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Encyclopedia > Seine
Seine
The Seine viewed from the Eiffel Tower. The Place de la Concorde is at top right.
Origin Burgundy
Mouth The English Channel
Basin countries France
Length 776 km (482 mi)
Source elevation 471 m (1,545 ft)
Avg. discharge 500 m³/s (17,660 ft³/s)
Basin area 78,650 km² (30,367 mi²)

The Seine (pronounced /sɛn/ in French) is a major river of north-western France, and one of its commercial waterways. It is also a tourist attraction, particularly within the city of Paris. This is an alphabetical list of rivers, which are at least partially located in France. ... The Seine River is the name of several rivers in Canada: there is a Seine River in Ontario there is a Seine River in Manitoba For the French river, see Seine. ... Seine was a département of France encompassing Paris and its immediate suburbs. ... Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish by hooking, trapping, or gathering. ... Fishermen catching salmon on the Columbia River using a seine. ... The river Seine in Paris, from the Eiffel Tower. ... The Eiffel Tower (French: , ) is an iron tower built on the Champ de Mars beside the River Seine in Paris. ... The Place de la Concorde seen from the Pont de la Concorde; in front, the Obelisk, behind, the Rue Royale and the Church of the Madeleine; on the left, the Hôtel de Crillon. ... River Wey near its source at Farringdon, Hampshire Headstream is the origin of water flow that initiates the subject watercourse. ... Coat of arms of the second Duchy of Burgundy and later of the French province of Burgundy Burgundy (French: ; German: ) is a historic region of France, inhabited in turn by Celts (Gauls), Romans (Gallo-Romans), and various Germanic peoples, most importantly the Burgundians and the Franks; the former gave their... Satellite view of the English Channel The English Channel (French: , the sleeve) is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean that separates the island of Great Britain from northern France and joins the North Sea to the Atlantic. ... A drainage basin is the area within the drainage basin divide (blue outline), and drains the surface runoff and river discharge (green lines) of a contiguous area. ... River Wey near its source at Farringdon, Hampshire Headstream is the origin of water flow that initiates the subject watercourse. ... In hydrology, the discharge of a river is the volume of water transported by it in a certain amount of time. ... For other uses, see River (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of France. ...

Contents

Origin of the name

The name "Seine" comes from the Latin Sequana, which itself comes from Gaulish (Celtic) Sicauna. The name Sicauna is made up of Celtic sakw, which means "sacred" and comes from the Proto-Indo-European root *sak- (which also gave Latin sacer and sanctus, which in turn gave English sacred and saint), and from a Celtic (or more probably Pre-Indo-European) suffix -onna which means "source, river", and which can be found in the name of many rivers of western Europe (such as the Garonne or the Dordogne). The name "Sakw -onna" ("sacred source", "sacred river"), is also the name of several other western European rivers, such as the Saône River, and possibly also the River Shannon. Another proposed etymology posits that Sequana is the Latin version of Gaulish Isicauna. Is-Icauna would be the diminutive of Icauna, which was the Gaulish name of the Yonne River. The ancient Gauls considered the Seine to be a tributary of the Yonne, which indeed presents a greater average discharge than the Seine (the river flowing through Paris would be called Yonne if the standard rules of geography were applied). Icauna comes from the Pre-Indo-European roots inka -onna. Further research will be needed to decide between the two etymologies. For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... In Celtic and Roman mythology, Sequanna (or Sequana) was the goddess of the river Seine and its environs. ... Gaulish is name given to the now-extinct Celtic language that was spoken in Gaul before the Romans, the Franks and the British Celts invaded. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Celtic languages are a branch of the Indo-European languages. ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Map showing the Neolithic expansions from the 7th to the 5th millennium BCE Europe in ca. ... -onna is a presumed hydronymic suffix. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Dordogne (Occitan: Dordonha) is a river in south-central and southwest France. ... The Saône is a river of eastern France. ... Carrick-on-Shannon-Bridge Leitrim Shannon-Bridge Offaly The River Shannon (Irish: altenatively Sionna), Irelands longest river, divides the West of Ireland (mostly the province of Connacht) from the east and south (Leinster and most of Munster). ... Yonne is a river in France, tributary of the Seine. ... Gallia (in English Gaul) is the Latin name for the region of western Europe occupied by present-day France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ...

The Seine starts near Dijon in northern France flows through Paris and into the English Channel.
The Seine starts near Dijon in northern France flows through Paris and into the English Channel.

Further downstream in what is now Normandy, the Seine was known as Rodo, or Roto, which is a traditional Celtic name for rivers, and is also the original name of the Rhône River (see Rhône article for further explanations). This is proved by the name of Rouen, which was Rotomagos in Gaulish, meaning "field, plain (magos in Gaulish, whose meaning evolved into "market") of the Roto". Part of northern France, showing the route of the river Seine. ... Part of northern France, showing the route of the river Seine. ... For other uses, see Normandy (disambiguation). ... The Rhône River, or the Rhône (French Rhône, Arpitan Rôno, Occitan Ròse, standard German Rhone, Valais German Rotten), is one of the major rivers of Europe, running through Switzerland and France. ... Rouen (pronounced in French, sometimes also ) is the historical capital city of Normandy, in northwestern France on the River Seine, and currently the capital of the Haute-Normandie (Upper Normandy) région. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Navigation

The Seine is dredged and oceangoing vessels can dock at Rouen, 120 km (75 miles) from the sea. Commercial riverboats can use the river from Bar-sur-Seine, 560 km (350 miles) from its mouth. At Paris, the river is only 24 metres (80 feet) above sea level, 445 km (277 miles) from its mouth, making it slow flowing and thus easily navigable. Rouen (pronounced in French, sometimes also ) is the historical capital city of Normandy, in northwestern France on the River Seine, and currently the capital of the Haute-Normandie (Upper Normandy) région. ... Bar-sur-Seine is a commune of the Aube département, in France. ...


The tidal section of the river, from Le Havre to well beyond Rouen, is followed by a canalized section with four large multiple locks until the mouth of the Oise river at Conflans-Sainte-Honorine. Then two more multiple locks at Bougival / Chatou and at Suresnes lift the vessels to the level of the river in Paris, where the mouth of the Marne River is located. Upstream from Paris seven more locks ensure navigation to Saint Mammès (where the Loing mouth is situated). Through an eighth lock the river Yonne is reached at Monterau. From the mouth of the Yonne, larger ships can continue upstream the Seine till Nogent-sur-Seine. From there on, the river is only navigable for small craft. All navigation ends abruptly at Marcilly-sur-Seine, where the ancient Canal de la Haute Seine used to allow vessels to continue all the way to Troyes. This canal has been abandoned for many years now. (Source: NoorderSoft Waterways Database) Le Havre is a city in Normandy, northern France, on the English Channel, at the mouth of the Seine. ... Oise is a département in the north of France named after the Oise River. ... Conflans-Sainte-Honorine is a commune of the Yvelines département, in France. ... Bougival is a city of 8500 in the country of France, region of Ile de France, departement of Yvelines. ... Chatou is a commune in the western suburbs of Paris, France. ... Suresnes is a commune in the western suburbs of Paris, France. ... The Marne is a river in France, a tributary of the Seine in the area east and southeast of Paris. ... The Loing is a 166 km long river in central France, a left tributary of the Seine. ... Yonne is a French département named after the Yonne River. ... Nogent-sur-Seine is a commune of the Aube département, in France. ... City flag City coat of arms A street in Troyes. ...


The average depth of the Seine today at Paris is about eight metres. Until locks were installed to artificially raise the level in the 1800s, however, the river was much shallower within the city most of the time, and consisted only of a small channel of continuous flow bordered by sandy banks (visible in many illustrations of the period). Today depth is tightly controlled and the entire width of the river between the built-up banks on either side is normally filled with water. The average flow of the river is very low, only a few cubic metres per second, but much higher flows are possible during periods of heavy runoff. Special reservoirs upstream help to maintain a constant level for the river through the city, but during periods of extreme runoff significant increases in river level may occur. The Eiffel Tower has become the symbol of Paris throughout the world. ...


A very severe period of high water in January 1910 produced extensive flooding throughout the city. The Seine again rose to threatening levels in 1924, 1955, 1982 and 1999-2000.[1] After a first-level flood alert in 2003, about 100,000 works of art were moved out of Paris, the largest relocation of art since World War II. Much of the art in Paris is kept in underground storage rooms that would be flooded.[2] A 2002 report by the French government stated the worst-case Seine flood scenario would cost 10 billion Euros, cut telephone service for a million Parisians, leave 200,000 without electricity and 100,000 without gas.[3] Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ...


Until the 1930s, a towing system using a chain on the bed of the river existed to facilitate movement of barges upriver.

Panoramic view of the Seine in Paris with St-Michel bridge on the left and Notre-Dame cathedral to the right
Panoramic view of the Seine in Paris with St-Michel bridge on the left and Notre-Dame cathedral to the right

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (5389x1024, 1949 KB) Summary This is a 360 degrees panoramic view of the Seine in Paris near Saint-Michel bridge on the left and Notre-Dame to the right. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (5389x1024, 1949 KB) Summary This is a 360 degrees panoramic view of the Seine in Paris near Saint-Michel bridge on the left and Notre-Dame to the right. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Notre Dame de Paris: Western Façade For other uses, see Notre Dame. ...

Water quality

Periodically the sewerage systems of Paris experience a failure known as sanitary sewer overflow, often a circumstance arising in periods of high rainfall. Under these conditions untreated sewage has been discharged into the Seine[4]. The resulting oxygen deficit is principally caused by allochthonous bacteria larger than one micrometer in size. The specific activity of these sewage bacteria is typically three to four times greater than that of the autochthonous (background) bacterial population. The pH level of the Seine at Pont Neuf has been measured to be 8.46[5] Decentralized wet weather overflow event Sanitary sewer overflow (SSO} is a condition whereby untreated sewage is discharged into the environment, escaping wastewater treatment. ... In meteorology, precipitation is any kind of water that falls from the sky as part of the weather. ... Sewage is the mainly liquid waste containing some solids produced by humans which typically consists of washing water, faeces, urine, laundry waste and other material which goes down drains and toilets from households and industry. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Schematic overview of a thrust system. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... The ÃŽle de la Cité seen from the West, with the Pont Neuf, in front, spanning the river. ...


History

The Seine River was one of the original objectives of Operation Overlord in 1944. The Allies' intention was to reach the Seine by D+90 (ie 90 days after D-Day). That objective was met. An anticipated assault crossing of the river never materialized as German resistance in France crumbled by early September 1944. However, the First Canadian Army did encounter resistance immediately west of the Seine and fighting occurred in the Forêt de la Londe as Allied troops attempted to cut off the escape across the river of parts of the German 7th Army in the closing phases of the Battle of Normandy. The Battle of Normandy was fought in 1944 between the German forces occupying Western Europe and the invading Allies. ... Land on Normandy In military parlance, D-Day is a term often used to denote the day on which a combat attack or operation is to be initiated. ... The First Canadian Army was the senior Canadian operational formation in Europe during the Second World War. ... A troop is a military unit. ... Combatants United States United Kingdom Canada Free France Poland Nazi Germany Commanders Dwight Eisenhower (Supreme Allied Commander) Bernard Montgomery (land) Bertram Ramsay (sea) Trafford Leigh-Mallory (air) Omar Bradley (U.S. 1st Army) Miles Dempsey (UK 2nd Army) Harry Crerar (Canadian 1st Army) Gerd von Rundstedt (OB WEST) Erwin Rommel...


Dredging in the 1960s mostly eliminated tidal bores on the river, known as “le mascaret.” This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The tidal bore in Upper Cook Inlet, Alaska A tidal bore (or just bore, or eagre) is a tidal phenomenon in which the leading edge of the incoming tide forms a wave (or waves) of water that travel up a river or narrow bay against the direction of the current. ...


The Banks of the Seine in Paris were added to the UNESCO's list of World Heritage Sites in 1991. UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ...


Trivia

  • In Victor Hugo's novel Les Misérables, Jean Valjean escapes from the sewers on the banks of the Seine. Waiting there is Inspector Javert, who regretfully allows him to escape. Javert, contemplating what he had just done, decides to throw himself to his death in the river.
  • According to his will, Napoleon wished to be buried on the Banks.
  • In the 2007 Disney/Pixar film Ratatouille, Auguste Gusteau's restaurant is located on the left bank of the Seine in the 5th arrondisement in Paris.[1]

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Victor-Marie Hugo (IPA: ) (26 February 1802 — 22 May 1885) was a French poet, playwright, novelist, essayist, visual artist, statesman, human rights campaigner, and perhaps the most influential exponent of the Romantic movement in France. ... Les Misérables (translated variously from French as The Miserable Ones, The Wretched, The Poor Ones, The Wretched Poor, The Victims) (1862) is a novel by French author Victor Hugo, and among the best-known novels of the 19th century. ... For the animated film, see Ratatouille (film). ...

The Seine and its painters

During the 19th and the 20th centuries, the Seine has inspired many painters including: Image File history File links Broom_icon. ...


Richard Parkes Bonington, Joseph Mallord William Turner, Camille Corot, Eugène Isabey, Constant Troyon, Charles-François Daubigny, Eugène Boudin, Johan Barthold Jongkind, Raimond Lecourt, Claude Monet, Camille Pissarro, Frédéric Bazille, Vuillard, Vallotton, Dufy, Emile Othon Friesz, Albert Marquet, Luis Fernando Pinzon, Emilio Grau Sala, Gaston Sébire, and Maurice Boitel. Richard Parkes Bonington (December 25, 1802 - September 28, 1828) was an English Romantic landscape painter. ... J. M. W. Turner, English landscape painter The fighting Temeraire tugged to her last berth to be broken up, painted 1839. ... Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot (portrait by Nadar) Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot (July 26, 1796 – February 22, French landscape painter. ... Hurricane before Saint Malo. ... Constant Troyon (August 28, 1810 - February 21, 1865), French painter, was born in Sèvres, near Paris, where his father was connected with the famous manufactory of porcelain. ... Charles-François Daubigny (portrait by Nadar) Charles-François Daubigny (Paris, February 15, 1817 – February 19, 1878 in Paris) was one of the painters of the Barbizon school, and is considered an important precursor of Impressionism. ... Rivage de Portrieux, Cotes-du-Nord by Eugène Boudin. ... The Seine and Notre-Dame in Paris, 1864, Johan Jongkind, Musée dOrsay, Paris. ... Claude Monet also known as Oscar-Claude Monet or Claude Oscar Monet (November 14, 1840 – December 5, 1926)[1] was a founder of French impressionist painting, and the most consistent and prolific practitioner of the movements philosophy of expressing ones perceptions before nature, especially as applied to plein... The garden of Pontoise, painted 1875. ... 1865–1866. ... Edouard Vuillard, Self-Portrait, 1889, oil on canvas Jean-Édouard Vuillard (November 11, 1868 - June 21, 1940) was a French painter and printmaker associated with the Nabis. ... Raoul Dufy (June 3, 1877 – March 23, 1953) was a French Fauvist painter born in Le Havre in Normandy. ... Albert Marquet (27 March 1875, Bordeaux – 13 June 1947, Paris) was a French painter, associated with the Fauvism current. ... Emilio (Emi) Grau Sala (1911, Barcelona - 1975, Paris) was a Catalan painter. ... Maurice Boitel in 1980 Maurice Boitel (born July 31, 1919) is a French painter. ...


References

  1. ^ Seine River Basin, United Nations Environment Programme Department of Early Warning and Assessment (accessed 5 June 2007
  2. ^ "Fearing a Big Flood, Paris Moves Art" by Alan Riding, New York Times, February 19, 2003
  3. ^ "Paris flood warning" by Rory Mulholland, BBC News, 25 January 2002
  4. ^ Martin Seidl, The fate of organic matter in river Seine after a combined sewer overflow, ENPC - University Paris Val de Marne Paris XII (France), 1997, 181 pp.
  5. ^ Hogan, C Michael, Water quality of fresh water bodies in France, Lumina Press, Aberdeen 2006

Klaus Töpfer, former UNEP Exec. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Organic material or organic matter is informally used to denote a material that originated as a living organism; most such materials contain carbon and are capable of decay. ...

See also

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Rock en Seine :: 24-25-26 août 2007 - Domaine national de St-Cloud (176 words)
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Le domaine de Saint-Cloud charme, depuis quatre siècles, les visiteurs par la beauté de son site, proposant, sur 460 hectares de verdure, des jardins, une forêt, et un parc composé de bassins, bosquets, cascades et statues qui nous mènent jusqu’à la Seine.
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The Seine (pronounced /sɛn/ in French) is a major river of north-western France, and one of its commercial waterways.
The ancient Gauls considered the Seine to be a tributary of the Yonne, which indeed presents a greater average discharge than the Seine (the river flowing through Paris should be called Yonne if the standard rules of geography were applied).
Until locks were installed to artificially raise the level in the 1800s, however, the river was much shallower within the city most of the time, and consisted only of a small channel of continuous flow bordered by sandy banks (visible in many illustrations of the period).
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