FACTOID # 19: Cheap sloppy joes: Looking for reduced-price lunches for schoolchildren? Head for Oklahoma!
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Seed" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Seed
A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds

A seed [siːd] is a small embryonic plant enclosed in a covering called the seed coat, usually with some stored food. It is the product of the ripened ovule of gymnosperm and angiosperm plants which occurs after fertilization and some growth within the mother plant. The formation of the seed completes the process of reproduction in seed plants (started with the development of flowers and pollination), with the embryo developed from the zygote and the seed coat from the integuments of the ovule. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (768x1024, 70 KB) Summary A ripe red jalapeno cut open to show the seeds. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (768x1024, 70 KB) Summary A ripe red jalapeno cut open to show the seeds. ... Binomial name The jalapeño is a large to giant-size chili pepper that is prized for the cold, burning sensation that it produces in the left kidney when eaten. ... Seed is used to refer to: Look up seed in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links En-us-seed. ... Plant embryogenesis is a sexual or asexual reproductive process that forms new plants. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... This writeup is about biological seeds; for other meanings see Seed (disambiguation). ... Food caches, Hooper Bay, Alaska, 1929. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Divisions Pinophyta (or Coniferophyta) - Conifers Ginkgophyta - Ginkgo Cycadophyta - Cycads Gnetophyta - Gnetum, Ephedra, Welwitschia The gymnosperms (Gymnospermae) are a group of spermatophyte seed-bearing plants with ovules on the edge or blade of an open sporophyll, the sporophylls usually arranged in cone-like structures. ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants (also angiosperms or Magnoliophyta) are one of the major groups of modern plants, comprising those that produce seeds in specialized reproductive organs called flowers, where the ovulary or carpel is enclosed. ... Categories: Biology stubs ... For other uses, see Reproduction (disambiguation) Reproduction is the biological process by which new individual organisms are produced. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... Carpenter bee with pollen collected from Night-blooming cereus Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (male gametes) to the plant carpel, the structure that contains the ovule (female gamete). ... For other uses, see Embryo (disambiguation). ... This writeup is about biological seeds; for other meanings see Seed (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Seeds have been an important development in the reproduction and spread of flowering plants, relative to more primitive plants like mosses, ferns and liverworts, which do not have seeds and use other means to propagate themselves. This can be seen by the success of seed plants (both gymnosperms and angiosperms) in dominating biological niches on land, from forests to grasslands both in hot and cold climates. Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants (also angiosperms or Magnoliophyta) are one of the major groups of modern plants, comprising those that produce seeds in specialized reproductive organs called flowers, where the ovulary or carpel is enclosed. ... For other uses, see Moss (disambiguation). ... This article is about the group of pteridophyte plants. ... Orders Jungermanniopsida Metzgeriales (simple thalloids) Haplomitriales (Calobryales) Jungermanniales (leafy liverworts) Marchantiopsida Sphaerocarpales (bottle liverworts) Marchantiales (complex thalloids) Monocleales Liverworts are a division of plants commonly called hepatics, Marchantiophyta or liverworts. ... Two lichens on a rock, in two different ecological niches In ecology, a niche; (pronounced nich, neesh or nish)[1] is a term describing the relational position of a species or population in its ecosystem[1]. The ecological niche; describes how an organism or population responds to the distribution of... This article is about a community of trees. ... The Konza tallgrass prairie in the Flint Hills of northeastern Kansas. ...


The term seed also has a general meaning that predates the above - anything that can be sown i.e. "seed" potatoes, "seeds" of corn or sunflower "seeds". In the case of sunflower and corn "seeds", what is sown is the seed enclosed in a shell or hull, and the potato is a tuber. Sowing is the process of planting seeds. ... For other uses, see Potato (disambiguation). ... This article is about the maize plant. ... The sunflower seed is the seed of the sunflower (Helianthus annuus). ... For other uses, see Sunflower (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Seed structure

The parts of an avocado seed (a dicot), showing the seed coat, endosperm, and embryo.

A typical seed includes three basic parts: (1) an embryo, (2) a supply of nutrients for the embryo, and (3) a seed coat. Image File history File links Avocado_seed_diagram. ... Image File history File links Avocado_seed_diagram. ... Binomial name Mill. ... Orders see text Dicotyledons or dicots are flowering plants whose seed contains two embryonic leaves or cotyledons. ... Endosperm is the tissue produced in the seeds of most flowering plants around the time of fertilization. ... For other uses, see Embryo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Embryo (disambiguation). ...


The embryo is an immature plant from which a new plant will grow under proper conditions. The embryo has one cotyledon or seed leaf in monocotyledons, two cotyledons in almost all dicotyledons and two or more in gymnosperms. The radicle is the embryonic root. The plumule is the embryonic shoot. The embryonic stem above the point of attachment of the cotyledon(s) is the epicotyl. The embryonic stem below the point of attachment is the hypocotyl. For other uses, see Embryo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... For the plant genus, see Cotyledon (genus). ... Hemerocallis flower, with three flower parts in each whorl Wheat, an economically important monocot The monocotyledons or Monocots are a group of flowering plants, (angiosperms) dominating great parts of the earth. ... Orders See text. ... In botany, the radicle is the first part of a seedling (a growing plant embryo) to emerge from the seed during germination. ... In plant physiology, the epicotyl is the embryonic shoot above the cotyledons. ... Hypocotyl is a botanical term for a part of a germinating seedling of a seed plant. ...


Within the seed, there usually is a store of nutrients for the seedling that will grow from the embryo. The form of the stored nutrition varies depending on the kind of plant. In angiosperms, the stored food begins as a tissue called the endosperm, which is derived from the parent plant via double fertilization. The usually triploid endosperm is rich in oil or starch and protein. In gymnosperms, such as conifers, the food storage tissue is part of the female gametophyte, a haploid tissue. In some species, the embryo is embedded in the endosperm or female gametophyte, which the seedling will use upon germination. In others, the endosperm is absorbed by the embryo as the latter grows within the developing seed, and the cotyledons of the embryo become filled with this stored food. At maturity, seeds of these species have no endosperm and are termed exalbuminous seeds. Some exalbuminous seeds are bean, pea, oak, walnut, squash, sunflower, and radish. Seeds with an endosperm at maturity are termed albuminous seeds. Most monocots (e.g. grasses and palms) and many dicots (e.g. brazil nut and castor bean) have albuminous seeds. All gymnosperm seeds are albuminous. A nutrient is either a chemical element or compound used in an organisms metabolism or physiology. ... Sunflower seedlings, just three days after germination In a botanical sense, germination is the process of emergence of growth from a resting stage. ... Endosperm is the tissue produced in the seeds of most flowering plants around the time of fertilization. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Fertilisation. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with cooking oil. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8, chemical formula (C6H10O5)n,[1]) is a mixture of amylose and amylopectin (usually in 20:80 or 30:70 ratios). ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † “Conifer” redirects here. ... Not to be confused with Gemination in phonetics. ... Green beans Bean is a common name for large plant seeds of several genera of Fabaceae (formerly Leguminosae) used for food or feed. ... Binomial name L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus (from Latin oak tree), and some related genera, notably Cyclobalanopsis and Lithocarpus. ... For other uses, see Walnut (disambiguation). ... Species - hubbard squash, buttercup squash - cushaw squash - butternut squash - most pumpkins, acorn squash, summer squash References: ITIS 22365 2002-11-06 Hortus Third Squashes are four species of the genus Cucurbita, also called pumpkins and marrows depending on variety or the nationality of the speaker. ... For other uses, see Sunflower (disambiguation). ... This article is about the vegetable. ... Subfamilies There are 7 subfamilies: Subfamily Arundinoideae Subfamily Bambusoideae Subfamily Centothecoideae Subfamily Chloridoideae Subfamily Panicoideae Subfamily Pooideae Subfamily Stipoideae The true grasses are monocotyledonous plants (Class Liliopsida) in the Family Poaceae, also known as Gramineae. ... Genera Many; see list of Arecaceae genera Arecaceae or Palmae (also known by the name Palmaceae, which is taxonomically invalid. ... Binomial name Bertholletia excelsa Humb. ... Binomial name Ricinus communis The castor bean (Ricinus communis) is not a true bean, but a member of the Euphorbiaceae or spurge family. ...


The seed coat (or testa) develops from the tissue, the integument, originally surrounding the ovule. The seed coat in the mature seed can be a paper-thin layer (e.g. peanut) or something more substantial (e.g. thick and hard in honey locust and coconut). The seed coat helps protect the embryo from mechanical injury and from drying out. Binomial name L. This article is about the legume. ... Binomial name L. The Honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos) is a deciduous tree native to eastern North America. ... For other uses, see Coconut (disambiguation). ...


In addition to the three basic seed parts, some seeds have an appendage on the seed coat such an aril (as in yew and nutmeg) or an elaiosome (as in Corydalis) or hairs (as in cotton). There may also be a scar on the seed coat, called the hilum; it is where the seed was attached to the ovary wall by the funiculus. Mature and immature arils of Taxus baccata, a European yew. ... Species Taxus baccata - European Yew Taxus brevifolia - Pacific Yew Taxus canadensis - Canadian Yew Taxus chinensis - Chinese Yew Taxus cuspidata - Japanese Yew Taxus floridana - Florida Yew Taxus globosa - Mexican Yew Taxus sumatrana - Sumatran Yew Taxus wallichiana - Himalayan Yew Yews are small coniferous trees or shrubs in the genus Taxus in the... For other uses, see Nutmeg (disambiguation). ... Elaiosomes (elaios- oil, some- body) are fleshy structures that are attached to the seeds of many plant species. ... Species Corydalis afghanica Corydalis aitchisonii Corydalis alpestris Corydalis angustifolia Corydalis aqua-gelidae Corydalis arctica Corydalis aurea Corydalis batesii Corydalis bracteata Corydalis buschii Corydalis caseana Corydalis cashmeriana Corydalis cava () Corydalis chaerophylla Corydalis cheilanthifolia Corydalis chionophylla Corydalis clavibracteata Corydalis claviculata Corydalis conorhiza Corydalis cornuta Corydalis darwasica Corydalis diphylla Corydalis elata Corydalis emmanuelii... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Seed production

Immature Elm seeds.
Immature Elm seeds.

Seeds are produced in several related groups of plants, and their manner of production distinguishes the angiosperms ("enclosed seeds") from the gymnosperms ("naked seeds"). Angiosperm seeds are produced in a hard or fleshy (or with layers of both) structure called a fruit that encloses the seeds, hence the name. In gymnosperms, no special structure develops to enclose the seeds, which begin their development "naked" on the bracts of cones. However, the seeds do become covered by the cone scales as they develop in some species of conifer. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1632x1232, 566 KB)[edit] Summary A picture of immature elm seeds. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1632x1232, 566 KB)[edit] Summary A picture of immature elm seeds. ... Species See Elm species, varieties, cultivars and hybrids Elms are deciduous and semi-deciduous trees making up the genus Ulmus, family Ulmaceae, found throughout the Northern Hemisphere from Siberia to Indonesia, Mexico to Japan. ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants (also angiosperms or Magnoliophyta) are one of the major groups of modern plants, comprising those that produce seeds in specialized reproductive organs called flowers, where the ovulary or carpel is enclosed. ... Divisions Pinophyta (or Coniferophyta) - Conifers Ginkgophyta - Ginkgo Cycadophyta - Cycads Gnetophyta - Gnetum, Ephedra, Welwitschia The gymnosperms (Gymnospermae) are a group of spermatophyte seed-bearing plants with ovules on the edge or blade of an open sporophyll, the sporophylls usually arranged in cone-like structures. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... Mature female European Black Pine cone Male cones of a pine A cone (in formal botanical usage: strobilus, plural strobili) is an organ on plants in the division Pinophyta (conifers) that contains the reproductive structures. ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † The conifers, division Pinophyta, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae. ...


Kinds of seeds

There are a number of modifications to seeds by different groups of plants. One example is that of the so-called stone fruits (such as the peach), where a hardened fruit layer ( the endocarp) surrounds the actual seed and is fused to it. The peach is a typical drupe (stone fruit) In botany, a drupe is a type of fruit in which an outer fleshy part (exocarp or skin and mesocarp or flesh) surrounds a shell (the pit or stone) of hardened endocarp with a seed inside. ... Binomial name (L.) Batsch Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ...


Many structures commonly referred to as "seeds" are actually dry fruits. Sunflower seeds are sold commercially while still enclosed within the hard wall of the fruit, which must be split open to reach the seed. For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sunflower (disambiguation). ...


Seed development

The inside of a Ginkgo seed, showing a well-developed embryo, nutritive tissue (megagametophyte), and a bit of the surrounding seed coat.
The inside of a Ginkgo seed, showing a well-developed embryo, nutritive tissue (megagametophyte), and a bit of the surrounding seed coat.
Diagram of the internal structure of a dicot seed and embryo. (a) seed coat, (b) endosperm, (c) cotyledon, (d) hypocotyl.
Diagram of the internal structure of a dicot seed and embryo. (a) seed coat, (b) endosperm, (c) cotyledon, (d) hypocotyl.

The seed, which is an embryo with two points of growth (one of which forms the stems the other the roots) is enclosed in a seed coat with some food reserves. Angiosperm seeds consist of three genetically distinct constituents: (1) the embryo formed from the zygote, (2) the endosperm, which is normally triploid, (3) the seed coat from tissue derived from the maternal tissue of the ovule. In angiosperms, the process of seed development begins with double fertilization and involves the fusion of the egg and sperm nuclei into a zygote. The second part of this process is the fusion of the polar nuclei with a second sperm cell nucleus, thus forming a primary endosperm. Right after fertilization the zygote is mostly inactive but the primary endosperm divides rapidly to form the endosperm tissue. This tissue becomes the food that the young plant will consume until the roots have developed after germination or it develops into a hard seed coat. The seed coat forms from the two integuments or outer layers of cells of the ovule, which derive from tissue from the mother plant, the inner integument forms the tegmen and the outer forms the testa. When the seed coat forms from only one layer it is also called the testa, though not all such testa are homologous from one species to the next. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1458x1138, 157 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ginkgo ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1458x1138, 157 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ginkgo ... Species G. biloba L. The Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba; 銀杏 in Chinese), frequently misspelled as Gingko, and also known as the Maidenhair Tree, is a unique tree with no close living relatives. ... In plants that undergo alternation of generations, a gametophyte is the structure, or phase of life, that contains only half of the total complement of chromosomes: The sporophyte produces spores, in a process called meiosis. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 347 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (768 × 1327 pixel, file size: 164 KB, MIME type: image/png) Author/autor: Nova Creation date/Data utworzenia: 18:52, 14 January 2006 (UTC) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 347 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (768 × 1327 pixel, file size: 164 KB, MIME type: image/png) Author/autor: Nova Creation date/Data utworzenia: 18:52, 14 January 2006 (UTC) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared... Orders see text Dicotyledons or dicots are flowering plants whose seed contains two embryonic leaves or cotyledons. ... Endosperm is the tissue produced in the seeds of most flowering plants around the time of fertilization. ... For the plant genus, see Cotyledon (genus). ... Hypocotyl is a botanical term for a part of a germinating seedling of a seed plant. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Fertilisation. ... Endosperm is the tissue produced in the seeds of most flowering plants around the time of fertilization. ... Tegmen is the designation of the three-fold star Zeta Cancri. ... Two or more structures are said to be homologous if they are alike because of shared ancestry. ...


In gymnosperms, the two sperm cells transferred from the pollen do not develop seed by double fertilization but instead only one sperm fertilizes the egg while the other is not used. The seed is composed of the embryo (the result of fertilization) and tissue from the mother plant, which also form a cone around the seed in coniferous plants like Pine and Spruce. For other uses, see Pine (disambiguation). ... Species About 35; see text. ...


The ovules after fertilization develop into the seeds; the main parts of the ovule are the funicle; which attaches the ovule to the placenta, the nucellus; the main region of the ovule were the embryo sac develops, the micropyle; A small pore or opening in the ovule where the pollen tube usually enters during the process of fertilization, and the chalaza; the base of the ovule opposite the micropyle, where integument and nucellus are joined together.[1] For other uses, see Antenna. ... Location of ovules inside a Helleborus foetidus flower Ovule literally means small egg. ... Location of ovules inside a Helleborus foetidus flower Ovule literally means small egg. ... A greek word - from khalaze - meaning hailstone. It is composed of one or two spiral bands of tissue that suspends the yolk in the center of the white. ...


The shape of the ovules as they develop often affects the finale shape of the seeds. Plants generally produce ovules of four shapes: the most common shape is called anatropous, with a curved shape. Orthotropous ovules are straight with all the parts of the ovule lined up in a long row producing an uncurved seed. Campylotropous ovules have a curved embryo sac often giving the seed a tight “c” shape. The last ovule shape is called amphitropous, where the ovule is partly inverted and turned back 90 degrees on its stalk or funicle.


In the majority of flowering plants the zygotes first division is transversely orientated in regards to the long axis and this establishes the polarity of the embryo. The upper or chalazal pole becomes the main area of growth of the embryo, while the lower or micropylar pole produces the stalk-like suspensor that attaches to the micropyle. The suspensor absorbs and manufacturers nutrients from the endosperm that are utilized during the embryos growth.[2]


The embryo is composed of different parts; the epicotyle will grow into the shoot, the radicle grows into the primary root, the hypocotyl connects the epicotyle and the radicle, the cotyledons form the seed leaves, the testa or seed coat forms the outer covering of the seed. Monocotyledonous plants like corn, have other structures; instead of the hypocotyle-epicotyle, it has a coleoptile that forms the first leaf and connects to the coleorhiza that connects to the primary root and adventitious roots form from the sides. The seeds of corn are constructed with these structures; pericarp, scutellum (single large cotyledon) that absorbs nutrients from the endosperm, endosperm, plumule, radicle, coleoptile and coleorhiza - these last two structures are sheath-like and enclose the plumule and radicle, acting as a protective covering. The testa or seed coats of both monocots and dicots are often marked with patterns and textured markings, or have wings or tufts of hair. Adventitious, in botany, refers to structures that develop in an unusual place, and in medicine, it refers to conditions acquired after birth. ...


Seed size and seed set

Seeds are very diverse in size. The dust-like orchid seeds are the smallest with about one million seeds per gram. Embryotic seeds have immature embryos and no significant energy reserves. They are myco-heterotrophs, depending on mycorrhizal fungi for nutrition during germination and the early growth of the seedling, in fact some terrestrial Orchid seedlings spend the first few years of their life deriving energy from the fungus and do not produce green leaves.[3] At over 20 kg, the largest seed is the coco de mer. Plants that produce smaller seeds can generate many more seeds while plants with larger seeds invest more resources into those seeds and normally produce fewer seeds. Small seeds are quicker to ripen and can be dispersed sooner, so fall blooming plants often have small seeds. Many annual plants produce great quantities of smaller seeds; this helps to ensure that at least a few will end in a favorable place for growth. Herbaceous perennials and woody plants often have larger seeds, they can produce seeds over many years, and larger seeds have more energy reserves for germination and seedling growth and produce larger, more established seedlings. Monotropastrum humile, an obligate myco-heterotroph. ... Millions of years ago, trees, flowers and grasses faced many natural stresses, such as low soil fertility, drought and temperature extremes. ... Species Lodoicea maldivica Ref. ...


Seed functions

Seeds serve several functions for the plants that produce them. Key among these functions are nourishment of the embryo, dispersal to a new location, and dormancy during unfavorable conditions. Seeds fundamentally are a means of reproduction and most seeds are the product of sexual reproduction which produces a remixing of genetic material and phenotype variability that natural selection acts on. For other uses, see Embryo (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Dormancy is a arrested plant growth. ... Sexual reproduction is a union that results in increasing genetic diversity of the offspring. ... Individuals in the mollusk species Donax variabilis show diverse coloration and patterning in their phenotypes. ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ...


Embryo nourishment

Seeds protect and nourish the embryo or baby plant. Seeds usually give a seedling a faster start than a sporling from a spore gets because of the larger food reserves in the seed.


Seed dispersal

Main article: Biological dispersal

Unlike animals, plants are limited in their ability to seek out favorable conditions for life and growth. As a consequence, plants have evolved many ways to disperse their offspring by dispersing their seeds (see also vegetative reproduction). A seed must somehow "arrive" at a location and be there at a time favorable for germination and growth. When the fruits open and release their seeds in a regular way, it is called dehiscent, which is often distinctive for related groups of plants, these fruits include; Capsules, follicles, legumes, silicles and siliques. When fruits do not open and release their seeds in a regular fashion they are called indehiscent, which include these fruits; Achenes, caryopsis, nuts, samaras, and utricles.[4] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Production of new individuals along a leaf margin of the air plant, Kalanchoë pinnata. ...


Seed dispersal is seen most obviously in fruits; however many seeds aid in their own dispersal. Some kinds of seeds are dispersed while still inside a fruit or cone, which later opens or disintegrates to release the seeds. Other seeds are expelled or released from the fruit prior to dispersal. For example, milkweeds produce a fruit type, known as a follicle,[5] that splits open along one side to release the seeds. Iris capsules split into three "valves" to release their seeds.[6] For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... Mature female European Black Pine cone Male cones of a pine A cone (in formal botanical usage: strobilus, plural strobili) is an organ on plants in the division Pinophyta (conifers) that contains the reproductive structures. ... Botany Asclepias, the milkweeds, is a genus of herbaceous perennial, dicotyledonous plants in the family Asclepiadaceae that contains over 140 known species. ... In botany, a follicle is a dry fruit which splits along one rupture site in order to release seeds, such as in larkspur, magnolia, banksia, peony and milkweed. ... Species See text Iris is a genus of between 200-300 species of flowering plants with showy flowers which takes its name from the Greek word for a rainbow, referring to the wide variety of flower colors found among the many species. ... Flowers and fruit (capsules) of the ground orchid, Spathoglottis plicata. ...


By wind

Dandelion seeds (achenes) can be carried long distances by the wind.
Dandelion seeds (achenes) can be carried long distances by the wind.
  • Many seeds (e.g. maple, pine) have a wing that aids in wind dispersal.
  • The dustlike seeds of orchids are carried efficiently by the wind.
  • Some seeds, (e.g. dandelion, milkweed, poplar) have hairs that aid in wind dispersal.

ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 116 KB) Summary Dandelion seed floaters I, PiccoloNamek, took this photograph. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 116 KB) Summary Dandelion seed floaters I, PiccoloNamek, took this photograph. ... An achene is a type of simple dry fruit produced by many species of flowering plants. ... For other uses, see Maple (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pine (disambiguation). ... Orchid re-directs here; for alternate uses see Orchid (disambiguation) Genera Over 800 See List of Orchidaceae genera. ... For other uses, see Dandelion (disambiguation). ... Botany Asclepias, the milkweeds, is a genus of herbaceous perennial, dicotyledonous plants in the family Asclepiadaceae that contains over 140 known species. ... This article is about woody plants of the genus Populus. ...

By water

  • Some plants, such as Mucuna and Dioclea, produce buoyant seeds termed sea-beans or drift seeds because they float in rivers to the oceans and wash up on beaches [7].

Species Mucuna argyrophylla Mucuna birdwoodiana Mucuna coriacea Mucuna diabolica Mucuna elliptica Mucuna fawcettii Mucuna ferox Mucuna flagellipes Mucuna gigantea Mucuna glabrialata Mucuna holtonii Mucuna huberi Mucuna killipiana Mucuna macrocarpa Mucuna mapirensis Mucuna melanocarpa Mucuna membranacea Mucuna mollis Mucuna mutisiana Mucuna novo-guineensis Mucuna pacifica Mucuna pallida Mucuna platyphylla Mucuna poggei... Dioclea is also the Latin name of a medieval Serbian state, see: Duklja. ...

By animals

  • Seeds (burrs) with barbs or hooks (e.g. acaena, burdock, dock which attach to animal fur or feathers, and then drop off later.
  • Seeds with a fleshy covering (e.g. apple, cherry, juniper) are eaten by animals (birds, mammals) which then disperse these seeds in their droppings.
  • Seeds (nuts) which are an attractive long-term storable food resource for animals (e.g. acorns, hazelnut, walnut); the seeds are stored some distance from the parent plant, and some escape being eaten if the animal forgets them.

Myrmecochory is the dispersal of seeds by ants. Foraging ants disperse seeds which have appendages called elaiosomes[8] (e.g. bloodroot, trilliums, Acacias, and many species of Proteaceae). Elaiosomes are soft, fleshy structures that contain nutrients for animals that eat them. The ants carry such seeds back to their nest, where the elaiosomes are eaten. The remainder of the seed, which is hard and inedible to the ants, then germinates either within the nest or at a removal site where the seed has been discarded by the ants.[9] This dispersal relationship is an example of mutualism, since the plants depend upon the ants to disperse seeds, while the ants depend upon the plants seeds for food. As a result, a drop in numbers of one partner can reduce success of the other. In South Africa, the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) has invaded and displaced native species of ants. Unlike the native ant species, Argentine ants do not collect the seeds of Mimetes cucullatus or eat the elaiosomes. In areas where these ants have invaded, the numbers of Mimetes seedlings have dropped.[10] A burr is a seed or dry fruit in which the seeds bear hooks or teeth which attach themselves to fur or clothing of passing animals or people. ... Species About 100 species, including: Acaena adscendens Acaena anserinifolia Acaena argentea Acaena buchananii Acaena caesiiglauca Acaena exigua - Liliwai Acaena fissistipula Acaena glabra Acaena inermis Acaena laevigata Acaena lucida Acaena magellanica Acaena microphylla Acaena myriophylla Acaena novae-zelandiae - Piripiri Acaena ovalifolia Acaena ovina Acaena pallida - Sand Piripiri Acaena pinnatifida - Sheepburr Acaena... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Species About 200, see text. ... This article is about the fruit. ... For other uses, see Cherry (disambiguation). ... Species Junipers are coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family Cupressaceae. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... Rabbit feces are usually 0. ... For other uses, see Nut (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Acorn (disambiguation). ... This article is about the tree; for other meanings of hazel, see Hazel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Walnut (disambiguation). ... Myrmecochory is an ecological or, more specifically, a botanical term for seed dispersal by ants. This is a very specific mutualism. ... For other uses, see Ant (disambiguation). ... Elaiosomes (elaios- oil, some- body) are fleshy structures that are attached to the seeds of many plant species. ... Binomial name L. Range in the United States Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis) is a perennial, herbaceous flowering plant native to eastern North America from Nova Scotia, Canada southward to Florida, United States. ... Species See text box. ... For other uses, see Acacia (disambiguation). ... Genera See text The Proteaceae are a large family of flowering plants, which includes 75-80 genera and 1500 species of evergreen trees, shrubs, and herbs. ... In biology, mutualism is an interaction between two or more species, where both species derive benefit. ... Binomial name Mayr, 1868 The Argentine ant (Linepithema humile, formerly Iridomyrmex humilis) is a tiny dark ant native to northern Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, and southern Brazil. ... Lantana invasion of abandoned citrus plantation; Moshav Sdey Hemed, Israel The term invasive species refers to a subset of introduced species or non-indigenous species that are rapidly expanding outside of their native range. ... Sunflower seedlings, just three days after germination In a botanical sense, germination is the process of emergence of growth from a resting stage. ...


Seed dormancy and protection

Further information: Seed hibernation

One important function of most seeds is delaying germination, which allows time for dispersal and prevents germination of all the seeds at one time when conditions appear favorable. The staggering of germination safeguards some seeds or seedlings from suffering during short periods of bad weather, transient herbivores or competition from other plants for light and nutrients. Many species of plants have seeds that germinate over many months or years, and some seeds can remain in the soil seed bank for more than 50 years before germination. Seed dormancy is defined as a seed failing to germinate under environmental conditions optimal for germination, normally when the seed's environment is at the right temperature with proper soil moisture conditions. Induced dormancy or seed quiescence occurs when a seed fails to germinate because the external environmental conditions are inappropriate for germination, mostly in response to being too cold or hot, or too dry. True dormancy or innate dormancy is caused by conditions within the seed that prevent germination under normally ideal conditions. Often seed dormancy is divided into four major categories: exogenous; endogenous; combinational; and secondary. Seed hibernation, also called seed dormancy, is the ability of a seed to remain in hibernation when there is a lack of things essential to their development (water, sunlight, nutrients, etc. ... Seed hibernation, also called seed dormancy, is the ability of a seed to remain in hibernation when there is a lack of things essential to their development (water, sunlight, nutrients, etc. ...


Exogenous dormancy is caused by conditions outside the embryo including:

  • Hard seed coats or physical dormancy occurs when seeds are impermeable to water or the exchange of gases. In some seeds the seed coat physically prevents the seedling from growing.
  • Chemical dormancy includes growth regulators etc.

Endogenous dormancy is caused by conditions within the embryo including: This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ...

  • Immature embryos where some plants release their seeds before the tissues of the embryos have fully differentiated, and the seeds ripen after they take in water while on the ground, germination can be delayed from a few weeks to a few months.
  • Morphological dormancy where seeds have fully differentiated embryos that need to grow more before seed germination, the embryos are not yet fully developed.
  • Morphophysiological dormancy seeds with underdeveloped embryos, and in addition have physiological components to dormancy. These seeds therefore require a dormancy-breaking treatments as well as a period of time to develop fully grown embryos.
  • Physiological dormancy prevents seed germination until the chemical inhibitors are broken down or are no longer produced by the seed, often physiological dormancy is broken by a period of cool moist conditions, normally below (+4C) 39F, or in the case of many species in Ranunculaceae and a few others,(-5C) 24F. Other chemicals that prevent germination are washed out of the seeds by rainwater or snow melt. Abscisic acid is usually the growth inhibitor in seeds and its production can be affected by light. Some plants like Peony species have multiple types of physiological dormancy, one affects radical growth while the other affects shoot growth.
    • Drying, some plants including a number of grasses and those from seasonally arid regions need a period of drying before they will germinate, the seeds are released but need to have a lower moister content before germination can begin. If the seeds remain moist after dispersal, germination can be delayed for many months or even years. Many herbaceous plants from temperate climate zones have physological dormancy that disappears with drying of the seeds.
    • Photodormancy or light sensitivity affects germination of some seeds. These photoblastic seeds need a period of darkness or light to germinate. In species with thin seed coats, light may be able to penetrate into the dormant embryo. The presence of light or the absence of light may trigger the germination process, inhibiting germination in some seeds buried too deeply or in others not buried in the soil.
    • Thermodormancy is seed sensitivity to heat or cold. Some seeds including cocklebur and amaranth germinate only at high temperatures (30C or 86F) many plants that have seed that germinate in early to mid summer have thermodormancy and germinate only when the soil temperature is warm. Other seeds need cool soils to germinate, while others like celery are inhibited when soil temperatures are too warm. Often thermodormancy requirements disappear as the seed ages or dries.

Combinational dormancy also called double dormancy. Many seeds have more than one type of dormancy,[11] some Iris species have both hard impermeable seeds coats and physiological dormancy. genera see text Ranunculaceae is the botanical name for a family of flowering plants. ... Abscisic Acid (ABA), also known as abscisin II and dormin, is a plant hormone. ... Species See text A white peony in Warren County, Indiana. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... IRIS can refer to: A missile: IRIS (missile), an Iranian satellite launcher. ...


Secondary dormancy is caused by conditions after the seed has been dispersed. Dormancy caused by conditions developed while the seed is forming in the fruit are called primary dormancy. Secondary dormancy includes:


Many garden plants have seeds that will germinate readily as soon as they have water and are warm enough, though their wild ancestors may have had dormancy, these cultivated plants lack seed dormancy. After many generations of selective pressure by plant breeders and gardeners dormancy has been selected out.


For annuals, seeds are a way for the species to survive dry or cold seasons. Ephemeral plants are usually annuals that can go from seed to seed in as few as six weeks.[12] Peas are an annual plant. ...


Not all seeds undergo a period of dormancy. Seeds of some mangroves are viviparous, they begin to germinate while still attached to the parent. The large, heavy root allows the seed to penetrate into the ground when it falls. Above and below water view at the edge of the mangal. ...


Seed germination

Germinating sunflower seedlings.
Germinating sunflower seedlings.
Main articles: Seedling and Germination

Seed germination is the process of growth of the embryo into a functional plant. It involves the reactivation of the metabolic pathways that lead to growth and the emergence of the radicle or seed root and plumule or shoot. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1828x1600, 271 KB) Sunflower seedlings, just 3 days after being planted. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1828x1600, 271 KB) Sunflower seedlings, just 3 days after being planted. ... For other uses, see Sunflower (disambiguation). ... Sunflower seedlings, just three days after germination In a botanical sense, germination is the process of emergence of growth from a resting stage. ... Not to be confused with Gemination in phonetics. ...


Three fundamental conditions must exist before germination can occur. (1) The embryo must be alive, called seed viability. (2) Any dormancy requirements that prevent germination must be over come. (3) The proper environmental conditions must exist for germination.


Seed viability determines the percentage of possible seed germination and is effected by a number of different conditions. Some plants to not produce seeds that have functional complete embryos or the seed may have no embryo at all, often called empty seeds. Predators and pathogens can damage or kill the seed while it is still in the fruit or after it is dispersed. Environmental conditions like flooding or heat can kill the seed before or during germination. The age of the seed effects its health and germination ability, since the seed has a living embryo, over time cells die and can't be replaced. Some seeds can live for a long time before germination, while others can only survive for a short period after dispersal before they die.


Seed vigor is a measure of the quality of seed, and involves the viability of the seed, the germination percentage, germination rate and the strength of the seedlings produced.[13]


The germination percentage is simply the proportion of seeds that germinate from all seeds subject to the right conditions for growth. The germination rate is the length of time it takes for the seeds to germinate. Germination percentages and rates are effected by seed viability, dormancy and environmental effects that impact on the seed and seedling. In agriculture and horticulture quality seeds have high viability, measured by germination percentage plus the rate of germination. This is given as a percent of germination over a certain amount of time, 90% germination in 20 days, for example. 'Dormancy' is covered above; many plants produce seeds with varying degrees of dormancy, and different seeds from the same fruit can have different degrees of dormancy.[14] It's possible to have seeds with no dormancy if they are dispersed right away and do not dry (if the seeds dry they go into physiological dormancy). There is great variation amongst plants and a dormant seed is still a viable seed even though the germination rate might be very low.


Environmental conditions effecting seed germination include; water, oxygen, temperature and light.


Three distinct phases of seed germination occur: water imbibition; lag phase; and radicle emergence. In botany, the radicle is the first part of a seedling (a growing plant embryo) to emerge from the seed during germination. ...


In order for the seed coat to split, the embryo must imbibe (soak up water), which causes it to swell, splitting the seed coat. However, the nature of the seed coat determines how rapidly water can penetrate and subsequently initiate germination. Not to be confused with Gemination in phonetics. ...


Inducing germination

A number of different strategies are used by gardeners and horticulturists to break seed dormancy.


Scarification of hard seed coats involving the breaking, scratching or softening by chemicals like acids. Other means of scarification include soaking in hot water or poking holes in the seed with a pin. Sometimes fruits are harvested while the seeds are still immature and the seed coat is not fully developed and sown right away. Under natural conditions the seed coats can be broken by rodents chewing on the seeds, rubbing against rocks or freezing and thawing of surface water, battering on rocks in a stream-bed, or passing through an animal's digestive tract. In the latter case, the seed coat protects the seed from digestion, while perhaps weakening the seed coat such that the embryo is ready to sprout when it gets deposited (along with a bit of fertilizer) far from the parent plant. Microorganisms are often effective in breaking down hard seed coats and are sometimes used by people as a treatment, the seeds are stored in a moist warm sandy medium for several months under non-sterile conditions. For the industrial process, see anaerobic digestion. ... A cluster of Escherichia coli bacteria magnified 10,000 times. ...


Stratification also called moist-chilling is a method to break down physiological dormancy and involves the addition of moisture to the seeds so they imbibe water and then the seeds are subject to a period of moist chilling to after-ripen the embryo. Sowing outside in late summer and fall and allowing to overwinter outside under cool conditions is an effective way to stratify seeds, some seeds respond more favorably to periods of osculating temperatures which are part of the natural environment.


Leaching or the soaking in water removes chemical inhibitors in some seeds that prevent germination. Rain and melting snow naturally accomplish this task. For seeds that are going to be planted for gardens, the use of running water is best but frequent changes of water are effective too. Normally 12 to 24 hours of soaking is sufficient, longer soaking especially in stagnant water that is not changed can result in oxygen starvation and seed death. Seeds with hard seed coats can be soaked in hot water to break open the impermeable cell layers that prevent water intake. This article is about precipitation. ... Snow is a type of precipitation in the form of crystalline water ice, consisting of a multitude of snowflakes that fall from clouds. ...


Other methods used to assist in the germination of seeds that have dormancy include prechilling, predrying, daily alternation of temperature, light exposure, potassium nitrate, the use of plant growth regulators like gibberellins, cytokinins, ethylene, thiourea, sodium hypochlorite plus others.[15]


Origin and evolution

The origin of seed plants is a problem that still remains unsolved. However, more and more data tends to place this origin in the middle Devonian. The description in 2004 of the proto-seed Runcaria heinzelinii in the Givetian of Belgium is an indication of that ancient origin of seed-plants. As with modern ferns, most land plants before this time reproduced by sending spoor into the air, that would land and become whole new plants. For the Celtic language, see Southwestern Brythonic language; for the residents of the English county, see Devon. ... The Givetian (also known as Erian, Senecan, Tioughniogan, Tioughnioga, Taghanic, Taghanican, Genesee, Geneseean) stage is the later stage of the Middle Devonian epoch. ...


The first "true" seeds are described from the upper Devonian, which is probably the theater of their true first evolutionary radiation. The seed plants progressively became one of the major elements of nearly all ecosystems.


Economic importance

A variety of bean seeds.
A variety of bean seeds.

Image File history File links Phaseolus_vulgaris_seed. ... Image File history File links Phaseolus_vulgaris_seed. ... This article is about the fruit of the plants also called legumes. For the plants themselves, see Fabaceae . ...

Edible seeds

Further information: List of edible seeds

Many seeds are edible and the majority of human calories comes from seeds, especially from cereals, legumes and nuts. Seeds also provide most cooking oils, many beverages and spices and some important food additives. In different seeds the seed embryo or the endosperm dominates and provides most of the nutrients. The storage proteins of the embryo and endosperm differ in their amino acid content and physical properties. For example the gluten of wheat, important in providing the elastic property to bread dough is strictly an endopsperm protein. A variety of species can provide edible seeds: Almonds Amaranthus Beans/Legumes, including Chickpeas Broad beans Lentils Peas Peanuts Phaseolus beans Soybeans Sweet peas (Lathyrus) Cocoa Carob tree Cereals, including Barley Buckwheat Kamut Maize Oats Rice Rye Sorghum Spelt Triticale Teff Wild rice Wheat Coconuts Common Hazel Coriander Ginkgo Monkey... A variety of species can provide edible seeds: Almonds Amaranthus Beans/Legumes, including Chickpeas Broad beans Lentils Peas Peanuts Phaseolus beans Soybeans Sweet peas (Lathyrus) Cocoa Carob tree Cereals, including Barley Buckwheat Kamut Maize Oats Rice Rye Sorghum Spelt Triticale Teff Wild rice Wheat Coconuts Common Hazel Coriander Ginkgo Monkey... Grain redirects here. ... This article is about the fruit of the plants also called legumes. For the plants themselves, see Fabaceae . ... For other uses, see Nut (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with vegetable oil. ... The word drink is primarily a verb, meaning to ingest liquids, see Drinking. ... For other uses, see Spice (disambiguation). ... Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or improve its taste and appearance. ... For other uses, see Embryo (disambiguation). ... Endosperm is the tissue produced in the seeds of most flowering plants around the time of fertilization. ... A nutrient is either a chemical element or compound used in an organisms metabolism or physiology. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... Wheat - a prime source of gluten Gluten is an amorphous mixture of ergastic (i. ... Elasticity is a branch of physics which studies the properties of elastic materials. ... Dough Dough is a paste made out of any cereals (grains) or leguminous crops by grinding with small amount of water. ...


Seeds are used to propagate many crops such as cereals, legumes, forest trees, turfgrasses and pasture grasses. A decidous beech forest in Slovenia. ... Turfgrass is a type of grass. ... Pastureland Pasture is land with lush herbaceous vegetation cover used for grazing of ungulates as part of a farm or ranch. ...


Seeds are also eaten by animals, and are fed to livestock. Many seeds are used as birdseed. For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ... A birdfeeder, bird feeder, or bird table is a device placed out-of-doors to supply food to birds. ...


Poison and food safety

While some seeds are considered by some as healthy to eat, other seeds may be harmful or poisonous,[16] Plants and seeds often contain chemical compounds to discourage herbivores and seed predators. In some cases, these compounds simply taste bad (such as in mustard), but other compounds are toxic, or breakdown into toxic compounds within the digestive system. Children, being smaller than adults, are more susceptible to poisoning or death by plants and seeds.[17] One should be satisfied with reliable food safety information before choosing to eat any particular seeds. A chemical compound is a chemical substance formed from two or more elements, with a fixed ratio determining the composition. ... In zoology, an herbivore is an animal that is adapted to eat primarily plants (rather than meat). ... Seed predation includes any process inflicted on a plant’s seeds by an animal that results in the inviability of the seed. ... For the plant and spice of the same name, see the article on mustard. ... what was here was sick and improperly spelled. ...


An infamously deadly poison, ricin, comes from seeds of the castor bean. Reported lethal doses are anywhere from two to eight seeds,[18][19] though only a few deaths have been reported when castor beans have been ingested by animals.[20] Castor beans The protein ricin (pronounced ) is a toxin from the castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... Binomial name Ricinus communis The castor bean (Ricinus communis) is not a true bean, but a member of the Euphorbiaceae or spurge family. ...


In addition, seeds containing amygdalin; apple, apricot, bitter almond[21], peach, plum, cherry, quince, and others, when consumed in significant amounts, may result in cyanide toxicity[21].[22] Other seeds than contain poisons include annona, cotton, custard apple, datura, uncooked durian, golden chain, horse-chestnut, larkspur, locoweed, lychee, nectarine, rambutan, rosary pea, sour sop, sugar apple, wisteria, and yew.[23][24] Another seed poison is strychnine. Chemical structure of Amygdalin Amygdalin (from Greek: , almond), C20H27NO11, is a glycoside isolated from bitter almonds by H. E. Robiquet and A. F. Boutron-Charlard in 1830, and subsequently investigated by Liebig and Wöhler, and others. ... This article is about the fruit. ... Binomial name Prunus armeniaca L. For other uses, see Apricot (disambiguation). ... This article refers to the plant. ... Binomial name (L.) Batsch Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Species See text. ... For other uses, see Cherry (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Mill. ... Species See text Annona is the type genus of the plant family Annonaceae. ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... Binomial name L. In some regions of the world, custard-apple is another name for sugar-apple, a different plant in the same genus. ... Species See text below Datura is a genus of 12-15 species of vespertine flowering plants belonging to the family Solanaceae. ... Species There are currently 30 recognised species (see text) The durian (IPA: ) is the fruit of trees of the genus Durio belonging to the Malvaceae, a large family which includes hibiscus, okra, cotton, mallows and linden trees. ... Species Laburnum anagyroides Laburnum alpinum Laburnum is a genus of two species of small trees in the subfamily Faboideae of the pea family Fabaceae, Laburnum anagyroides (Common Laburnum) and (Alpine Laburnum). ... Species Aesculus arguta: Texas Buckeye Aesculus californica: California Buckeye Aesculus chinensis: Chinese Horse-chestnut Aesculus flava (): Yellow Buckeye Aesculus glabra: Ohio Buckeye Aesculus hippocastanum: Common Horse-chestnut Aesculus indica: Indian Horse-chestnut Aesculus neglecta: Dwarf Buckeye Aesculus parviflora: Bottlebrush Buckeye Aesculus pavia: Red Buckeye Aesculus sylvatica: Painted Buckeye Aesculus turbinata... Species Delphinium glaucum Delphinium consolida Delphinium bakeri Others Larkspur (Delphinium glaucum) is a tall (4 to 6 foot high), robust plant. ... Locoweed is a term used to describe plants from two different genera of legumes most commonly found in the midwest and Joe LoConte. ... Binomial name Sonn. ... Nectarine is a cultivar group of peach that has a smooth, fuzzless skin. ... Binomial name Nephelium lappaceum L. The Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) is a medium-sized tropical tree in the family Sapindaceae, native to southeast Asia, and the fruit of this tree. ... Binomial name L. The Jequirity, also called Crabs Eye, Rosary Pea, John Crow Bead, Precatory bean or Indian Licorice (Abrus precatorius), is a legume with long, pinnate-leafleted leaves. ... Binomial name L. The Soursop, Soursap, Guanábana, Graviola, Zuurzak, Coração-da-Índia, Guyabano or Corossol (Annona muricata; syn. ... Binomial name L. In some regions of the world, the sugar-apple is also known as custard-apple, a different plant in the same genus. ... Species See text. ... Species Taxus baccata - European Yew Taxus brevifolia - Pacific Yew Taxus canadensis - Canadian Yew Taxus chinensis - Chinese Yew Taxus cuspidata - Japanese Yew Taxus floridana - Florida Yew Taxus globosa - Mexican Yew Taxus sumatrana - Sumatran Yew Taxus wallichiana - Himalayan Yew Yews are small coniferous trees or shrubs in the genus Taxus in the... Strychnine (pronounced (British, U.S.), or (U.S.)) is a very toxic (LD50 = 10 mg approx. ...


The seeds of many legumes, including the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) contain proteins called lectins which can cause gastric distress if the beans are eaten without cooking. The common bean and many others, including the soybean, also contain trypsin inhibitors which interfere with the action of the digestive enzyme trypsin. Normal cooking processes degrade lectins and trypsin inhibitors to harmless forms.[25] Navy Bean redirects here. ... Lectins are proteins of non-immune origin that specifically interact with sugar molecules (carbohydrates) without modifying them. ... Cooking is the act of preparing food. ... Binomial name (L.) Merr. ... Trypsin inhibitors are chemicals that reduce the bio-availability of trypsin, an enzyme essential to nutrition of many animals, including humans. ... Trypsin (EC 3. ...


Other uses

Flax seed oil (in bottles) and coconut oil (in jars in the middle).
Flax seed oil (in bottles) and coconut oil (in jars in the middle).

The world's most important clothing fiber grows attached to cotton seed. Other seed fibers are from kapok and milkweed. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Coconut oil, also known as coconut butter, is a tropical oil extracted from copra (the dried inner flesh of coconuts) with many applications. ... Fiber or fibre[1] is a class o f materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces, similar to lengths of thread. ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (L.) Gaertn. ... Botany Asclepias, the milkweeds, is a genus of herbaceous perennial, dicotyledonous plants in the family Asclepiadaceae that contains over 140 known species. ...


Many important nonfood oils are extracted from seeds. Linseed oil is used in paints. Oil from jojoba and crambe are similar to whale oil. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Binomial name (Link) C.K.Schneid. ... Crambe is a genus of Brassicaceae which includes among its species, seakale (Crambe maritima), grown as a vegetable, and Crambe abyssinica, which is grown for an oil from the seeds that has similar characteristics to whale oil. ... Whale oil is the oil obtained from the blubber of various species of whales of the genus Balaena, as , Greenland or right whale (northern whale-oil), (southern whale-oil), Balaenoptera longimana, Balaenoptera borealis (Finback oil, Finner whale-oil, Humpback oil). ...


Seeds are the source of some medicines including castor oil, tea tree oil and the discredited cancer drug, Laetrile. Castor oil is a vegetable oil obtained from the castor bean (technically castor seed as the castor plant, Ricinus communis, is not a member of the bean family). ... Tea Tree Oil (Melaleuca Oil) Tea tree oil or melaleuca oil is a clear to very pale golden color essential oil with a fresh camphoraceous odour. ... Chemical structure of Amygdalin Amygdalin (from Greek: , almond), C20H27NO11, is a glycoside isolated from bitter almonds by H. E. Robiquet and A. F. Boutron-Charlard in 1830, and subsequently investigated by Liebig and Wöhler, and others. ...


Many seeds have been used as beads in necklaces and rosaries including Job's tears, Chinaberry and rosary pea. However, the latter two are also poisonous. Beads Cloisonné beads Dichroic beads (10 mm) A bead is a small, decorative object that is pierced for threading or stringing. ... Binomial name Coix lacryma-jobi L. Synonyms Coix agrestis Lour. ... Binomial name Melia azedarach L. The Chinaberry or Bead Tree (Melia azedarach; syn. ... Binomial name Abrus precatorius L. The Jequirity, also called Black-eyed Susan, Rosary Pea or Indian Licorice (Abrus precatorius), is a legume with long, pinnate-leafleted leaves. ...


Other seed uses include:

Digital kitchen scales. ... For the video game character and games of the same name, see Conker (series) A selection of fresh conkers from a horse-chestnut tree. ... Species See text Clusia is the type genus of the family Clusiaceae. ... A nematicide is a chemical used to kill parasitic nematodes (a phylum of worms). ... Botany Asclepias, the milkweeds, is a genus of herbaceous perennial, dicotyledonous plants in the family Asclepiadaceae that contains over 140 known species. ... Cottonseed meal is the byproduct remaining after cotton is ginned and the seeds crushed and the oil extracted. ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ...

Trivia

The massive fruit of the coco de mer.
The massive fruit of the coco de mer.
  • The largest seed is produced by the coco de mer, or "double coconut palm", Lodoicea maldivica. The entire fruit may weigh up to 23 kilograms (50 pounds) and usually contains a single seed.[27]

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1740x1920, 2485 KB) seed (fruit) of a female Coco de Mer palm tree Photo taken by user in July 2004 on Praslin, Seychelles. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1740x1920, 2485 KB) seed (fruit) of a female Coco de Mer palm tree Photo taken by user in July 2004 on Praslin, Seychelles. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... Species Lodoicea maldivica Ref. ... There are several candidates for the oldest viable seed: The oldest carbon-14-dated seed that has grown into a viable plant was a Judean date palm seed about 2,000 years old, recovered from excavations at Herod the Greats palace on Masada in Israel. ... Carbon-14 is the radioactive isotope of carbon discovered February 27, 1940, by Martin Kamen and Sam Ruben. ... The Judean date palm cultivar is a cultivar of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera). ... Herod the Great. ... Combatants Jewish Sicarii Roman Empire Commanders Elazar ben Yair Lucius Flavius Silva Strength 960 15,000 Casualties 953 Unknown Masada (a romanisation of the Hebrew מצדה, Metzada, from מצודה, metzuda, fortress) is the name for a site of ancient palaces and fortifications in the South District of Israel on top of... Species Lodoicea maldivica Ref. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... The Famennian Age is one of two ages in the Late Devonian Period. ... For the Celtic language, see Southwestern Brythonic language; for the residents of the English county, see Devon. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ...

See also

Biology Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Not to be confused with Gemination in phonetics. ... A variety of species can provide edible seeds: Almonds Amaranthus Beans/Legumes, including Chickpeas Broad beans Lentils Peas Peanuts Phaseolus beans Soybeans Sweet peas (Lathyrus) Cocoa Carob tree Cereals, including Barley Buckwheat Kamut Maize Oats Rice Rye Sorghum Spelt Triticale Teff Wild rice Wheat Coconuts Common Hazel Coriander Ginkgo Monkey... Seed companies sell seeds for flowers, fruit and vegetables to the amateur gardener. ... Seed predation includes any process inflicted on a plant’s seeds by an animal that results in the inviability of the seed. ... A seedbed is a specially prepared area of the garden that has been made suitable for the sowing and germination of plant seeds. ... Sunflower seedlings, just three days after germination In a botanical sense, germination is the process of emergence of growth from a resting stage. ... In horticulture, stratification is the process of pretreating seeds to simulate natural conditions that a seed must endure before germination. ...

References

  1. ^ Kigel, Jaime, and Gad Galili. 1995. Seed development and germination. Books in soils, plants, and the environment. New York: M. Dekker.ISBN 0824792297. Chapter one.
  2. ^ Raven, Peter H., Ray Franklin Evert, and Helena Curtis. 1981. Biology of plants. New York, N.Y.: Worth Publishers. page 410.
  3. ^ Smith, Welby R. 1993. Orchids of Minnesota. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Page 8.
  4. ^ Jones, Samuel B., and Arlene E. Luchsinger. 1979. Plant systematics. McGraw-Hill series in organismic biology. New York: McGraw-Hill. Page 195.
  5. ^ Cronquist, Arthur (1981). An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants. New York: Columbia University Press, 882. ISBN 0-231-03880-1. 
  6. ^ Stern, Kingsley R. (1991). Introductory Plant Biology, 5th, Dubuque, IA: Wm. C. Brown Publishers, 131. ISBN 0-697-09947-4. 
  7. ^ http://www.seabean.com/
  8. ^ Marinelli, J. (1999) "Ants - The astonishing intimacy between ants & plants." Plants & Gardens News 14 (1). [1]
  9. ^ Ricklefs, Robert E. (1993) The Economy of Nature, 3rd ed., p.396. (New York: W. H. Freeman). ISBN 0-7167-2409-X.
  10. ^ Bond, W. J.; P. Slingsby (1984). "Collapse of an ant-plant mutualism: The Argentine ant, Iridomyrmex humilis and myrmecochorous Proteaceae". Ecology 65: 1031-1037. 
  11. ^ http://www.seedbiology.de/dormancy.asp
  12. ^ Patten, D.T. 1978. Productivity and production efficiency of an Upper Sonoran Desert ephemeral community. American Journal of Botany 65: 891-895. [2]
  13. ^ http://extension.osu.edu/~seedsci/svvt01.html
  14. ^ International Seed Testing Association. 1973. ISSN 0251-0952. Pages 120-21.Seed science and technology. Wageningen?: International Seed Testing Association.
  15. ^ Hartmann, Hudson Thomas, and Dale E. Kester. 1983. Plant propagation principles and practices. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. ISBN 0136810071. Pages 175-77.
  16. ^ Chia Joo Suan, "Seeds of Doubt: Food Safety"
  17. ^ Clelland, Mike. "Poisonous Plants and Seeds", Healthy Child Care
  18. ^ Poisonous Plants
  19. ^ Wedin GP, Neal JS, Everson GW, Krenzelok EP. Castor bean poisoning.
  20. ^ Albretsen JC, Gwaltney-Brant SM, Khan SA. Evaluation of castor bean toxicosis in dogs: 98 cases.
  21. ^ a b Almond/Almond Oil
  22. ^ Wolke, RL. Seeds of Anxiety Washington Post January 5, 2005
  23. ^ Poisonous plants
  24. ^ Chia Joo Suan Food Safety: Seeds of doubt
  25. ^ N.V. DHURANDHAR, K.C. CHANG (1990) Effect of Cooking on Firmness, Trypsin Inhibitors, Lectins and Cystine/Cysteine content of Navy and Red Kidney Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) Journal of Food Science 55 (2), 470–474.
  26. ^ Roach, John. (2005) "2,000-Year-Old Seed Sprouts, Sapling Is Thriving", National Geographic News, 22 November.
  27. ^ Corner, E. J. H. (1966) The Natural History of Palms, p313-314. (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press).
  28. ^ Taylor, Thomas N. & Edith L. Taylor. 1993 The Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants, page 466. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall). ISBN 0-13-651589-4.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Seed
Look up seed in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.


Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Seed Initiative (169 words)
The Seed Initiative (Supporting Entrepreneurs for Environment and Development), including the Seed Awards, aims to inspire, support and build the capacity of locally-driven entrepreneurial partnerships to contribute to the delivery of the Millennium Development Goals and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation.
From Cameroon to the Andaman coast: 2008 SEED Award finalists are announced and SEED’s Associate Partners Network is launched.
SEED is grateful for the contribution of the International Jury 2008 - see details of jurors (pdf).
The Seed Biology Place - Seed Structure and Anatomy (0 words)
Viola seeds have an oily caruncle and are sought and dispersed by ants.
In mature tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and pepper (Capsicum annuum) seeds the embryo is surrounded by an abundance of endosperm cells and by the testa (seed coat).
Pea seeds: The embryo of mature seeds of Pisum sativum consists of the embryonic axis and the cotyledons.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m