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Encyclopedia > Sejmik generalny

A sejmik (diminutive of the Polish sejm, or parliament) was a regional sejm in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and earlier in the Kingdom of Poland. Sejmiks lasted unti the end of the Commonwealth in 1795 after the partitions of Poland. In modern Poland, there are voivodship sejmiks (Polish: Sejmik wojewódzki). This article is about the lower chamber of Polish parliament. ... Insert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text here:This article is about the legislative institution. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Jagiellon Era 1385-1572, was dominated by the union of Poland with Lithuania under the Jagiellon Dynasty, founded by the Lithuanian grand duke Jagiello. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Partitions of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, commonly known as the Partitions of Poland (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Padalijimas) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Voivodship sejmiks (Polish: ) are the legislatures of the Voivodships of Poland. ...


History

Sejmiks arose from the 1454 Nieszawa Statutes, granted to the szlachta by King Casimir IV the Jagiellonian. In the first third of the 15th century general sejmiks were fist held, which gave rise in 1493 to the national Sejm. Events February 4 - In the Thirteen Years War, the Secret Council of the Prussian Confederacy sends a formal act of disobedience to the Grand Master. ... The Nieszawa Statutes (Polish: statuty nieszawskie) were a set of laws enacted in the Kingdom of Poland in 1454, in the town of Nieszawa. ... Polish szlachcic. ... Look up monarch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Reign From 1446 until June 7, 1492 Coronation On June 25, 1447 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Jagiellon Parents Władyslaw II Jagiełło Zofia Holszańska Consorts Elżbieta Rakuszanka Children with Elżbieta Rakuszanka Władysław II Jagiellończyk Jadwiga Jagiellonka Kazimierz Swięty Jan I Olbracht Aleksander Jagiellończyk Zofia Elżbieta Zygmunt I... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... 1493 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the lower chamber of Polish parliament. ...


In the 16th century the leading force at sejmiks was the middle nobility; later this passed to the magnates (magnaci). Lithuanian Sejmiks in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania were much more dominated by the magnates then the Crown (Poland proper) ones. Sejmiks attained a peak of importance at the turn of the 17th and 18th centuries, when they often set their own time-limits — that is, extended their authorized periods of operation. Such abuses were suppressed by acts of the one-day Silent Sejm (Polish: sejm niemy) of 1717. (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... For a wealthy or powerful business baron, executive, or tycoon, see business magnate Magnate is a title of nobility commonly used in Sweden, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and some other medieval empires. ... The presumable banner of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with the coat of arms, called Пагоня in Belarusian, Vytis in Lithuanian and PogoÅ„ in Polish Another version of the Lithuanian banner The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuvos Didžioji KunigaikÅ¡tystÄ—, Belarusian: Вялі́кае Кня́ства Літо́ўскае (ВКЛ), Ukrainian: Велике Князівство Литовське (ВКЛ), Polish: Wielkie KsiÄ™stwo Litewskie) was an... Crown of the Polish Kingdom, or just colloquially the Crown (Polish:Korona) is the archaic name for territories of Poland, distinguishing them from territories of Grand Duchy of Lithuania or vassal territories like Duchy of Prussia or Duchy of Courland, which had varying degrees of autonomy. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Silent Sejm (Polish: Sejm Niemy) is the name given to the session of the Sejm (parliament) of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth of 1 February 1717. ... // Events January 4 — The Netherlands, Britain & France sign Triple Alliance February 26-March 6 What is now the northeastern United States was paralyzed by a series of blizzards that buried the region. ...


Features

Sejmiks were held usually on a large, open field. There were three kinds of sejmik:

  • general (Polish: generalny, Latin conventiones generales), held in western Poland (Greater Poland, Polish: Wielkopolska) at Kolo, in southern Poland (Little Poland, Polish: Małopolska) at Nowe Miasto Korczyn, in Mazovia (Polish: Mazowswze) at Warsaw, in Red Ruthenia at Sadowa Wisznia, and in Lithuania at Volkovysk. The general sejmiks were composed of delegates elected at the provincial sejmiks. Their goal was to agree on position for the Sejm Walny and issue instructions for the deputies on how they were supposed to vote during the Sejm Walny.
  • provincial or territorial (Polish: ziemski, latin conventiones particulares, conventiones terrestrae) (in every voivodship). Their importance was highest in the 15th century, and has diminished with the formation of Sejm Walny. Since then they had been relegated to dealing with local matters, and electing deputies for sejmik generalny and sejm walny.
  • county (powiat) (Polish: powiatowy).

They could meet for special purposes: Greater Poland (also Great Poland; Polish: Wielkopolska, German: Grosspolen, Latin: Polonia Maior) is one of the historical regions of Poland. ... Koło. ... Lesser Poland voivodship since 1999 Lesser Poland (sometimes also referred to as Little Poland, Polish MaÅ‚opolska, Latin Polonia Minor) is one of the historical regions of Poland. ... Nowy Korczyn (50°18´ / 20°49´) also known as Khadash, Nayshtut, Neustadt, Novi Kochin and Novi Kortchin, known formerly as Nowe Miasto Korczyn, is a village at the mouth of Nida river, where it meets the Wistula river in Busko-Zdrój County, Świętokrzyskie Voivodship, Poland. ... Masovian voivodship since 1999 The Masovian Voivodship (in Polish województwo mazowieckie) is the largest and most populous of the sixteen Polish administrative regions or voivodships created in 1999. ... Warsaw (Polish: , (?), in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto StoÅ‚eczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... The Ruthenian Voivodship (Polish: Województwo Ruskie) (1366-1772) was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Kingdom of Poland. ... VaÅ­kavysk (Belarusian: ) is a town in the Minsk Province of Belarus. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... A Voivodship (also voivodeship, Romanian: voievodat, Polish: województwo, Serbian: vojvodstvo or vojvodina) was a feudal state in medieval Romania, Hungary, Poland, Russia and Serbia (see Vojvodina), ruled by a Voivod (voivode). ... A powiat (pronounced povyat; plural, powiaty) is the Polish third-level unit of administration, equivalent to a county, district or prefecture (NUTS-3) in some countries. ...

  • Pre-sejm (Polish: przedsejmowe) sejmiks elected 1 to 6 deputies (poslowie) (depending on the size and importance of the given sejmik's territory) to the ordinary General Sejm (Polish: Sejm Walny) that was held every two years for six weeks, and to any extraordinary General Sejm that might be called at any time in an emergency, to sit for two weeks. Sometimes pre-sejm sejmiks are referred to as electoral. In some cases, a sejmik could be colled for two viovodship - in that case it could elect more then 6 deputies.
  • Electoral (Polish: elekcyjne) sejmiks elected higher voivodship officials.
  • Relational (Polish: relacyjne) sejmiks heard the relations of deputies returned from the General Sejm, usually presenting the law (konstytucje sejmowe) decreed by the Sejm.
  • Deputational (Polish: deputackie) sejmiks elected deputies (deputaci) to tribunals (Crown Tribunal and Lithuanian Tribunal) since the times of king Stefan Batory.
  • Administrative (or economic, Polish: gospodarcze) sejmiks oversaw voivodship self-government.

Sejmiks were called by the king or the governor (voivod) of the province (voivodship). King or his representative decreed the important matters sejmiks should debate in the letter, so called King Legation (Polish legacja królewska). All the nobility (szlachta) residing in a voivodship were eligible to participate in sejmiks (and only the nobility from the given territory, this was confirmed by the nihil novi constitution); other estates sent only delegations with an advisory voice. Each sejmik elected a sejmik marshal ( marszalek sejmiku: presiding officer of the sejmik, similar to the marshal of the sejm at national Sejms). A sejmik could be disrupted with liberum veto, which eventuality was guarded against by the formation (as at sejms) of a confederation, which obliged majority voting. The Sejm building in Warsaw. ... A tribunal commonly refers to a judicial proceeding with two or more persons who act as judges. ... Crown Tribunall (Polish: TrybunaÅ‚ Koronny) was the second and highest appeal court in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth for most cases, exceptions being the cases were a noble landowner was threatened with loss of life and/or property - then he could appeal to the Sejm court (parliament court). ... Stefan Batory (1533-1586) was Prince of Transylvania (1571-1575), then King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania (1575-1586). ... Voivod or (more common) voivoda is a Slavic term initially denoting first in command of a military unit. ... A Voivodship (also voivodeship, Romanian: voievodat, Polish: województwo, Serbian: vojvodstvo or vojvodina) was a feudal state in medieval Romania, Hungary, Poland, Russia and Serbia (see Vojvodina), ruled by a Voivod (voivode). ... Polish szlachcic. ... A fragment of this article needs translation from Polish into English. ... Marszałek sejmu (Sejm Marshal, Marshal of the Sejm) is the title of the Speaker (chair) of Sejm the lower house of Polish parliament since the 15th century. ... Liberum veto (Latin: free veto) was a parliamentary device in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth that allowed any deputy to a Sejm to force an immediate end to the current session and nullify all legislation already passed at it. ... Confederated sejm (Polish: sejm skonfederowany) was a form of sejm in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the 18th century. ... Simple majority voting is a straightforward form of voting whereby the option with a simple majority of votes wins. ...


See also:


  Results from FactBites:
 
sejmik: Information from Answers.com (615 words)
A Sejmik (diminutive of the Polish "Sejm," or Parliament) was a regional sejm in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and earlier in the Kingdom of Poland.
Sejmiks arose from the 1454 Nieszawa Statutes, granted to the szlachta by King Casimir IV Jagiellon.
Sejmiks were called by the king or the governor (voivod) of the province (voivodeship).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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