Under Military Selective Service Act, eliminating the registration requirement for all 18-25 year old male citizens. Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ...


Then on July 2, 1980, Pres. Jimmy Carter signed Proclamation 4771, Registration Under the Military Selective Service Act, retroactively re-establishing the Selective Service registration requirement for all 18-26 year old male citizens born on or after January 1, 1960. For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ...


Only men born between March 29, 1957, and December 31, 1959, were completely exempt from Selective Service registration.


Current status

The United States abandoned the draft in 1973 under President Richard Nixon, ended the Selective Service registration requirement in 1975 under President Gerald Ford, and then re-instated the Selective Service registration requirement in 1980 under President Jimmy Carter. Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ...


Today the Selective Service System remains as a contingency, should a military draft be re-introduced.


Under current law, all male U.S. citizens are required to register with Selective Service within 30 days of their 18th birthday. Certain male aliens residing in the U.S., including those present illegally, are also required to register if they are between 18 and 26 years of age. "Willful" failure or refusal to present oneself for registration is against the law.


In 1980, young men who knew they were required to register who did not do so could face up to five years in jail or a fine up to $50,000 if convicted. The potential fine was later increased to $250,000. Despite these possible penalties, government records indicate that from 1980 through 1986 there were only 20 indictments,[1] of which 19 were instigated in part by self-publicized and self-reported non-registration. (As one of the elements of the offense, the government must prove that a violation of the Military Selective Service Act was knowing and willful. This is almost impossible unless the prospective defendant has publicly stated that he knew he was required to register or report for induction, or unless he has been visited by the FBI, personally served with notice to register or report for induction, and given another chance to comply.) The last prosecution for nonregistration was in January 1986, after which many believed the government declined to continue prosecutions when it became apparent that the trials were themselves causing a decline in registration. By 1984, 13% of 18 year old men were not registering.[2]


As an alternative method of encouraging registration, federal legislators and most state legislators passed laws requiring that to receive financial aid, federal grants and loans, and certain government benefits, a young man had to be registered with Selective Service. Organized efforts to aid those losing benefits include Fund for Education and Training (FEAT)[3] and Student Aid Fund for Nonregistrants.[4]


In the current registration system one cannot indicate that he is a conscientious objector (CO) to war when registering, but he can make such a claim when being drafted. Some men choose to write on the registration card I am a conscientious objector to war to document their conviction, even though the government will not have such a classification until there is a draft.[5] John T. Neufeld was a WWI conscientious objector sentenced to 15 years hard labour in the military prison at Leavenworth. ...


Today, the most likely form of draft is a one of health care workers.[6] In 1987, Congress ordered the Selective Service System to put in place a system capable of drafting "persons qualified for practice or employment in a health care occupation", if such a special-skills draft should be ordered by Congress. In response, Selective Service published plans for the "Health Care Personnel Delivery System" (HCPDS) in 1989 and has had them ready ever since. The concept underwent a preliminary field exercise in Fiscal Year 1998, followed by a more extensive nationwide readiness exercise in Fiscal Year 1999.[7] The HCPDS plans include women and men age 20–54 in 57 job categories.[8]


Legal Issues

Although the Selective Service System is authorized by the Selective Service Act, some argue the constitutionality of the act, claiming the law violates the Thirteenth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution by providing for military conscription. Opponents of the law contend that the draft constitutes "involuntary servitude", under the amendment, which states: It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Amendment XIII (the Thirteenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution officially abolished, and continues to prohibit, slavery, and, with limited exceptions such as those convicted of a crime, prohibits involuntary servitude. ... Page I of the Constitution of the United States of America Page II of the United States Constitution Page III of the United States Constitution Page IV of the United States Constitution The Syng inkstand, with which the Constitution was signed The Constitution of the United States is the supreme...

Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

This has not been supported by the courts; as the Supreme Court said in Butler v. Perry,[9] 240 U.S. 328 (1916): // The United States Reports, the official reporter of the Supreme Court of the United States Case citation is the system used in common law countries such as the United States, England and Wales, Ireland, Canada, New Zealand, Hong Kong, Australia and India to uniquely identify the location of past court...

The amendment was adopted with reference to conditions existing since the foundation of our government, and the term 'involuntary servitude' was intended to cover those forms of compulsory labor akin to African slavery which, in practical operation, would tend to produce like undesirable results. It introduced no novel doctrine with respect of services always treated as exceptional, and certainly was not intended to interdict enforcement of those duties which individuals owe to the state, such as services in the army, militia, on the jury, etc.

Exemption of women

The issue of women being exempted was addressed and approved in 1981 by the United States Supreme Court in Rostker v. Goldberg, with the Court holding "The existence of the combat restrictions clearly indicates the basis for Congress' decision to exempt women from registration. The purpose of registration was to prepare for a draft of combat troops. Since women are excluded from combat, Congress concluded that they would not be needed in the event of a draft, and therefore decided not to register them."[10] The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States... Holding The Acts registration provisions do not violate the Fifth Amendment. ...


Structure and operation

The System is an independent agency within the Executive Branch of the Federal government of the United States. The executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law and running the day-to-day affairs of the government or state. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      The government of the United States of America, established by the U.S. Constitution, is a...


A lottery is held in full view of the public, which is covered by the media. First, all days of the year are placed into a capsule at random. Second, the numbers 1-365 (1-366 for lotteries held in a leap year) are placed into a second capsule. These two capsules are certified for procedure, sealed in a drum, and stored. A Leap Year (or intercalary year) is a year containing an extra day (or, in case of lunisolar calendars, an extra month) in order to keep the calendar year synchronised with the astronomical or seasonal year. ...


In the event of a draft, the drums are taken out of storage and inspected to make sure they have not been tampered with. The lottery then takes place, and each date is paired with a number at random. For example, if January 16 is picked from the "date" capsule and the number 59 picked from the "number" capsule, all men of age 20 born on January 16 will be required to report for conscription only after men with birthdays paired with numbers 1-58 are inducted. In other words, birth dates paired with the lowest number are inducted first. If all dates are used, the Selective Service will then conscript men at the age of 21, then 22, 23, 24, and 25. Men ages 18 and 19 are not likely to be inducted to the system. Once all dates are paired, the dates will be sent to Selective Service System's Data Management Center.


Classifications

If a draft were held, local draft boards would classify registrants to determine whether they were exempt from military service. According to US Code Title 32, Chapter XVI, Sec. 1630.2, men would be sorted into the following categories:

Class Category
1-A Available for unrestricted military service.
1-A-O Conscientious objector available for noncombatant military service only.
1-C Member of the Armed Forces of the United States, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration or the Public Health Service.
1-D-D Deferment for certain members of a reserve component or student taking military training.
1-D-E Exemption of certain members of a reserve component or student taking military training.
1-H Active Registrant (*All registrants currently in the database have this classification)
1-O Conscientious objector to all military service. A registrant must establish to the satisfaction of the board that his request for exemption from combatant and noncombatant military training and service in the Armed Forces is based upon moral, ethical or religious beliefs which play a significant role in his life and that his objection to participation in war is not confined to a particular war.
1-O-S Conscientious objector to all military service.
1-W Conscientious objector ordered to perform alternative service.
2-D Registrant deferred because of study preparing for the ministry.
3-A Registrant deferred because of hardship to dependents.
3-A-S Registrant deferred because of hardship to dependents (separated).
4-A Registrant who has completed military service.
4-A-A Registrant who has performed military service for a foreign nation.
4-B Official deferred by law.
4-C Alien or dual national.
4-D Minister of religion.
4-F Registrant not acceptable for military service. To be eligible for Class 4-F, a registrant must have been found not qualified for service in the Armed Forces by a Military Entrance Processing Station (MEPS) under the established physical, mental, or moral standards. The standards of physical fitness that would be used in a future draft would come from AR 40-501.
4-G Registrant exempted from service because of the death of his parent or sibling while serving in the Armed Forces or whose parent or sibling is in a captured or missing in action status.
4-T Treaty alien.
4-W Registrant who has completed alternative service in lieu of induction.

John T. Neufeld was a WWI conscientious objector sentenced to 15 years hard labour in the military prison at Leavenworth. ... John T. Neufeld was a WWI conscientious objector sentenced to 15 years hard labour in the military prison at Leavenworth. ...

Directors

Director[11] Tenure Appointed by
1. Clarence Addison Dykstra 1940-10-15 - 1941-04-01 Franklin D. Roosevelt
2. Lewis Blaine Hershey 1941-07-31 - 1970-02-15 Franklin D. Roosevelt
Dee Ingold 1970-02-15 - 1970-04-06 (Acting)
3. Dr. Curtis W. Tarr 1970-04-06 - 1972-05-01 Richard Nixon
Byron V. Pepitone 1972-05-01 - 1973-04-01 (Acting)
4. Byron V. Pepitone 1973-04-02 - 1977-07-31 Richard Nixon
Robert E. Shuck 1977-08-01 - 1979-11-25 (Acting)
5. Bernard D. Rostker 1979-11-26 - 1981-07-31 Jimmy Carter
Dr. James G. Bond 1981-08-01 - 1981-10-30 (Acting)
6. Thomas K. Turnage 1981-10-30 - 1986-10-23 Ronald Reagan
Wilfred L. Ebel 1986-10-24 - 1987-07-08 (Acting)
Jerry D. Jennings 1987-07-09 - 1987-12-17 (Acting)
7. Samuel K. Lessey Jr. 1987-12-18 - 1991-03-07 Ronald Reagan
8. Robert W. Gambino 1991-03-08 - 1994-01-31 George H. W. Bush
G. Huntington Banister 1994-02-01 - 1994-10-06 (Acting)
9. Gil Coronado 1994-10-07 - 2001-05-23 Bill Clinton
10. Alfred V. Rascon 2001-05-24 - 2003-01-02 George W. Bush
Lewis C. Brodsky 2003-01-03 - 2004-04-28 (Acting)
Jack Martin 2004-04-29 - 2004-10-28 (Acting)
11. William A. Chatfield 2004-10-29 - George W. Bush

Clarence Addison Dykstra (1883 - 1950) was a U.S. administrator. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... October 15 is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years). ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 274 days remaining. ... FDR redirects here. ... Lewis Blaine Hershey (September 12, 1893 - May 20, 1977) was the second Director of the Selective Service System, the means by which the United States administers its military conscription. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... July 31 is the 212th day (213th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 153 days remaining. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1970 calendar). ... February 15 is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1970 calendar). ... February 15 is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1970 calendar). ... April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1970 calendar). ... April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 274 days remaining. ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... April 2 is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 273 days remaining. ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ... July 31 is the 212th day (213th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 153 days remaining. ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ... August 1 is the 213th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (214th in leap years), with 152 days remaining. ... For the song by The Smashing Pumpkins, see 1979 (song). ... November 25 is the 329th (in leap years the 330th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by The Smashing Pumpkins, see 1979 (song). ... November 26 is the 330th day (331st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 31 is the 212th day (213th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 153 days remaining. ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 1 is the 213th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (214th in leap years), with 152 days remaining. ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 30 is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 62 days remaining. ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 30 is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 62 days remaining. ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 23 is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 24 is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 68 days remaining. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 8 is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 176 days remaining. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 9 is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 175 days remaining. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Gregorian Calendar, December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years), at which point there will be 13 days remaining to the end of the year. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 7 is the 66th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (67th in leap years). ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 8 is the 67th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (68th in leap years). ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... January 31 is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... George Herbert Walker Bush GCB (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States of America serving from 1989 to 1993. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... February 1 is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... October 6 is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years). ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... October 7 is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 23 is the 143rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (144th in leap years). ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 24 is the 144th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (145th in leap years). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 2 is the second day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 3 is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 28 is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 247 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 29 is the 119th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (120th in leap years). ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 28 is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 64 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 29 is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

The United States has employed conscription (mandatory military service, also called the draft) several times, usually during war but also during the nominal peace of the Cold War. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Prosecutions of Draft Registration Resisters
  2. ^ Men and Women Who Dare to Say No.
  3. ^ Fund for Education and Training
  4. ^ Student Aid Fund for Nonregistrants
  5. ^ Brethren Witness, Peace and Justice, Conscientious Objection
  6. ^ Health Care Personnel Delivery System: Another Doctor Draft? (Wisconsin Medical Journal, 2004)
  7. ^ MedicalDraft.info
  8. ^ Health Care Personnel Delivery System regulations
  9. ^ Butler v. Perry
  10. ^ ROSTKER v. GOLDBERG, 453 U.S. 57 (1981)
  11. ^ Past Directors Of The Selective Service System

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Selective Service System - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1441 words)
The Selective Service System is the means by which the United States administers military conscription.
The Selective Training and Service Act of 1940 was passed by the Congress of the United States on September 16, 1940, becoming the first peacetime conscription in United States history.
Although the Selective Service System is authorized by the Selective Service Act, some argue the constitutionality of the act, claiming the law violates the Thirteenth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution by providing for military conscription.
Selective Service Act - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (979 words)
This Selective Service Act required that men between the ages 21 and 30 register with local draft boards.
A new selective service act was passed in 1948 that required all men between 18 and 26 register and that made men from 19 to 26 liable for induction for 21 months' service, which would be followed by 5 years of reserve duty.
Though the United States halted conscription in 1973, the Selective Service remains as a means to register American males upon reaching the age of 18 as a contingency should the measure be reintroduced.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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