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Encyclopedia > Seedbank

Seedbanks store seeds as a source for planting in case seed reserves elsewhere should be destroyed. The seeds stored may be various in nature, such as those of food crops or those of rare species, to protect biodiversity. The reasons for storing seeds may be varied also, in the case of food crops many useful plants were developed over centuries and are now no longer used for commercial agricultural production and are becoming rare. Unless recognised as formally named cultivars, varieties, or otherwise such plants are known as landraces. Storing seeds also guards against natural disasters, outbreaks of disease, war, etc. A ripe red jalapeno cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity or biological diversity is the diversity of life. ... A cultivar is a cultivated variety of a plant species. ... A plant variety is a legal term, following the UPOV Convention. ... A natural disaster is the consequence of the combination of a natural hazard (a physical event e. ... The United States detonated an atomic bomb over Nagasaki on August 9, 1945. ...

Contents


Seed dormancy

Orthodox seeds

These seeds have a natural dormancy feature, which allows for their long term storage with little damage to DNA, provided they are kept in a cool, dry environment. These seeds can remain viable for decades and are easily stored in seedbanks. Dormancy is a arrested plant growth. ... The general structure of a section of DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the biological development of a cellular form of life or a virus. ...


Recalcitrant seeds

These seeds cannot be stored at low humidity and subzero temperature without damaging the germplasm. They must be continuously replanted to replenish seed stocks. Some examples are the seeds of cocoa and rubber. Germplasm is a term used to describe the genetic resources, or more precisely the DNA of an organism and collections of that material. ...


Optimal storage conditions

Seeds are dried to a moisture content of less than 6%. The seeds are then stored in freezers at -18°C or below. As seed DNA eventually degrades, the seeds need to be replanted and fresh seeds collected for another round of long term storage. The general structure of a section of DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the biological development of a cellular form of life or a virus. ...


Challenges

  • Stored specimens have to be regularly replanted when they begin to lose viability
  • Only a limited number of the world's biodiversity are stored
  • It is impossible to store recalcitrant seeds
  • Only 15% of all seedbanked plants are wild species; the remainder are crops.
  • There is a need for improvement of cataloguing and data management. The documentation should include identity of the plant stored, location of the sampling, number of seeds stored and viability state. Other information, such as farming systems in which the crops were grown, or rotations they formed, should also be available to future farmers.
  • The financial cost of facilities are expensive for third world countries which contain the most biodivisity.
  • Seed banks may be accused of biopiracy

For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ... Biopiracy refers to the privatization and unauthorized use of biological resources by entities (including corporations, universities and governments) outside of a country which has pre-existing knowledge. ...

Alternatives

In-situ conservation of seed producing plant species is another conservation strategy. In-situ conversation involves the creation of National Parks; National Forests; and National Wildlife Refuges as a way of preserving the natural habitat of the targeted seed producing organisms. In-situ conservation of agricultural resources is performed on-farm. This also allows the plants to continue to evolve with their environment through natural selection. An arboretum stores trees by planting them at a protected site. In-situ conservation means on-site conservation. It is the process of protecting an endangered plant or animal species in its natural habitat, either by protecting or cleaning up the habitat itself, or by defending the species from predators. ... The conservation movement is a political and social movement that seeks to protect natural resources including plant and animal species as well as their habitat for the future. ... Brecon Beacons National Park, Wales A national park is a reserve of land, usually owned by a national government, protected from most human development and pollution. ... This article is on national forests in the United States. ... National Wildlife Refuge is a designation for certain protected areas of the United States managed by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. ... An arboretum is a botanical garden primarily devoted to trees and other woody plants, forming a living collection of trees intended at least partly for scientific study. ...


Seedbanks in the world

There are about 6 millions plants species stored as seeds in about 1,300 genebanks throughout the world as of 2006. This amount represents a small fraction of the world's biodiversity, and many regions of the world have not been bioprospected fully. Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity or biological diversity is the diversity of life. ... Bioprospecting is the collecting and cribling of biological samples (plants, animals, micro_organisms) and the collecting of indigenous knowledge to help discovering genetic or biochemical resources Bioprospection is intended for economic purposes (e. ...


Norway

The Svalbard International Seed Vault will be built inside a mountain in a manmade tunnel on the frozen Norwegian island of Spitsbergen. It will be designed to survive catastrophes such as nuclear war, hurricanes, and world war. It will be operated by the Global Crop Diversity Trust. A tunnel will be created in a sandstone mountain on Spitsbergen, which is part of the Svalbard archipelago, about 966 kilometers (600 miles) from the North Pole. The areas permafrost will keep the vault below the freezing point of water and the seeds will be protected by 1-metre thick walls of steel-reinforced concrete. There will be two airlocks and two blast-proof doors. The Svalbard Global Seed Vault (also called Norwegian Seed Bank or globalt sikkerhetshvelv for frø på Svalbard) is a doomsday seedbank under construction on the Norwegian island of Spitsbergen in the remote arctic Svalbard archipelago. ... Map of Svalbard, showing Spitsbergen in the North. ... Nuclear War is a card game designed by Douglas Malewicki, and originally published in 1966. ... This article is about weather phenomena. ... Global Crop Diversity Trust is a foundation based in Italy. ... In geology, permafrost or permafrost soil is soil that stays in a frozen state for more than two years in a row. ...


United Kingdom

The Wellcome Trust Millennium Building (WTMB) houses the Millennium Seed Bank Project. It is located at Wakehurst Place in West Sussex. It provides space for the storage of thousands of seed samples in a underground vault. West Sussex is a county in the south of England, bordering onto East Sussex (with Brighton and Hove), Hampshire and Surrey. ...


Oldest viable seeds

  • The oldest Carbon-14 dated seed that was germinated into a viable plant was a ~2,000 year old Date Palm seed, recovered from excavations at Herod the Great's palace on Masada in Israel; this Judean date palm seed was germinated in 2005. National Geographic Article
  • A 1,300 year old C-14 dated seed that was germinated into a viable plant from lotus fruit. It was recovered from a dry lakebed in northeastern China. [1]

Carbon-14 is the radioactive isotope of carbon discovered February 27, 1940, by Martin Kamen and Sam Ruben. ... Binomial name Phoenix dactylifera L. The Date Palm Phoenix dactylifera is a palm, extensively cultivated for its edible fruit. ... Hordos הוֹרְדוֹס, also known as Herod I or Herod the Great, was a Roman client-king of Judaea (c. ... This article is about the Judean fortress. ... The Judean date palm is a fruit-producing date palm that was thought to have become extinct sometime around 1 CE. The date palm was considered a staple in the Judean Desert, as it was a source of food, shelter and shade for thousands of years, and became a recognized... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Carbon-14 is the radioactive isotope of carbon discovered February 27, 1940, by Martin Kamen and Sam Ruben. ... Binomial name Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. ...

See also

The conservation movement is a political and social movement that seeks to protect natural resources including plant and animal species as well as their habitat for the future. ... An arboretum is a botanical garden primarily devoted to trees and other woody plants, forming a living collection of trees intended at least partly for scientific study. ... Seed companies sell seeds for flowers, fruit and vegetables to the amateur gardener. ... In agriculture and gardening, seed saving is the practice of saving seeds from open-pollinated vegetables and flowers for use from year to year. ... The Soil Seed Bank is the collective name for the store of seeds, often dormant, which are stored within the soil of many terrestrial ecosystems. ... The gene pool of a species or a population is the complete set of unique alleles that would be found by inspecting the genetic material of every living member of that species or population. ... Only a few of the many varieties of potato are commercially grown; others are heirlooms. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity or biological diversity is the diversity of life. ... Germplasm is a term used to describe the genetic resources, or more precisely the DNA of an organism and collections of that material. ... Sustainability is a systemic concept, relating to the continuity of economic, social, institutional and environmental aspects of human society, as well as the non-human environment. ... The list of conservation topics is a link page for the conservation of both the natural environment and the built environment. ... The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, popularly known as the International Seed Treaty, is a comprehensive international agreement in harmony with Convention on Biological Diversity, which aims at guaranteeing food security through the conservation, exchange and sustainable use of the worlds plant genetic resources... Agroecology is the science of applying ecological concepts and principles to the design, development, and management of sustainable agricultural systems. ...

External links

  • Primal Seeds: Seed Banks
  • UK Millennium Seed Bank Project
  • BBC: Planned Norwegian seed bank
  • USDA: Seed Banks and Germplasm
  • MSNBC: Norwegian seedbank

 
 

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