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Encyclopedia > Sejm
The Sejm building in Warsaw.
The Sejm building in Warsaw.
For the Lithuanian and Latvian parliaments, see Seimas and Saeima. For the river, see Sejm River.

The Sejm (pronounced: [sɛjm] ) is the lower house of the Polish parliament, its history dating back to 1182. Sejm, lower house of the Polish parliament. ... Warsaw (Polish: , (?), in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto StoÅ‚eczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... Seimas is the Lithuanian parliament. ... The Saeima Plenary Chamber The Saeima is the parliament of the Republic of Latvia. ... Seym (also transliterated as Seim and Sejm, in Russian and Ukrainian: ) is a river in Russia and Ukraine. ... The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... Image File history File links Sejm. ... A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house. ... States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in orange and red—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, and the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... Events Canute VI crowned king of Denmark. ...


Before the 20th century, the term "Sejm" referred to the entire three-chamber Polish parliament, comprising the lower house (Chamber of Deputies; Polish: Izba Poselska), the upper house (Senate; Polish: Senat) and the King. It was commonly termed a three-estate parliament. Since the Second Polish Republic (1918-1939), the term "Sejm" has referred only to the lower house of the parliament; the upper house is called the "Senat". (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Many parliaments or other legislatures consist of two chambers: an elected lower house, and an upper house or Senate which may be appointed or elected by a different mechanism from the lower house. ... An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the lower house. ... The Polish Senate The Senate (Senat) is the upper house of the Polish parliament. ... Look up monarch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Second Polish Republic 1921-1939 The Second Polish Republic is an unofficial name applied to the Republic of Poland between World War I and World War II. When the borders of the state were fixed in 1921, it had an area of 388. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Polish Senate The Senate (Senat) is the upper house of the Polish parliament. ...

Contents

History

Sejm of the Kingdom of Poland and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

Poland

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Poland
The Kingdom of Poland during period of fragmentation was the Polish state in the years between the death of Bolesław III the Wrymouth in 1138 and the coronation of Władysław I the Elbow-high in 1320. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1932x2407, 4465 KB) [edit] Summary Coat of arms of the Republic of Poland Made by Aotaearoa, based on the official specifications in Coat of arms, Colors and Anthem of the Republic of Poland, and State Seals Act (Dz. ... Politics of Poland takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ...


Constitution
President: Lech Kaczyński

National Assembly
Senate
Sejm Flag of the President of Poland The President of the Republic of Poland (Polish: Prezydent Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej) is directly elected by the people to serve a term of five years. ... , (born June 18, 1949) is a Polish politician of the conservative party Prawo i Sprawiedliwość (Law and Justice, PiS). ... The National Assembly (Zgromadzanie Narodowe) is the name of both chambers of the Polish parliament, the Sejm and the Senate, when sitting in joint session. ... The Polish Senate The Senate (Senat) is the upper house of the Polish parliament. ...

Prime Minister: Jarosław Kaczyński
Council of Ministers
Ministries
Law
Supreme Court
Constitutional Tribunal
State Tribunal
Supreme Administrative Court
Supreme Chamber of Control
Attorney General
Ombudsman
Political Parties:
LPR UPR PD PiS PO PSL

SDPL SLD SRP UP The Prime Minister of the Republic of Poland represents the Council of Ministers (the Cabinet) and directs their work, supervises territorial self-government within the guidelines and in ways described in the Constitution and other legislation, and acts as the superior for all government administration workers (heading the public service...   born June 18, 1949, is the Prime Minister of Poland since July 2006 and chairman of the Law and Justice (Polish: ) party which he co-founded in 2001. ... The Council of Ministers (cabinet), or Polish government, consists of ministers, heads of departments of ministerial rank, and heads of central institutions. ... // Existing ministries Ministerstwo Finansów (Ministry of Finances) Ministerstwo Spraw Zagranicznych (Ministry of Foreign Affairs) Ministerstwo Spraw WewnÄ™trznych i Administracji (Ministry of Internal Affairs and Administration) Ministerstwo SprawiedliwoÅ›ci (Ministry of Justice) Ministerstwo Obrony Narodowej (Ministry of National Defence) Ministerstwo Rolnictwa i Rozwoju Wsi ( Ministry of Agriculture and Rural... Polish law is a legal system in Poland. ... The Supreme Court of Poland supervises the adjudication in: General courts - these are district, voivodeship, and appeal courts. ... The Constitutional Tribunal of Poland is a judicial body established to resolve disputes on the constitutionality of the activities of state institutions; its main task is to supervise the compliance of statutory law with the Constitution of the Republic of Poland. ... The State Tribunal of Poland is the judicial body, which rules on the constitutional liability of people holding the highest offices of state. ... The Supreme Administrative Court of Poland (Polish: Naczelny SÄ…d Administracyjny) is the court of last resort in administrative cases i. ... The Supreme Chamber of Control (Polish: Najwyższa Izba Kontroli, short: NIK) is one of the oldest state institutions in Poland, created under the Second Republic on February 7, 1919, barely 3 months after the restoration of Polands independence. ... The Attorney General of Poland (Polish: Prokurator Generalny) is the top prosecuting officer in Poland. ... List of the Polish Ombudsmen: Ewa Łętowska - November 19, 1987 - February 12, 1992 Tadeusz ZieliÅ„ski - February 13, 1992 - May 7, 1996 Adam ZieliÅ„ski - May 8, 1996 - June 29, 2000 Andrzej Zoll - from June 30, 2000 Official site Categories: Poland-related stubs | Politics of Poland ... Political parties in Poland lists political parties in Poland. ... The League of Polish Families (Liga Polskich Rodzin, or LPR) is a conservative extremist political party within the Polish Parliament, and a coalition partner in Polands current ruling government. ... Unia Polityki Realnej (Real Politics Union) is a conservative free-market party in Poland. ... The Democratic Party () is a social liberal party in Poland, publicly announced on February 28 and formally established on May 9, 2005 as an enlargement of the Freedom Union (Unia WolnoÅ›ci), which it legally succeeds. ... Prawo i Sprawiedliwość (Or in English: Law and Justice) is a Polish conservative political party. ... Citizens Platform (Platforma Obywatelska, often also called Civic Platform) is a Polish liberal (libertarian) political party. ... The Polish Peasant Party (Polish: Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe) is a political party in Poland. ... The Social Democratic Party of Poland (Socjaldemokracja Polska, SDPL) is a new leftist political party in Poland founded in April 2004 as a splinter group from Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej (it should not be confused with a former party Social Democracy of the Republic of Poland - SdRP). ... Democratic Left Alliance (Polish: Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej, SLD) is one of the main Polish social democratic political parties. ... Self-Defense of the Republic of Poland (Polish: Samoobrona Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej, SO or SRP) is a political party and trade union in Poland. ... Labor Union (Unia Pracy) is a Polish political party. ...

Elections
Presidential (after 1989):
1990 1995 2000 2005
Parliamentary (after 1989):
1989 1991 1993 1997 2001 2005
European Parliament:
2004
Polish referenda
Local elections:
2002
Voivodeships
See also
Economy
Foreign relations
History
Military

EU Politics Elections in Poland gives information on election and election results in Poland. ... Presidential elections were held in Poland on Sunday November 25 (1st round), and Sunday December 9, 1990 (2n round). ... Presidential elections were held in Poland on Sunday November 5 (1st round), and Sunday November 19, 1990 (2n round). ... Presidential elections were held in Poland on Sunday October 8. ... Presidential elections were held in Poland on October 9 and October 23, 2005. ... Contract Sejm (Polish: ) is a term commonly applied to the Polish Parliament elected in the Polish parliamentary elections of 1989. ... Sejm election Senat election Categories: Politics of Poland | 1991 elections | Elections in Poland | 1991 in Poland ... Sejm election German Minority - 4 MPs Senat election Categories: Politics of Poland | 1993 elections | Elections in Poland | 1993 in Poland ... Sejm election German Minority - 2 MPs Senat election Categories: Politics of Poland | 1997 elections | Elections in Poland ... Sejm election German Minority - 2 MPs Senat election Categories: Politics of Poland | 2001 elections | Elections in Poland ... Parliamentary elections for both houses of the Parliament of Poland were held on September 25, 2005. ... Elections to the European Parliament were held in Poland on June 13, 2004. ... There have been several referenda in history of Poland. ... Local elections in Poland SLD-UP - 6644 (14,19%) PSL - 4986 (10,65%) Samoobrona - 1530 (3,27%) LPR - 1065 (2,27%) PiS - 217 (0,46%) PO - 213 (0,45%) PO-PiS - 85 (0,18%) Unia Samorządowa - 4 (0,01%) Alternatywa - 1 (0,00%) UPR - 0 (0,00%) other comitets... SLD-UP - 6644 (14,19%) PSL - 4986 (10,65%) Samoobrona - 1530 (3,27%) LPR - 1065 (2,27%) PiS - 217 (0,46%) PO - 213 (0,45%) PO-PiS - 85 (0,18%) Unia Samorządowa - 4 (0,01%) Alternatywa - 1 (0,00%) UPR - 0 (0,00%) other comitets - 32088 (68,52%) sum... The voivodeship (Polish: województwo) has been a second-level administrative unit in Poland since the 14th century. ... Poland became a full member of NATO in March 1999, and of the European Union in May 2004. ... In the period following its emergence in the 10th century, the Polish nation was led by a series of strong rulers who converted the Poles to Christianity, created a strong Central European state and integrated Poland into European culture. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Image File history File links European_flag. ...


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The power of early sejms grew during the times of Poland's fragmentation (1146-1295), when the power of individual rulers waned and various councils and wiece grew stronger. The history of the Sejm dates back to 1182 and the first Sejm at Łęczyca. From 1493 forward, the indirect elections were repeated every two years. With the development of the unique Polish Golden Liberty the Sejm's powers increased. Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... In the first centuries of its existence, the Polish nation was led by a series of strong rulers who converted the Poles to Christendom, created a strong Central European state, and integrated Poland into European culture. ... Removal of the veche bell from Novgorod to Moscow in 1478. ... Events Canute VI crowned king of Denmark. ... Łęczyca (in full The Royal Town of Łęczyca, Polish: Królewskie Miasto Łęczyca) is a town in central Poland. ... 1493 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Golden Liberty (latin: Aurea Libertas, Polish: Złota Wolność, sometimes used in plural form; this phenomena can be also reffered to as Golden Freedoms, Nobles Democracy or Nobles Commonwealth, Polish: Rzeczpospolita Szlachecka) refers to a unique democratic political system in the Kingdom of Poland and later, after...

A wiec in the time of King Kazimierz the Great (14th-century Poland).
A wiec in the time of King Kazimierz the Great (14th-century Poland).

The term "sejm" comes from an old Polish expression denoting a meeting of the populace. Since the 14th century irregular sejms (described in various sources as latin contentio generalis, conventio magna, conventio solemna, parlamentum, parlamentum generale, dieta or Polish sejm walny) have been called by Polish kings. Since 1374 (przywilej koszycki), the king had to receive sejm permission to raise taxes. The General Sejm (Polish Sejm Generalny or Sejm Walny), first convoked by the king John I Olbracht in 1493 near Piotrków, evolved from earlier regional and provincial meetings (sejmiks. It followed most closely the sejmik generally), which arose from the 1454 Nieszawa Statutes, granted to the szlachta by King Casimir IV the Jagiellonian. Since 1493 Sejm Walny has been meeting irregulary, on average once a year. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Removal of the veche bell from Novgorod to Moscow in 1478. ... Casimir the Great Casimir III the Great (Polish: Kazimierz Wielki), (1310-1370), King of Poland, son of king WÅ‚adyslaw I Łokietek (Wladyslaw the Elbow High), 1305-1333 and Jadwiga of Gniezno and Great Poland. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Events June 24 - Dancing mania begins in Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen), possibly due to ergotism King Gongmin is assassinated and King U ascends to the Goryeo throne Births April 11 - Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, heir to the throne of England (died 1398) Leonardo Bruni, Italian humanist (died 1444... A tax (also known as a duty) is a financial charge or other levy imposed on an individual or a legal entity by a state or a functional equivalent of a state (e. ... Reign From September 23, 1492 until June 17, 1501 Coronation On September 23, 1492 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Jagiellon Parents Kazimierz IV Jagiellończyk Elżbieta Rakuszanka Consorts None Children None Date of Birth December 27, 1459 Place of Birth Kraków, Poland... 1493 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Piotrków Trybunalski is a town in central Poland with 81,200 inhabitants (2004). ... A sejmik (diminutive of the Polish sejm, or parliament) was a regional sejm in the pre-partition Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and earlier in the Kingdom of Poland. ... Events February 4 - In the Thirteen Years War, the Secret Council of the Prussian Confederacy sends a formal act of disobedience to the Grand Master. ... The Nieszawa Statutes (Polish: statuty nieszawskie) were a set of laws enacted in the Kingdom of Poland in 1454, in the town of Nieszawa. ... Polish szlachcic. ... Reign From 1446 until June 7, 1492 Coronation On June 25, 1447 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Jagiellon Parents Władyslaw II Jagiełło Zofia Holszańska Consorts Elżbieta Rakuszanka Children with Elżbieta Rakuszanka Władys&#322...


The first Sejm was composed of two chambers:

  • A Senate of 81 bishops and other dignitaries
  • A lower house, Sejm proper, of 54 deputies (Polish poseł, representing and elected by the local sejmiki)

The number of deputies in the lower chamber grew in number and power as they pressured the king for more privileges. The spur toward action increased when landowners were drafted into military service (pospolite ruszenie). After 1569 Union of Lublin, the Kingdom of Poland was transformed into the federation of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Sejms number was increased with the inclusion of the deputies from Lithuanian Sejmiks. A senate is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature. ... It has been suggested that Valid Bishops be merged into this article or section. ... Offices in Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth article presents the organizational structure and administrative system of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Chamber of Deputies is the name given to a legislative body, which may either be the lower house of a bicameral legislature, or the name of a unicameral one. ... A sejmik (diminutive of the Polish sejm, or parliament) was a regional sejm in the pre-partition Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and earlier in the Kingdom of Poland. ... A lower house (sometimes known as the first chamber) is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with levée en masse. ... Events January 11 - First recorded lottery in England. ... The Union of Lublin, painted by Jan Matejko The Union of Lublin (Lithuanian: Liublino unija; Belarusian: Лю́блінская ву́нія; Polish: Unia lubelska) - signed on July 1, 1569 in Lublin, united the Kingdom of Poland and the... The Kingdom of Poland of the Jagiellons was the Polish state in the years between the death of Casimir III in 1370 and the Union of Lublin in 1569. ... A map displaying todays federations. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


Sejms severely limited the king's powers. They had the final decision in legislation, taxation, budget, and treasury matters (including military funding), foreign affairs and ennoblement. In 1573 Sejm guaranteed religious tolerance in the Commonwealth territory, making it a refuge from the ongoing reformation and counter-reformation wars. Bold textJAMES CHECKLEY Legislation (or statutory law) is law which has been promulgated (or enacted) by a legislature or other governing body. ... Budget generally refers to a list of all planned expenses and revenues. ... The term treasury was first used in classical times to describe the votive buildings erected to house gifts to the gods, such as the Siphnian Treasury in Delphi or the many buildings put up in Olympia, Greece by competing city-states, to impress each other during the Ancient Olympic Games. ... This article is about a journal. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Freedom of religion is the individuals right or freedom to hold whatever religious beliefs he or she wishes, or none at all. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... The Counter-Reformation or the Catholic Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism. ...


Until The Union of Lublin, Sejms were held near Piotrkow in the Warsaw Royal Castle. Since 1673 each third Sejm was to take place in Grodno in Lithuania. It began with a ceremonial mass, the Kanclerz (Chancellor) decreed the king's intentions, and then the senators had a voice. Afterwards, the king and Senate debated on the most important matters (usually foreign affairs), while deputies debated separately under the leadership of the marshal of the sejm. In matters deemed very important, both senat and the sejm debated together in the chamber of the senate. The legislation was drafted in the lower chamber (Sejm). Members of the Sejm presented its proposed legislation to the gathered deputies of the Sejm, where they were discussed at length. The legislation was commonly negotiated by a deputation from the lower house (Sejm) with the upper chamber (Senate) and the reigning monarch (considered to be a third, separate Sejm chamber on his own). Hrodna (or Grodno; Belarusian: Го́радня, Гро́дна; Grodno in Polish, Гродно in Russian, Gardinas in Lithuanian) is a city in Belarus on the Nemunas river, close to the borders of Poland and Lithuania... Mass is a property of a physical object that quantifies the amount of matter and energy it is equivalent to. ... Kanclerz (Polish for Chancellor, from latin:castellanus) was one of the highest officials in the historic Poland. ... Marszałek sejmu (Sejm Marshal, Marshal of the Sejm) is the title of the Speaker (chair) of Sejm the lower house of Polish parliament since the 15th century. ... A lower house (sometimes known as the first chamber) is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house. ... Bold textJAMES CHECKLEY Legislation (or statutory law) is law which has been promulgated (or enacted) by a legislature or other governing body. ... An upper house (sometimes known as a second chamber) is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the lower house. ...

Jan Matejko, "The First Sejm, 1182" (held at Łęczyca). Oil on canvas, 1888, National Museum, Warsaw.
Jan Matejko, "The First Sejm, 1182" (held at Łęczyca). Oil on canvas, 1888, National Museum, Warsaw.

The king could not pass the laws himself without the approval of the Sejm, this being forbidden by szlachta privileges like nihil novi from 1505. According to the "Nihil Novi" constitution a law passed by the Sejm had to be agreed by the three estates (the king, the Senate and deputies from the Sejm). King Henry's Articles, signed by each king since 1573, required the king to call a general sejm (lasting six weeks) every two years, and provisions for the extraordinary sejm (Polish: sejm ekstraordynaryjny, nadzwyczajny) were also set down in this act. Extraordinary sejms could be called in times of national emergency and last shorter, for example, a sejm deciding whether to call pospolite ruszenie should not last longer than two weeks. The First Sejm, 1182 by Matejko This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The First Sejm, 1182 by Matejko This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Jan Matejko , self-portrait Jan Matejko (aka Jan Mateyko; Free City of Kraków, July 28, 1838 – November 1, 1893, Kraków, was a Polish artist famous for paintings of notable Polish political and military events. ... Łęczyca (in full The Royal Town of Łęczyca, Polish: Królewskie Miasto Łęczyca) is a town in central Poland. ... Warsaw (Polish: , (?), in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto StoÅ‚eczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... A fragment of this article needs translation from Polish into English. ... 1505 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... King Henrys Articles - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Events January - articles of Warsaw Confederation signed, sanctioning religious freedom in Poland. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with levée en masse. ...


The Marshal (or Speaker) of the Sejm concluded the debates, but he was required to ask the members whether his understanding of the chamber's views was correct and unanimously accepted. If anyone declared his opposition (Latin contradictio), the debate would be reopened and would continue until the opponents of the measure abandoned their opposition. Marszałek sejmu (Sejm Marshal, Marshal of the Sejm) is the title of the Speaker (chair) of Sejm the lower house of Polish parliament since the 15th century. ...


Until the end of 16th century, unanimity, was not required and majority voting was most common. Later, with the rise of the magnates power, unanimity principle was reinforced with the szlachta right of liberum veto (from Latin, meaning: I don't allow). The pro-majority voting party almost disappeared in the 17th century, and majority voting was preserved only at the confederated sejms (sejm rokoszowy, konny, konfederacyjny). To increase the chance of unanimity agreement voting was delayed until an agreement has been reached (often through lengthy discussions). It was enough if no formal exception was taken by anyone – even if some opposition did exist, it would not necessarily be upheld. If, however, the deputies could not attain even such passive unanimity, or if the chamber's negotiations with the king proved futile, then after six weeks (the upper time limit of its sittings) had elapsed, the deliberations as a whole were declared null and void. Rarely, a deputy from a local sejmik could object to the agreement and be granted an exception from this law, allowing it to pass. From the mid-17th century onwards, any objection to a Sejm resolution from either a deputy or a senator automatically caused other, previously approved resolutions to be rejected. This was because all resolutions passed by a given Sejm formed a whole and were published as constitutions of the Sejm e.g. Anno Domini 1667. (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Unanimity is near complete agreement by everyone. ... Simple majority voting is a straightforward form of voting whereby the option with a simple majority of votes wins. ... For a wealthy or powerful business baron, executive, or tycoon, see business magnate Magnate is a title of nobility commonly used in Sweden, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and some other medieval empires. ... Liberum veto (Latin: free veto) was a parliamentary device in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth that allowed any deputy to a Sejm to force an immediate end to the current session and nullify all legislation already passed at it. ... Confederated sejm (Polish: sejm skonfederowany) was a form of sejm in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the 18th century. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ...

In 1791, the "Great" or Four-Year Sejm of 1788–1792 adopts the May 3rd Constitution at the Royal Castle, Warsaw.
In 1791, the "Great" or Four-Year Sejm of 17881792 adopts the May 3rd Constitution at the Royal Castle, Warsaw.

In the 16th century no single person or small group dared to hold up proceedings, but from second half of 17th century the liberum veto was used to paralyze the Sejm and brought the Commonwealth to the brink of collapse. The liberum veto was finally abolished by the Constitution of 3rd May in 1791. Download high resolution version (1188x762, 653 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (1188x762, 653 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Sejm Czteroletni (Four-Year Sejm, also known as Sejm Wielki, the Great Sejm) was a Sejm of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth held in Warsaw, inaugurated in 1788. ... 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... May 3rd Constitution (painting by Jan Matejko, 1891). ... Royal Castle, Warsaw. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... May 3rd Constitution (painting by Jan Matejko, 1891). ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


The early statutes passed by the Sejm were called "constitution" (Polish konstytucja or konstytucja sejmowa) and should not be confused with modern meaning of this word. The konstytucja passed by the Sejm had denoted all the legislation, of whatever character, that had been passed at a Sejm. Only with the May 3rd Constitution in 1791 did "konstytucja" assume its modern sense of a fundamental document of governance. A statute is a formal, written law of a country or state, written and enacted by its legislative authority, perhaps to then be ratified by the highest executive in the government, and finally published. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


The final version of approved acts (which from the late 15th century until the early 16th century were divided into perpetual and temporary constitutions ('constitutiones perpetuae' and 'constitutiones temporales')) were drawn up at the sealing sessions, held after the close of the Sejm debate. These sessions were attended by the chancellor, the Speaker of the Sejm and members from the Sejm and the Senate. From the end of the 16th century, the constitutions they signed were printed, stamped with the royal seal, and sent to the chancelleries of the municipal councils of all voivodships of the Crown and also to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. After 1543 the resolutions were written in Polish rather than Latin. Those resolutions were presented soon after the Sejm to local meetings, known as sejmiki relacyjne. In accordance with the act of 1613, immediately after the close of Sejm debates, the constitutions it had passed were published by entering them in the registers where the Sejm had met. Copies still had to be sent to municipal councils (urzędy grodzkie) throughout the country, where they were added to the municipal registers (księgi grodzkie). (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Various governments have a Chancellor who serves as some form of junior or senior minister. ... MarszaÅ‚ek sejmu (English: Marshal of the Sejm, Sejm Marshal, or Speaker of the Sejm) is the title of the speaker (chair) of the Sejm (since the 15th century, the lower house of the Polish parliament). ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Printing is an industrial process for reproducing copies of texts and images, typically with ink on paper using a printing press. ... The Privy Seal of England can be traced back to the reign of King John. ... Chancellery is the office of the chancellor, sometimes also reffered to as the chancery. ... Municipal council (conseil municipal)(maire) Despite enormous differences in population, each of the communes of the French Republic possesses a mayor (maire) and a municipal council (conseil municipal) which manage the commune from the mairie (city hall), with exactly the same powers no matter the size of the commune (with... A Voivodship (also voivodeship, Romanian: voievodat, Polish: województwo, Serbian: vojvodstvo or vojvodina) was a feudal state in medieval Romania, Hungary, Poland, Russia and Serbia (see Vojvodina), ruled by a Voivod (voivode). ... For usages of The Crown in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, see Crown of the Polish Kingdom. ... The presumable banner of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with the coat of arms, called Пагоня in Belarusian, Vytis in Lithuanian and PogoÅ„ in Polish Another version of the Lithuanian banner The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuvos Didžioji KunigaikÅ¡tystÄ—, Belarusian: Вялі́кае Кня́ства Літо́ўскае (ВКЛ), Ukrainian: Велике Князівство Литовське (ВКЛ), Polish: Wielkie KsiÄ™stwo Litewskie) was an...


It is estimated that since 1493 and 1793 sejms were held 240 times, and total debate time was 44 years.

Sejm hall. See: 360° Panoramic View.
Sejm hall. See: 360° Panoramic View.

It can be noted that the expression 'Polish parliament' (in Swedish: Polsk riksdag) is commonly used in modern Scandinavian languages to denote organizational anarchy and disorder, a wording that connotates the veto right in the Polish Sejm. Image File history File links Sejm_hall. ... Image File history File links Sejm_hall. ...


Sejm of the Second Polish Republic

Second Polish Republic 1921-1939 The Second Polish Republic is an unofficial name applied to the Republic of Poland between World War I and World War II. When the borders of the state were fixed in 1921, it had an area of 388. ...

Sejm of the People's Republic of Poland

The Sejm in the People's Republic of Poland had 460 deputies over most of its history. At first this number was declared to represent 1 deputy per 60,000 citizens (425 were elected in 1952), but later as the population grew that connection was dropped from the constitution (in 1960). The constitution stated that the deputies were responsible before the people and could be recalled by the people, but this article was never used. Instead of the Five-point electoral law, a four-point version was used (not proportional). Legislation was passed with majority voting. The Peoples Republic of Poland or Polish Peoples Republic (Polish: Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL) was the official name of Poland from 1952 to 1989, during its period of rule by the Communist party, officially called the Polish United Workers Party (Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza, or PZPR). ... Five-point electoral law, of five-adjectives election, refers to the elections thet are: universal direct equal propotional anonymous (secret ballot) [1] Categories: | ... Simple majority voting is a straightforward form of voting whereby the option with a simple majority of votes wins. ...


The Sejm would vote on the budget as well as on the periodic "national plans" that were a fixture of communist economies. The Sejm would deliberate in sessions, which were called forth by the State Council. Budget generally refers to a list of all planned expenses and revenues. ... A planned economy most often refers to an economic system that is under comprehensive control and regulation by a government in accordance with a plan of economic development. ... A meeting of the Council of State during the 1960s The Council of State of the Republic of Poland was introduced by the 1947s Small Constitution. ...


The Sejm would also chose a "presiding" body (Prezydium) from its members, with marshal of the Sejm always being a member of the Polish United Worker's Party. In its first sitting the Sejm would also nominate the Prime Minister together with other ministers (the Council of Ministers of Poland) and members of the State Council. It would also chose many other government officials, including the head of The Supreme Chamber of Control (Najwyższa Izba Kotroli, NIK), members of The State Tribunal (Trybunał Stanu) and Constitutional Tribunal (Trybunał Konstytucjny) as well as the Ombudsman (Rzecznik Praw Obywatelskich). The latter three institutions were created in the 1980s. Marszałek sejmu (Sejm Marshal, Marshal of the Sejm) is the title of the Speaker (chair) of Sejm the lower house of Polish parliament since the 15th century. ... The Polish United Workers Party (PUWP; in Polish, Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza, PZPR), was the governing political party in communist-ruled Poland from its creation (through a fusion of the communist Polish Workers Party and the left wing of the Polish Socialist Party) in December 1948 until the regimes... This is a list of Prime Ministers of Poland. ... The Council of Ministers (cabinet), or Polish government, consists of ministers, heads of departments of ministerial rank, and heads of central institutions. ... The Supreme Chamber of Control (Polish: Najwyższa Izba Kontroli, short: NIK) is one of the oldest state institutions in Poland, created under the Second Republic on February 7, 1919, barely 3 months after the restoration of Polands independence. ... The State Tribunal of Poland is the judicial body, which rules on the constitutional liability of people holding the highest offices of state. ... The Constitutional Tribunal of Poland is a judicial body established to resolve disputes on the constitutionality of the activities of state institutions; its main task is to supervise the compliance of statutory law with the Constitution of the Republic of Poland. ... Polish Ombudsman (Polish: Rzecznik Praw Obywatelskich, often abbreviated RPO) is an independent central office of the Republic of Poland. ...


The Senate of Poland was abolished by the Polish people's referendum, 1946 and after this the Sejm became the sole legislative body in Poland. The Polish Senate The Senate (Senat) is the upper house of the Polish parliament. ... Peoples referendum (referendum ludowe) of 1946, also know as 3 times YES (3 razy TAK) was a referendum held in Poland on 30 June 1946 on the authority of State National Council (Krajowa Rada Narodowa) (order of 27 April 1946). ...


Sejm of the Republic of Poland

After the fall of communism in 1989, the Senate was reinstated as the upper house of a bicameral National Assembly, while the Sejm became the lower house. The Sejm now comprises 460 deputies elected by proportional representation every four years. In the 1970s and 1980s the whole system in Poland was deeper and deeper in the crisis and was beginning to crumble as was the whole Eastern bloc with the USSR as the fading superpower. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... The National Assembly (Zgromadzanie Narodowe) is the name of both chambers of the Polish parliament, the Sejm and the Senate, when sitting in joint session. ... Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation, or PR), is an electoral system delivering a close match between the percentage of votes that the political parties obtain in elections and the percentage of seats they receive in legislative assemblies. ...


From 7 to 19 deputies are elected from each electorate using the d'Hondt method, their number being proportional to the electorate's population. Additionally, a threshold is used, so that only candidates from parties which gained at least 5% (8% for registered coalitions) of the nationwide vote can be chosen. Candidates from ethinic minority parties are exempt from this threshold. Finally, the 2001 elections differed slightly from those in previous and subsequent years in that the Sainte-Laguë method, rather than the d'Hondt, was used. The DHondt method is a highest averages method for allocating seats in party-list proportional representation. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... The Sainte-Laguë method of the highest average (sometimes identified with Websters method or divisor method with standard rounding) is one way of allocating seats proportionally for representative assemblies with party list voting systems. ...


Standing committees

  • Administration and Internal Affairs Committee
  • Agriculture and Rural Development Committee
  • Committee on Liaison with Poles Abroad
  • Constitutional Accountability Committee
  • Culture and Media Committee
  • Deputies' Ethics Committee
  • Economic Committee
  • Education, Science and Youth Committee
  • Enterprise Development Committee
  • Environment Protection, Natural Resources and Forestry Committee
  • European Union Affairs Committee
  • Family and Women Rights Committee
  • Foreign Affairs Committee
  • Health Committee
  • Infrastructure Committee
  • Justice and Human Rights Committee
  • Legislative Committee
  • Local Self-Government and Regional Policy Committee
  • National and Ethnic Minorities Committee
  • National Defence Committee
  • Physical Education and Sport Committee
  • Public Finances Committee
  • Rules and Deputies' Affairs Committee
  • Social Policy Committee
  • Special Services Committee
  • State Control Committee
  • State Treasury Committee
  • Work Committee

Last election

[discuss] – [edit]
Summary of the 25 September 2005 National Assembly (Sejm and Senat) election results
Parties Votes % Seats Sejm +/- Seats Senat
Law and Justice (Prawo i Sprawiedliwość, PiS) 3,185,714 27.0 155 +111 49
Civic Platform (Platforma Obywatelska, PO) 2,849,259 24.1 133 +68 34
Self-Defense of the Republic of Poland (Samoobrona RP) 1,347,355 11.4 56 +3 3
Democratic Left Alliance (Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej, SLD) 1,335,257 11.3 55 -161 -
League of Polish Families (Liga Polskich Rodzin, LPR) 940,726 8.0 34 -4 7
Polish Peasant Party (Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe, PSL) 821,656 7.0 25 -17 2
Social Democracy of Poland (Socjaldemokracja Polska, SDPL)   3.9 -   -
Democratic Party (Partia Demokratyczna)   2.5 -   -
Janusz Korwin-Mikke Platform (Platforma Janusza Korwin-Mikke, PJKM)   1.6 -   -
Patriotic Movement (Ruch Patriotyczny)   1.1 -   -
Polish Labour Party (Polska Partia Pracy, PPP)   0.8 -   -
German Minority Electoral Committee (Komitet Wyborczy Mniejszość Niemiecka) 34,469 0.3 2    
Independents         5
Total (turnout 40.6 %) 11,804,676   460   100
*Registered voters: 30,338,316
  • Votes counted: 12,255,875
  • Invalid votes: 451,199
  • Valid votes: 11,804,676

The National Assembly (Zgromadzanie Narodowe) is the name of both chambers of the Polish parliament, the Sejm and the Senate, when sitting in joint session. ... Prawo i Sprawiedliwość (Or in English: Law and Justice) is a Polish conservative political party. ... Citizens Platform (Platforma Obywatelska, often also called Civic Platform) is a Polish liberal (libertarian) political party. ... Self-Defense of the Republic of Poland (Polish: Samoobrona Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej, SO or SRP) is a political party and trade union in Poland. ... Democratic Left Alliance (Polish: Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej, SLD) is one of the main Polish social democratic political parties. ... The League of Polish Families (Liga Polskich Rodzin, or LPR) is a conservative extremist political party within the Polish Parliament, and a coalition partner in Polands current ruling government. ... The Polish Peasant Party (Polish: Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe) is a political party in Poland. ... Social Democracy of Poland (Socjaldemokracja Polska, SDPL) is a new leftist political party in Poland founded in April 2004 as a splinter group from Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej (it should not be confused with a former party Socialdemocracy of the Republic of Poland - SdRP). ... The Democratic Party () is a liberal party in Poland, publicly announced on February 28 and formally established on May 9, 2005 as an enlargement of the Freedom Union (Unia Wolności), which it legally succeeds. ... ... The Polish Labour Party (Polska Partia Parcy) is a minor political party in Poland which describes itself as social democratic. ...

See also

Confederated sejm (Polish: sejm skonfederowany) was a form of sejm in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the 18th century. ... Contract Sejm (Polish: ) is a term commonly applied to the Polish Parliament elected in the Polish parliamentary elections of 1989. ... Convocation sejm (Polish: sejm konwokacyjny) was a special sejm in pre-partition Poland that, upon vacancy of the throne, was summoned to Warsaw by the primate of the Roman Catholic Church in Poland, acting as interrex. ... Election sejm (Polish: sejm elekcyjny) was one of three kinds of special sejm in pre-partition Poland. ... Election sejm (Polish: sejm elekcyjny) was one of three kinds of special sejm in pre-partition Poland. ... Sejm Czteroletni (Four-Year Sejm, also known as Sejm Wielki, the Great Sejm) was a Sejm of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth held in Warsaw, inaugurated in 1788. ... New Castle in Grodno, where the Grodno Sejm took place. ... The National Assembly (Zgromadzanie Narodowe) is the name of both chambers of the Polish parliament, the Sejm and the Senate, when sitting in joint session. ... Politics of Poland takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... Repnin Sejm (Polish: ) was a Sejm (session of the Polish parliament) that took place from 1767 to 1768 in Warsaw, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Silent Sejm (Polish: Sejm Niemy) is the name given to the session of the Sejm (parliament) of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth of 1 February 1717. ... Silesian Sejm (Sejm being a Polish word for parliament) was the governing body of the Autonomous Silesian Voivodship, an autonomous Voivodship of Poland between 1920 and 1939. ... Voivodship sejmiks (Polish: ) are the legislatures of the Voivodships of Poland. ...

References

  • official website
  • Description of the modern Sejm's role in the Polish political system
  • CNN Election Watch

  Results from FactBites:
 
Sejm of the Republic of Poland (1057 words)
The dominance of the Sejm over the Senate in the legislative process is constitutionally guaranteed; the Sejm may also (by a three-fifths majority vote, in the presence of at least half of the statutory number of Deputies) reenact a statute which has been referred by the President for reconsideration.
The Sejm's confidence (expressed by an absolute majority vote in the presence of at least half of the statutory number of Deputies) forms an indispensable premise for the existence of a government composed by the President.
The Sejm may shorten its term of office by a resolution passed by a majority of at least two-thirds of the votes of the statutory number of Deputies (i.e.
Sejm - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1691 words)
1.1 Sejm of the Kingdom of Poland and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Sejm of the Kingdom of Poland and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
The General Sejm (Polish Sejm Generalny or Sejm Walny), first convoked by the king John I Olbracht in 1493 near Piotrków, evolved from earlier regional and provincial meetings (sejmiks, especially from sejmik generaly), which arose from the 1454 statute of Nieszawa, granted to the szlachta by King Casimir IV the Jagiellonian.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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