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Encyclopedia > Seigneury
Ancien Régime
Structure
Estates of the realm
Parlements
Taille
Gabelle
Seigneurial system
History
Capetian dynasty
Valois dynasty
Bourbon dynasty
Estates-General

This article is about the seigneurial system in New France. For the Medieval system see Manorialism. Ancien Régime means Old Rule or Old Order in French; in English, the term refers primarily to the social and political system established in France under the Valois and Bourbon dynasties. ... In France under the ancien régime, the Estates of the realm were the three divisions of the Estates-General. ... In France of the ancien régime and the age of the French Revolution, the term First Estate (Fr. ... In France of the ancien régime and the age of the French Revolution, the term Second Estate (Fr. ... In France of the ancien régime and the age of the French Revolution, the term Third Estate (tiers état) indicated the generality of people which were not part of the clergy (the First Estate) nor of the nobility (the Second Estate). ... Parlements (pronounced in French) in ancien régime France — contrary to what their name would suggest to the modern reader — were not democratic or political institutions, but law courts . ... The taille was a direct land tax on the French peasantry in ancien régime France (since the nobles refused to pay taxes). ... The gabelle was a very unpopular tax on salt in France before 1790. ... France under the Ancien Régime, the socio-political system which persisted throughout the rule of the Valois and Bourbon dynasties, was a nation half-way between feudalism and modernity, ruled over by a powerful absolute monarchy which relied on the doctrine of the Divine Right of Kings and the... The direct Capetian Dynasty followed the Carolingian rulers of France from 987 to 1328. ... The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... The House of Bourbon dates from at least the beginning of the 13th century, when the estate of Bourbon was ruled by a Lord, vassal of France. ... In France under the ancien gime, the States-General or Estates-General (in French: tats-G raux), was an assembly of the different classes of French citizenry. ... New France (French: la Nouvelle-France) describes the area colonized by France in North America during a period extending from the exploration of the Saint Lawrence River by Jacques Cartier in 1534 to the cession of New France to the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1763. ... Generic plan of a mediaeval manor; open-field strip farming, some enclosures, triennial crop rotation, demesne and manse, common woodland, pasturage and meadow Manorialism or Seigneurialism describes the organization of rural economy and society in medieval western and parts of central Europe, characterised by the vesting of legal and economic...


The seigneurial system was the semi-feudal system of noble privilege in France and its colonies. Defining feudalism is difficult because there is no generally accepted agreement on what it means. ... In France of the ancien régime and the age of the French Revolution, the term Second Estate (Fr. ... -1...


The seigneurial system was introduced to New France in 1627 by Cardinal Richelieu. Land was arranged in long strips, called seigneuries, along the banks of the St. Lawrence River. Each piece of land belonged to the lord, or seigneur. The seigneur divided the land further among his tenants, known as censiteurs or habitants, who cleared the land, built houses and other buildings, and farmed the land. The habitants paid taxes to the seigneur (the cens et rentes, or "cents and rents"), and were usually required to work for their seigneur for three days per year, often building roads (the corvée). Unlike Roman-based feudalism from which it was derived the lord of the manor was not granted the "haut" or "bas" jurisdiction to impose fines and penalties as in Europe, those powers were given to the intendant of the king. New France (French: la Nouvelle-France) describes the area colonized by France in North America during a period extending from the exploration of the Saint Lawrence River by Jacques Cartier in 1534 to the cession of New France to the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1763. ... Events A Dutch ship makes the first recorded sighting of the coast of South Australia. ... Cardinal Richelieu was the French chief minister from 1624 until his death. ... The Saint Lawrence River (French: fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large west-to-east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... For the area of Sheffield, in England, see Manor, Sheffield. ... New France was governed by three rulers: the governor, the bishop and the intendant, all appointed by the King, and sent from France. ...


Seigneuries were often divided into a number of areas. There was a common area on the shore of the St. Lawrence river, behind which was the best land and the seigneur's estate itself. There was also one or more sets of farmland, not adjacent to the river, immediately behind the first set.


Seigneurs were vassals to the king, who granted them the deeds to the seigneuries. The king was represented in New France by his intendant; the first intendant of New France was Jean Talon, who made it a requirement that seigneurs actually live on their estates. A vassal, in European medieval feudalism terminology, is one who through a commendation ceremony (composed of homage and fealty) enters into mutual obligations with a lord, usually military conscription and mutual protection, in exchange for a fief. ... Kings ruled in France from the Middle Ages to 1848. ... Jean Talon, comte dOrsainville (1625 baptised 8 January 1626 – November 1694) was a French colonial administrator who was the first and most highly regarded Intendant of New France. ...


The seigneurial system differed somewhat from its equivalent in France; while in France it was a remnant of the feudal system, in New France it was seen as an incentive for settlement and colonization. It also allowed for increased control over settlement by a central authority. Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ... Colonization (or colonisation) is the act where life forms move into a distant area where their kind is sparse or not yet existing at all and set up new settlements in the area. ...


After the Battle of the Plains of Abraham and the conquest of Quebec by the British during the Seven Years' War, the Quebec Act of 1774 retained the seigneurial system. It remained relatively intact for almost a century; some Englishmen purchased seigneuries; others were divided equally between male and female offspring; some were run by the widows of seigneurs as their children grew to adulthood. The system was formally abolished by the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada and assented to by Governor Lord Elgin on June 22nd 1854 in An Act for the Abolition of Feudal Rights and Duties in Lower Canada which was brought into effect on December 18 of that year. The act called for the creation of a special Seigneurial Court composed of all the justices of Lower Canada, which was presented a series of questions concerning the various economic and property rights that abolition would change. Some of the vestiges of this system of land-owning continued into the twentieth century as some of the feudal rents continued to be collected. The system was finally abolished when the last residual rents were repurchased through a system of provincial bonds. The Battle of the Plains of Abraham, fought September 13, 1759, was a decisive battle of the French and Indian War, the North American theatre of the Seven Years War. ... The Seven Years War (1754 and 1756–1763) pitted Great Britain, Prussia and Hanover against France, Austria, Russia, Sweden, and Saxony. ... The Quebec Act of 1774 was an act by the British Parliament setting out procedures of governance in the area of Quebec. ... 1774 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Note: for information about Canadas present-day provinces, see Provinces of Canada. ... A governor is also a device that regulates the speed of a machine. ... James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin and 12th Earl of Kincardine (July 20, 1811 – November 20, 1863) was a worthless piece of shit administrator and diplomat, best known as Governor General of the Province of Canada and Viceroy of India. ... June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 192 days remaining. ... 1854 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ...


A comparable seigneurial system was the patroon system of heritable land holdings in the Hudson River Valley that was established by the Dutch West India Company. The Company granted seigneurial powers to the "patrons" who paid for the transport of settlers in New Netherlands. The system was not abolished by the English when they took possession of the Dutch holdings. The heirs of the patroons— bearing names like Schuyler, van Rensselaer, Pell, van Cortlandt, Livingston and Morris— dominated the colonial period and played major political roles in New York even after the American Revolution. Image of the Hudson River taken by NASA. View of the Hudson River in 1880s showing Jersey City View of the Hudson River from Battery Park, New York The Goldman Sachs Tower looms above the skyline of downtown Jersey City, New Jersey, overlooking the Hudson River. ... Dutch West India Company (Dutch: West-Indische Compagnie or WIC) was a company of Dutch merchants. ... New Netherland (Dutch Nieuw-Nederland, Latin: Nova Belgica) was the territory claimed by the Netherlands on the eastern coast of North America in the 17th century. ... State nickname: Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York Governor George Pataki Official languages None Area 141,205 km² (27th)  - Land 122,409 km²  - Water 18,795 km² (13. ... Before the Revolution: The 13 colonies are in red, the pink area was claimed by Great Britain after the French and Indian War, and the orange region was claimed by Spain. ...


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The seigneurial system was the semi-feudal system of noble privilege in France and its colonies.
The seigneurial system differed somewhat from its equivalent in France; while in France it was a remnant of the feudal system, in New France it was seen as an incentive for settlement and colonization.
It remained relatively intact for almost a century; some Englishmen purchased seigneuries; others were divided equally between male and female offspring; some were run by the widows of seigneurs as their children grew to adulthood.
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